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Unit 1: Origins of a New Nation

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Unit 1: Origins of a New Nation Chapter 1 Many Cultures Meet Chapter 2 Europeans Establish Colonies Chapter 3 The American Colonies Take Shape – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unit 1: Origins of a New Nation


1
Unit 1Origins of a New Nation
  • Chapter 1Many Cultures Meet
  • Chapter 2Europeans Establish Colonies
  • Chapter 3The American Colonies Take Shape
  • Slides 1-27 are just review sit
    back, relax listen

2
Sec 1 The American Indians
The American Indians
The First People of the Americas   Main Idea
Scholars believe Paleoindians, or the first
humans to live in the Americas, came from Siberia
and eventually developed permanent villages where
they practiced farming. Early American Indian
Cultures Main Idea Many Native American
cultures emerged in the Americas centuries before
the arrival of Columbus. Distinct cultures
developed in areas such as the Southwest, the
Mississippi River Valley, the Great Plains, and
the Eastern Woodlands. Common Cultural
Features Main Idea Although there was great
cultural diversity among early Native Americans,
they did share some cultural traits. These
included de-centralized political power,
spiritual beliefs, shared property and land, and
gender roles.
3
Arrival of the first Americans
  • 10,000-40,000 years ago.
  • Crossed land bring connecting Siberia and Alaska.
  • Spread in N S Amer
  • 3 most advanced civilizations in Central and
    South America.
  • Inca
  • Peru and Ecuador
  • Mayan
  • Southern coach of Gulf of Mexico
  • Aztec
  • Mexico

4
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5
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6
The Vikings
  • You mean Europeans werent the first?!
  • Came from Norway
  • 800-1000 AD
  • Eric the Red, Leif Ericson
  • True Blood anyone?
  • Why no credit?
  • No claims, little evidence.

7
Sec 2 The Europeans
The Europeans
Life in Europe in the 1400s Main Idea At the
start of the fifteenth century, in the wake of
the bubonic plague, Europe had several key
characteristics. The economy became centered on
agriculture, only a small minority of the
population possessed wealth and power, and
various kingdoms waged war with one another.
Europe Looks Beyond Its Borders Main Idea
Rapidly expanding trade and the religious wars
known as the Crusades exposed Europeans to
different parts of the world. A new era, known as
the Renaissance, began. The Portuguese Begin to
Explore Main Idea Due to its geographic
location and technological developments, the
Portuguese took the lead in exploring new trade
routes and areas for expansion of power.
Continued
8
Quick Study Renaissance Changes Europe
Renaissance Changes Europe
QUICK STUDY
9
Explorers and Colonies
  • Why go to America?
  • Renaissance
  • Religious conflict
  • Expanding trade (Marco Polo)
  • The 3 Gs!!!
  • Gold
  • A desire for wealthNew job opportunities,
    precious metals, etc.
  • God
  • Duty to spread ones religion
  • Glory
  • Be there first! See the new stuff first!!!!

10
Follow the Leader
  • First.. Spain Portugal.
  • Then France Holland.
  • Finally Great Britain.

11
Why did they come?
  • Portugal water routes to India Asia
  • Claimed colonies, ie Brazil
  • Spain water routes, conquistadors
  • Land, wealth, slaves
  • Colonies sugar
  • Indian then African slaves
  • FR water routes, colonization
  • Fur trade around Great Lakes
  • Friendly with Indians
  • Britain - Upper hand in North American and set
    the stage for.. US!

12
Who came?Portugal
  • Prince Henry the Navigator
  • Est. Nautical school
  • Water route to Asia
  • Made it to West Africa
  • Vasco de Gama
  • Sailed around Southern tip of Africa to India
  • Amerigo Vespucci
  • Italian mapped coast of S. America.
  • Work used to map the New World

13
Who came?Spain
  • Christopher Columbus
  • Italian sent by Ferdinand Isabella
    to Asia (didnt quite make it)
  • 3 ships, 90 sailors, landed San Salvador
    10/12/1492
  • Balboa
  • Sailed to Panama 1st European to
    see Pacific

14
Who came?Spain
  • Ferdinand Magellan
  • Sailed around S. Amer tip (straight of Magellan)
  • Called Pacific peaceful waters
  • Sailed around the world
  • Hernando Cortes
  • Conquistador
  • Sailed to Mexico with Army
  • Destroyed Aztecs, claimed Mexico

15
Transparency Magellans Voyage
Magellans Voyage
TRANSPARENCY
16
Hernan Cortes Francisco Pizzaro
  • Hernan Cortes
  • Sent by Cuba to conquer the Aztecs in Mexico.
  • Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan (present day Mexico
    city) had 400,000 people there.
  • Aztecs governed about 20 million people (twice
    the size of Spains) and Cortes could only gather
    600 soldiers.
  • Cortes learned that the Aztecs conquered many
    Native Americans and were able to enlist the help
    of 200,000 Mexicans.
  • By 1521, Cortes had conquered one of the largest
    empires in the world.
  • Francisco Pizzaro
  • Conquered the Inca (what is now Peru)

17
Control of the Spanish Empire
  • These new lands and people became
  • Colonies areas settled by immigrants who
    continue to be ruled by their parent country.
  • The Spanish became soooo rich!
  • Had enslaved Native Americans and Africans, mined
    silver and gold in Peru, established farms and
    ranches, etc.
  • Didnt make Indians leaveforced them to become
    part of Spanish culture.
  • Because they all lived togethera new race
    emerged
  • Mestizo Mix of Spanish and Native American.

18
  • "With my own eyes I saw Spaniards cut off the
    nose, hands and ears of Indians, male and female,
    without provocation, merely because it pleased
    them to do it. ... Likewise, I saw how they
    summoned the caciques and the chief rulers to
    come, assuring them safety, and when they
    peacefully came, they were taken captive and
    burned."

19
"The Spaniards took babies from their mothers'
breasts, grabbing them by the feet and smashing
their heads againt rocks. ...They built a long
gibbet, low enough for the toes to touch the
ground and prevent strangling, and hanged
thirteen natives at a time in honor of Christ
Our Saviour and the twelve Apostles. ...Then,
straw was wrapped around their torn bodies and
they were burned alive."
20
Who came?Spain
  • Ponce de Leon
  • Sought the fountain
    of youth
  • Claimed Florida
  • Land of Flowers
  • Spanish Empire caused inflation to rise in Europe
  • San Salvador, Mexico, Florida, etc.

21
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22
Who came?France
  • Jacques Cartier
  • Looking for Northwest Passage,
    explored St. Lawrence River
  • Samuel de Champlain
  • Founded colony of Quebec in 1608
  • Robert LaSalle
  • Followed Mississippi River, claimed it
  • Named Louisiana after King Louis XIV
  • Great location!

23
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24
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25
Who came?Britain
  • Sir Francis Drake
  • Sea Dog, sent by Queen Elizabeth I
  • Mission pillage Spanish America and ships
  • Defeated Spanish Armada
  • Huuuge fleet 130 ships 27,000 sailors
  • Ensured GBs naval dominance in North Atlantic

26
Others
  • Henry Hudson
  • British but sailed for Dutch
  • Explored NY Harbor settled New Amsterdam (later
    NY)
  • Had patroonships feudal estates

27
Sec 3 The West Africans
The West Africans
West African Kingdoms   Main Idea Various
kingdoms, such as Ghana, Mali, and Songhai
flourished in West Africa. With the arrival of
Portuguese explorers in the 1400s, the kingdoms
became important trade centers. West African
Life Main Idea West African civilizations were
diverse and well developed. Religious beliefs
varied but contributed to strong communal ties,
as did family bonds. Slavery in Africa Main
Idea Slavery was common in West Africa. West
African rulers commonly sold conquered or
captured people as slaves to traders, including
Arabs and the Portuguese.
28
Now lets talk
about
  • The
  • British
  • Colonies
  • Notes
  • Start
  • Here!

29
Activity Check Fill in your chart
  • Royal colony
  • Belonged to the crown
  • Proprietary colony
  • Belonged to powerful individuals or companies
  • Joint-stock colony
  • Business venture founded and run by a group of
    investors who were to share in the companys
    profits and losses
  • New England colonies
  • New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode
    Island
  • Middle colonies
  • New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware
  • Southern colonies
  • North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia,
    Virginia, Maryland

30
JamestownEnglands first permanent colony
  • Est. by the VA Comp.
  • Chesapeake Bay area
  • Fertile land, good harbors and rivers
  • 144 settlers came and settled on James River
  • No women
  • Only 4 carpenters

31
Hardships for Jamestown
  • Diseases (Malaria)
  • Not used to hard work
  • Starvation
  • Dependent on supplies from GB and Natives
  • 1st year only 38 survivors
  • 800 more came only 60 survived starving time
    of winter 1609.
  • Ate rats, mice. Even resorted to cannibalism

32
Governing Jamestown
  • John Smith
  • Forceful leader
  • John Rolfe
  • Est. tobacco
  • industry
  • Slavery introduced
  • Pocahontas
  • Rolfes wife
  • Helped with Indian
  • relations
  • - Daughter of Powhatan

33
Jamestown in peril
  • Tobacco successfully cultivated
  • Slavery introduced, but
  • VA Co. goes into debt
  • Charter is revoked
  • VA becomes first Royal Colony
  • Appointed a Governor Sir William Berkeley
  • Berkeley
  • Taxed poor planters more than wealthy people
  • Burned to ground b/c Bacons Rebellion

34
Bacons Rebellion
  • Settlers wanted to take land from Indians
  • Berkeley didnt help, so.
  • In 1676, Nathaniel Bacon raised an army to fight
    the Indians Berkeley.
  • Berkeley defeated and Jamestown burned.
  • 1 month later, Bacon died.
  • New Gov. appointed

35
Importance of Bacons Rebellion
  • 1.) Sharp class differences between wealthy
    planters and landless/poor farmers
  • 2.) Colonial resistance to royal control
  • 3.) More frontier access more conflicts with
    Indians.

36
House of Burgesses - VA
  • 1st elected representative legislative group
  • Democracy, power of the people
  • 1st meeting July 30, 1617
  • 22 elected representatives
  • Cut short by malaria
  • Eventually becomes the VA state assembly

37
The Roanoke Disaster
  • Walter Raleigh tried twice to start a colony on
    Roanoke Island (1580s).
  • Along coast of North Carolina
  • 1st attempt settlers facing starvation returned
    home
  • 2nd attempt settlers disappeared
  • Were they defeated by the Indiansdid they join
    themno one knows.

38
Plymouth Colony (Mass Bay)
  • Joint Stock
  • Jamestown est. for economic reasons, Plymouth
    est. by religious separatists
  • AKA PURITANS
  • The PILGRIMS, came on the .
  • MAYFLOWER (1620)
  • Signed Mayflower Compact
  • First written governing doc. of our nation!
  • Laws made by majority all would obey

39
Plymouth Colony, cont.
  • ½ settlers died by Spring
  • Squanto corn
  • Deep faith and determination helped them
    survive
  • THANKSGIVING!
  • Leader
  • William Bradford
  • Became part of Mass. Bay Colony.

40
Massachusetts Bay Colony
  • Started as joint stock, 1630
  • Many came b/c of GREAT MIGRATION
  • Home to many Puritans, City on a Hill
  • Wanted to purify Church of England
  • Under Calvinist leaders, became a theocracy
    (whats that)?
  • Church is paramount in all decisions, political
    and religious.

41
More on Massachusetts
  • Ironic - Religious intolerance
  • Banished if dont agree
  • Dissident founded many other colonies
  • Salem Witch Trails
  • Activity
  • http//blog.teachtci.com/salem-witchcraft-activity
    -dot-game/
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vJU8GvfeaOMo
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vfB1OWwFTZ8U

42
Other colonies Connecticut New Hamp
Maine.
  • New Hampshire Maine
  • 2 Englishmen given a govt grant to areas north
    of Mass., divided land
  • New Hampshire
  • Founder John Wheelwright (expelled)
  • Joint stock, then royal
  • Maine part of Mass Bay Colony until 1820.
  • Joint stock
  • Founder Thomas Hooker
  • Religion less imp. Than commerce
  • First to write a Constitution

43
Other ColoniesRhode Island
  • Joint Stock
  • Founder Roger Williams
  • Banished from Mass b/c wanted sep. of church
    state
  • Est. Providence (later RI)
  • Bought land from Indians!
  • Was unique
  • Recognized rights of N. Americans and paid them
    for land
  • Complete religious toleration all allowed to come
    and worship
  • Religious refugees came
  • 1663, Parliament granted free religion charter

44
Halfway Covenant
  • Mid 17th cent, a generation has gone by since
    first Puritans came to NE.
  • New generation seemed less committed to religion
    more interested in .
  • Halfway Covenant offered by some clergymen to
    those who professed limited religious commitment.
  • People could now participate without declaration
    their total belief in JC.

45
New England Confederation
  • Plymouth, Mass Bay, Connecticut New Haven
  • Formed a military alliance from threat of
    Natives.
  • Lasted until 1684
  • Crown ended it.
  • Est. a precedent to take unified action against
    Natives.

46
King Phillips War
  • Metacom (King Philip, in Eng.)
    leader of the Algonquin people.
  • United many tribes in Southern
    New England against English
    settlers.
  • Vicious War (1675-76)
  • Thousands killed on both sides
  • Dozens towns/villages burned
  • English struck back.
  • Metacom was caught and killed
  • Head placed on display in Boston.
  • Significance
  • Virtually ended Indian resistance
    in New
    England.

47
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48
The Middle and Southern Colonies
49
Middle Colonies
  • Included New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and
    Delaware.
  • In middle of the Atlantic coast of North America.
  • New York was very diverse

50
The Middle ColoniesNew York
  • Est. by Dutch Joint Stock
  • Then GB Proprietary, became English colony
    through conquest
  • England Holland in war over N.Amer fur trade
  • Duke of York given a fleet by brother King
    Charles II to capture New Amsterdam
  • Did in 1664 named for him after capture
  • Ethnically diverse area

51
Middle ColoniesNew Jersey Delaware
  • New Jersey
  • Also Dutch Joint Stock then GB proprietary
  • Originally owned by Duke York too, gave it to
    other rich guys
  • Delaware
  • Proprietary
  • Started by Swedes, taken by Dutch, then taken by
    English.
  • Also owned by Duke of York, later purchased by
    William Penn
  • Scared Penn was land-locked

52
Middle ColoniesPennsylvania
  • Proprietary William Penn given grant for
    settlement
  • Founded as sanctuary for Quakers
  • Passive resistance
  • Non-paid clergy
  • Equality for women
  • Simple meeting houses
  • Very democratic
  • No military service
  • Anti-slavery
  • No paid clergy
  • No swearing oaths to King
  • Most successful and diverse of all 13 colonies
  • Philly City of Brotherly Love

53
Southern Colonies
  • Virginia, Maryland, Carolinas, Georgia
  • Maryland (Proprietary)
  • Refuge for Catholics by Lord Baltimore
  • Bicameral legislature est.
  • Religious probs b/t Cath and Christians
  • 1649 Maryland Toleration Acts
  • Freedom of worship for Christians

54
Southern Colonies
Carolinas
  • Carolinas (Proprietary)
  • Land reward for those who restored monarchy after
    English Civil War
  • Religious and political freedom but slavery?
  • Tobacco Tarheels
  • Not indentured servitude
  • Proprietors had investments in slave trade
  • 1729 Split in two
  • SC thought better than NC
  • Better harbors grew sugar, rice indigo

55
Southern ColoniesGeorgia
  • Proprietary
  • Started as a Penal colony by James Ogelthorpe
  • Rum, Catholics and Slaves prohibited!
  • In the beginning
  • Originally a haven for those who had been jailed
    in England b/c they couldnt pay their debts.

56
Elsewhere
  • Quebec!
  • Est. for the French
  • by Samuel de la Champlain
  • Good location St. Lawrence River
  • Trade, interior water way, power
  • Fur!!!!
  • Capital of New France
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