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The Napoleonic Wars were raging on the European continent and around the globe.

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The Napoleonic Wars were raging on the European continent and around the globe. America tried to remain neutral, but hopelessly became embroiled in the war ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Napoleonic Wars were raging on the European continent and around the globe.


1
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  • The Napoleonic Wars were raging on the European
    continent and around the globe.
  • America tried to remain neutral, but hopelessly
    became embroiled in the wareconomically,
    politically, and eventually militarily.
  • Because the British were the most powerful
    bullies on the open seas, they reserved the right
    to board American ships looking for deserters.
  • This created such incidents as the Diana and the
    Topaz and the Caravan

3
  • President Jefferson dealt with this by imposing a
    trade embargo against Britainhowever, it almost
    destroyed the American economy and did not
    alleviate the British Impressment Gangs.
  • This also allowed the federalist to regain some
    power allied with the Western Republican War
    hawks.
  • Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun desired a war with
    Britain to make them realize we were a serious
    country.

4
  • Henry Clay was westerner from Kentucky
  • He had nothing but disdain for the British abroad
    and called them meddlesome domestically
  • He also attacked the corporate privilege at
    homehe also thought that a good notion was to
    invade Canadaforce the British to negotiate or
    lose Canada outright
  • He was a War Hawk!

5
  • John C. Calhoun was a South Carolinianfrom what
    was called the backcountry, but later became the
    Midlands.
  • Secretary of War for Pres. James Madison.
  • He too hated the British and preferred war rather
    than capitulation or timid treatiesas the Jay
    Treaty
  • He, too, was a War Hawk.

6
  • President James Madison preferred diplomacy.
    Madison was Jeffersons hand picked successor to
    the Presidency.
  • The Federalist opposed diplomacy because America
    always got the short end of the stick with
    Britain.
  • Unfortunately the British undid all his
    effortsmost notably with the secret intrigue and
    the Hartford Convention

7
  • Many of the New England industrialist and
    shipping magnates were suffering greatly because
    of the bellicosity between America and
    Britainmainly in trade and commerce.
  • The British Governor of Canada Sir James Craig
    shared correspondence with an Irish-born New
    Yorker John Henry.
  • Because of the unrest and dissension between New
    England the Republican administration, offered to
    recognize New England as a separate political
    entitydetach itself from the United States and
    became part of British Canadamany frustrated New
    Englanders threatened secession if Madison did
    not stop all bellicosity with Great Britainthese
    letters were disseminated to the public mostly
    the War Hawk congress.

8
  • In all fairness to the New Englanders, no one
    truly considered joining Canada however, the
    threat of secession appeared very real.
  • It made the Federalist look petty and
    conspiratorial.
  • Because of the apparent cabal, the War Hawk
    westerners forced Pres. Madison to declare war on
    Great Britainthey were still pillaging American
    ships at seaand worse, they were stirring the
    Indians to revolt on the western frontiers.

9
  • The U.S. was woefully prepared to go to war.
    Jeffersons parsimonious financial attitude had
    whittled the Army down to around 7500 men
    scattered and woefully supplied for war.
  • Jefferson had whittled the federal budget to
    level unsustainable to prosecute a war.
  • Jefferson had also whittled the navy down to 16
    shipsall Frigates and Sloopsnot one Ship of the
    Line. It was an humiliating war for America.

10
  • As far as Military results, General William Hull
    surrendered Detroit
  • General Stephen Van Renssalaer invaded Canada,
    but because of dissension between Regular Army
    and State Militia hierarchyhe was forced to
    retreatafter a small victory
  • General William Henry Harrisons exedition to
    re-secure Fort Detroit met with massacre at the
    Raisin River, buy a combined force of British
    regulars, Indians and Canadian Militia.

11
  • One of the few land victories turned into a black
    eye for the Americans they invaded upper Canada
    captured York, but then went wild and burned the
    town and did not distinguish between ally or foe.
  • Actual American Victories were actually Naval
    battlesas a squadron not much success, but as
    individuals the Navy did fairly wellespecially
    on Lake Erie. Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry
    defeated a British flotillaWe have met the
    enemy and they are ours

12
  • Perrys success on Lake Erie and the other Great
    lakes, he forced the British to evacuate Detroit.
  • Tecumseh had encouraged the British to join
    forces with him and his brother the Prophet to
    fight the Americans and win back all the western
    lands they felt they had been cheated out of over
    the years.
  • Tecumseh had accumulated an alliance with other
    tribes to forgo the Whitemans ways, return to
    their native culture and waysstop drinking etc
  • Once returned to the Old Ways the Great Spirit
    would reward them with victory.

13
  • Though the Indians created issues for the
    Americans, they defeated a combined force of
    Indians and British at the Battle of the Thames
    in Ohio
  • They killed Tecumseh and used strips of his leg
    muscles for razor straps and souvenirs.

14
  • "No tribe has the right to sell, even to each
    other, much less to strangers.... Sell a country!
    Why not sell the air, the great sea, as well as
    the earth? Didn't the Great Spirit make them all
    for the use of his children?
  • The way, the only way to stop this evil is for
    the red man to unite in claiming a common and
    equal right in the land, as it was first, and
    should be now, for it was never divided."
  • We gave them forest-clad mountains and valleys
    full of game, and in return what did they give
    our warriors and our women? Rum, trinkets, and a
    grave.

15
  • Brothers -- My people wish for peace the red men
    all wish for peacebut where the white people
    are, there is no peace for them, except it be on
    the bosom of our mother. Where today are the
    Pequot?
  • Where today are the Narrangansett, the Mohican,
    the Pakanoket, and many other once powerful
    tribes of our people?
  • They have vanished before the avarice and the
    oppression of the White Man, as snow before a
    summer sun."
  • It is better to die as men than to live slaves.

16
  • In retribution for the Naval victories and Gen
    Jacob Browns victory in Canada, the British
    launched a counter invasion in 1814.
  • Admiral Cockburn raided the American coast and
    burned Washington
  • Gen Prevost invaded New Yorkstopped at
    Plattsburg, but did much damage.

17
  • The British, however, were stopped at Baltimore,
    Md.
  • They tried to bomb Fort McHenry into submission
    therefore controlling all the Chesapeake and
    Washington
  • Here a Lawyer Francis Scott Key wrote the now
    famous National Anthem

18
  • The American Navy though small and very much
    outnumbered gave a good accounting of itself
  • The USS Constitution, The USS United States and
    the USS Essex all scored several victories
    against much bigger Ships of the Line.
  • Even the British admiralty acknowledged the
    seamanship and Naval savvy of the Americans

19
  • The War of 1812 is a comedy of errors with some
    success mixed in
  • However, a personage emerges from all this chaos
    with a stellar reputation
  • It is true that William Henry Harrison will also
    emerge successful and become President of the
    United StatesBut one man exceeds all others.

20
  • Andrew Jackson was a South Carolinian who had
    early moved to the Tennessee territory, became a
    Lawyer, Judge, and General in the State Militia.
    (much about him later)
  • The Red Sticks (called this because Tecumseh had
    given allied tribes red sticks to prove they were
    part of the movement to destroy the white man and
    his ways) began killing settlers on the
    frontierthe Georgia, Alabama and Florida
    borderwithout out diplomatic concern for the
    Spanish or the British, Jackson defeated the red
    Sticks at Horse Shoe Bend, invaded Florida and
    hung two British agitators.

21
  • Jackson forced the Red Stick coalition to cede 22
    million acres of land
  • Upon hearing of the British threat to New Orleans
    Jackson forced marched his Tennessee militia to
    New Orleans
  • There he defeated Gen Pakenhams British Armythe
    same Army that had just defeated Napoleon at
    Waterloo

22
  • Because of the European War the British were
    strapped for cash and inflation was running away.
  • Simply they were tired of war The Americans
    also were tired of warthey had no money and the
    war loans were piling up
  • Upon hearing the British might want to sue for
    terms, Madison sent Sec of State James Monroe
    and Henry Clay to Ghent Belgiumthe British
    opened direct negotiations and what we got was
    the Treaty of Ghent.

23
  • The Treaty of Ghent effectually ended the war
    however, the effects of the treaty would be felt
    for another 40yrs.
  • As with the Revolution many Blacks fled their
    masters and sought refuge with the British again
    the British offered promises of freedom if Blacks
    would abscond
  • Again the British failed to live up to their
    promises Blacks were sold into West Indian
    slavery, or after the war returned to their
    former masters because of the mutual property
    clause in the Treaty of Ghent

24
  • It was at the battle of New Orleans that many
    Blacks assumed because of Jacksons actions that
    they would be afforded liberty in service to
    their country
  • Jackson claimed it was nonsensical that America
    would not use Blacks to bolster the ranks of the
    army
  • He promised them equal treatment and equal bounty
    if they served and defended New Orleans they
    fought bravely and was praised by Jackson.

25
  • Though the War of 1812 did very little on the
    grand scheme, it did offer some insights that
    would plague America
  • 1) Pres. Madison realized The U.S. truly needed a
    Federal Bankdepending on private loans was
    inefficient
  • 2) America needed a better transportation system
    if it was to move commodities, Military and
    Commerce efficiently from the western frontier to
    the eastern markets
  • 3) The issue of Slavery between North and South
    was becoming more than an annoyance.

26
  • American began a coastal Fort building program
    and an internal infrastructure system such as
    Roads, Canals, Turnpikes and better waterways
  • The Erie Canal was the largest success, but soon
    it was apparent that Railroads were the wave of
    the future
  • Once again the issue was how and who was to pay
    for this American System labeled by Henry Clay.

27
  • Though there was dissension, James Monroe
    succeeded Madison as President and ushered in the
    Era Of Good Feelings. Many Americans were
    becoming more independent and entrepreneurial
    Songs and anthems were signifying Americas
    attitude of becoming truly independent from Great
    Britain.
  • Steam powered River boats such as the Clermont by
    Robert Fulton and railroads were booming, though
    the agrarian sector did not reap much of the
    reward from the industrial Norththere were
    benefits and many Americans usually obstructed
    from capitalist advancement were now more open
    to advancement.

28
  • Still mostly Rural, the Urban centers and
    population were exploding, mostly due to
    immigration.
  • The population was growing exponentially every
    ten years
  • Many western settlers were not going to settle
    farm land or explore, but rather to begin cities
    and urban centers in the interiorsuch as Moses
    Cleveland, Cincinnati and Chicago.

29
  • But for every Economic Boom, there is an economic
    Bust The Panic of 1819 gave American a taste of
    capitalist ventures in a market global economy
  • The British collapse of the cotton pricing index
    began a huge panic Banks could not produce coin
    or specie, but could issue bank notesit created
    a terrible inflationary rate
  • Banks closed and western speculators and southern
    cotton farmers suffered the most.

30
  • This Panic and Economic depression allowed the
    prominence of Andrew Jackson.
  • He believed it was the bank of the U.S. calling
    in its short term loans that created the panic
    therefore he pledged to destroy the bank.
  • He came to prominence advocating universal white
    male suffrage and a government returned to the
    people it would also began a running war
    between the Bank President Nicolas Biddle, Chief
    Justice John Marshall, and Andrew Jackson.

31
  • Though popular government was growing, John
    Marshall and the Court remained a constraint on
    total liberal government.
  • The legal system began moving from the regulation
    of behavior to the protection of private property
    and contracts
  • Lawyers became the Shocktroops of capitalism
    and John Marshall its greatest advocateMarshall
    was determined that contracts and corporation be
    protected against frivolous avarice.

32
  • A series of famous Legal cases began the
    precedent.
  • Marbury vs. Madison placed Judicial Review or
    interpretation of constitutionality square on the
    shoulders of the Supreme Court
  • Martin vs. Hunters Lessee established the
    authority of the federal courts over the state
    courts.
  • McCullough vs. Maryland that the constitution is
    foundationaltherefore it does have certain
    implied powerstherefore the federal government
    supersedes any state jurisdiction or pretended
    consentand the Federal govt has implied powers
    over the states

33
  • The previous cases implied jurisdictional powers
    of the government over the states.
  • Dartmouth College vs. Woodward prevented the
    state of individual from interfering with the
    College's Corporate Charter (The New Hampshire
    legislature tried to rewrite the colleges
    original charter making it more amenable to the
    state for appointing its own trustees), Marshall
    cited Article I section 10 of the
    Constitutiontherefore it was a contract and the
    states had no right to interfere
  • Sturgis vs. Crowinshield struck down the New York
    State bankruptcy laws allowing debtors to escape
    their creditors relatively easythis law also
    violate the impairment of contract laws
    authorized by the constitutionobligations must
    be met with all due diligence.

34
  • Gibbons vs. Ogden This was a direct assault
    against the states interfering with interstate
    commercethe constitution states that only the
    federal government has the authority to regulate
    commerce.
  • One state cannot give charter rights to any
    commercial company which will cross state lines
    and other states waterwaysto maintain the
    fairness Doctrine only the Federal government had
    the authority to establish commerce crossing
    state lines or international bordersthere must
    be free competition even within ones own ports,
    bays, or Lakes. For instance, a tariff or tax
    must be competitive and equal to all, and all
    must have equity in establishing its commercial
    effortsagain contracts and federal government
    supersedes state law.

35
  • Jefferson and the Old Republicans were startled
    at the growing power of the Old federalist and
    the New National republicans such as Henry Clay
    and John C. Calhoun and Daniel Webster.
  • They looked for a savior to their old root
    platform of the least governed the best
    governed. They needed to appeal to the new
    burgeoning Democratic majoritiesthe westerners,
    southerners and many common peoplethey looked to
    Andrew Jackson.
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