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The 20th Century: The Age of Total War

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World War I. Context. First major war since the Napoleonic Wars ... The Character of World War I. Questions? Points to remember ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The 20th Century: The Age of Total War


1
The 20th Century The Age of Total War
  • The Character of World War I

2
Points to remember
  • Modern Theorists I Mahan and Corbett
  • Mahans beliefs
  • Corbett and sea control
  • FFS, Corbett and Mahan
  • Mahans Six General Conditions

3
Iraqi Presidential Ballot
4
The 20th Century The Age of Total War
  • The Character of World War I

5
Educational Objective
  • To comprehend
  • the causes,
  • the character and
  • the outcome of World War I.

6
The Players
  • France
  • Germany
  • England
  • Austria-Hungary

7
Assassination and War
  • Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary
  • Serbian Nationalist

8
World War I
  • Context
  • First major war since the Napoleonic Wars
  • A watershed the beginning of modern warfare
  • Extensive use of railways
  • Unparalleled level of staff coordination
  • Development of indirect fire capabilities
  • Extensive logistic dimension
  • Cooperation between combat arms

9
Fundamental Questions about War
  • How are armies formed?
  • Why do wars occur?
  • Why do armies fight?
  • How do armies fight?
  • What is the relationship between the armed forces?
  • Who directs their employment?
  • How are armies sustained?
  • How are wars ended?
  • How is their period distinctive?
  • What non-military factors affected the outcome?

10
How are armies formed?
  • The Prussian Military Revolution
  • Conscription
  • Professional education and training
  • Pre-conflict planning

11
Why do wars occur?
  • Crucial events
  • Division of Europe into two alliances
  • Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand
  • German blank check to Austria
  • Austrias ultimatum to Serbia
  • Germanys efforts to restrain Austria
  • Outbreak of war on Aug 1, 1914

12
Why do armies fight?
  • Unification of Germany
  • Germany
  • France
  • England
  • Russia
  • Balance of power
  • Nationalism
  • Economic competition
  • Colonial disputes
  • An arms race
  • Interlocking alliances

13
Why do armies fight?
  • U.S. Goals
  • Wilsons 14 Points
  • U.S. entry
  • Unrestricted submarine warfare
  • The Zimmerman Note
  • Wilsons New World Order

14
How do armies fight?
  • Character of WWI
  • From a war of movement to a stalemate
  • Increased centralized control by governments
  • Expanded war aims
  • Propaganda
  • Increasing body count
  • Distinction blurred

15
How do armies fight?
  • Major military question
  • How to mount an attack?
  • How to cover the final 300 yards?
  • Firepower
  • Germans Envelopment
  • British and French Artillery bombardment
  • Germans Defense in depth
  • The tank

16
How do armies fight?
  • Most European armies ignored the lessons of the
  • Boer War
  • Russo-Japanese War.

17
How do armies fight?
  • Western front
  • Stalemate and attrition
  • Eastern front
  • Maneuver
  • Dardanelles
  • Operational maneuver and tactical stalemate
  • Palestine and Syria
  • Maneuver
  • The Atlantic
  • Attrition
  • East Africa
  • Maneuver
  • Salonika
  • Stalemate and attrition

18
What is the relationship between the armed forces?
  • The alliances
  • Central Powers
  • The Triple Entente
  • The role of the AEF
  • Sea power
  • Air power

19
Who directs their employment?
  • Operational level details.
  • Little influence on military matters
  • Friction
  • Clausewitz

20
How are armies sustained?
  • Railroads
  • Industrial warfare
  • Artillery shells

21
How are wars ended?
  • Armistice 11/11/18
  • Negotiations
  • Treaty of Versailles

22
How is their period distinctive?
  • Modern War
  • Decisive battle
  • The people in arms
  • Lingering question
  • How to break the stalemate of the trenches?

23
What non-military factors affected the outcome?
  • Industrial capacity
  • Economic warfare
  • Civilian Morale

24
The Post War World
  • Search for an assailable flank
  • Mechanization
  • Airpower
  • The indirect approach
  • The colored war plans

25
Fundamental Questions about War
  • Who directs their employment?
  • How are armies sustained?
  • How are wars ended?
  • How is their period distinctive?
  • What non-military factors affected the outcome?
  • How are armies formed?
  • Why do wars occur?
  • Why do armies fight?
  • How do armies fight?
  • What is the relationship between the armed forces?

Questions?
26
Issues for Consideration
  • Conditions for WWI
  • Causes
  • Continuation
  • Evolution

27
Conditions
  • What were the conditions leading up to WWI?
  • Nationalism
  • Military planning
  • Unholy mix
  • An arms race
  • Colonial rivalries
  • Abdication of political leadership
  • Professionalization race

28
What were the causes of WWI?
  • German unification
  • Balance of power
  • Social and economic changes
  • Nationalism and domestic conflict

29
Continuation of the war
  • At the political level, why did the powers
    continue this costly conflict?
  • Equal opponents
  • Persistence
  • Stalemate
  • Prestige

30
Evolution
  • How could leaders have prevented it from evolving
    into a self-destructive bloodbath?
  • Reducing objectives
  • Aligning goals and capabilities
  • Trinity

31
WWI
  • Who finally won the war?

32
The 20th Century The Age of Total War
  • The Character of World War I

Questions?
33
Points to remember
  • Causes of the war
  • Failure of the Schlieffen Plan
  • German solution to tactical problem
  • Extraordinary number of casualties
  • Wars end

34
Next Week
  • Modern theorists II
  • Air
  • Monday night
  • November 18

35
Newspaper Headline 2035
  • Microsoft Announced It Has Perfected Its Newest
    Version of Windows!
  • - It crashes before installation is completed.
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