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RTI for Middle and High Schools: The Teacher as Intervention

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Title: RTI for Middle and High Schools: The Teacher as Intervention


1
RTI for Middle and High Schools The Teacher as
Intervention First ResponderJim
Wrightwww.interventioncentral.org
2
Workshop Goals
3
The quality of a school as a learning community
can be measured by how effectively it addresses
the needs of struggling students.--Wright
(2005)
Source Wright, J. (2005, Summer). Five
interventions that work. NAESP Leadership
Compass, 2(4) pp.1,6.
4
School Instructional Time The Irreplaceable
Resource
  • In the average school system, there are 330
    minutes in the instructional day, 1,650 minutes
    in the instructional week, and 56,700 minutes in
    the instructional year. Except in unusual
    circumstances, these are the only minutes we have
    to provide effective services for students. The
    number of years we have to apply these minutes is
    fixed. Therefore, each minute counts and schools
    cannot afford to support inefficient models of
    service delivery. p. 177

Source Batsche, G. M., Castillo, J. M., Dixon,
D. N., Forde, S. (2008). Best practices in
problem analysis. In A. Thomas J. Grimes
(Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V
(pp. 177-193).
5
RTI Assumption Struggling Students Are Typical
Until Proven Otherwise
  • RTI logic assumes that
  • A student who begins to struggle in general
    education is typical, and that
  • It is general educations responsibility to find
    the instructional strategies that will unlock the
    students learning potential
  • Only when the student shows through
    well-documented interventions that he or she has
    failed to respond to intervention does RTI
    begin to investigate the possibility that the
    student may have a learning disability or other
    special education condition.

6
Essential Elements of RTI (Fairbanks, Sugai,
Guardino, Lathrop, 2007)
  1. A continuum of evidence-based services available
    to all students" that range from universal to
    highly individualized intensive
  2. Decision points to determine if students are
    performing significantly below the level of their
    peers in academic and social behavior domains"
  3. Ongoing monitoring of student progress"
  4. Employment of more intensive or different
    interventions when students do not improve in
    response" to lesser interventions
  5. Evaluation for special education services if
    students do not respond to intervention
    instruction"

Source Fairbanks, S., Sugai, G., Guardino, S.,
Lathrop, M. (2007). Response to intervention
Examining classroom behavior support in second
grade. Exceptional Children, 73, p. 289.
7
NYSED RTI Guidance Memo April 2008
Source DeLorenzo, J. P., Stevens, J. C. (April
2008). Implementation of response to intervention
programs. Memorandum issued by New York State
Education Department. Retrieved November 25,
2008, from http//www.vesid.nysed.gov/specialed/pu
blications/policy/RTI.htm
8
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9
The Regents policy framework for RtI
  • Authorizes the use of RtI in the State's criteria
    to determine learning disabilities (LD) and
    requires, effective July 1, 2012, that all school
    districts have an RtI program in place as part of
    the process to determine if a student in grades
    K-4 is a student with a learning disability in
    the area of reading.  Effective on or after July
    1, 2012, a school district shall not use the
    severe discrepancy criteria to determine that a
    student in kindergarten through grade four has a
    learning disability in the area of reading. 
      8 NYCRR section 200.4(j)

Source DeLorenzo, J. P., Stevens, J. C. (April
2008). Implementation of response to intervention
programs. Memorandum issued by New York State
Education Department. Retrieved November 25,
2008, from http//www.vesid.nysed.gov/specialed/pu
blications/policy/RTI.htm
10
What previous approach to diagnosing Learning
Disabilities does RTI replace?
  • Prior to RTI, many states used a Test-Score
    Discrepancy Model to identify Learning
    Disabilities.
  • A student with significant academic delays would
    be administered an battery of tests, including
    an intelligence test and academic achievement
    test(s).
  • If the student was found to have a substantial
    gap between a higher IQ score and lower
    achievement scores, a formula was used to
    determine if that gap was statistically
    significant and severe.
  • If the student had a severe discrepancy gap
    between IQ and achievement, he or she would be
    diagnosed with a Learning Disability.

11
Target Student
Dual-Discrepancy RTI Model of Learning
Disability (Fuchs 2003)
12
RTI Pyramid of Interventions
13
Source New York State Education Department.
(October 2010). Response to Intervention
Guidance for New York State School Districts.
Retrieved November 10, 2010, from
http//www.p12.nysed.gov/specialed/RTI/guidance-oc
t10.pdf p. 12
14
Tier 1 Core Instruction
  • Tier I core instruction
  • Is universalavailable to all students.
  • Can be delivered within classrooms or throughout
    the school.
  • Is an ongoing process of developing strong
    classroom instructional practices to reach the
    largest number of struggling learners.
  • All children have access to Tier 1
    instruction/interventions. Teachers have the
    capability to use those strategies without
    requiring outside assistance.
  • Tier 1 instruction encompasses
  • The schools core curriculum.
  • All published or teacher-made materials used to
    deliver that curriculum.
  • Teacher use of whole-group teaching
    management strategies.
  • Tier I instruction addresses this question Are
    strong classroom instructional strategies
    sufficient to help the student to achieve
    academic success?

15
Tier I (Classroom) Intervention
  • Tier 1 intervention
  • Targets red flag students who are not
    successful with core instruction alone.
  • Uses evidence-based strategies to address
    student academic or behavioral concerns.
  • Must be feasible to implement given the resources
    available in the classroom.
  • Tier I intervention addresses the question Does
    the student make adequate progress when the
    instructor uses specific academic or behavioral
    strategies matched to the presenting concern?

16
Source New York State Education Department.
(October 2010). Response to Intervention
Guidance for New York State School Districts.
Retrieved November 10, 2010, from
http//www.p12.nysed.gov/specialed/RTI/guidance-oc
t10.pdf p. 13
17
Tier 2 Supplemental (Group-Based)
Interventions(Standard Treatment Protocol)
  • Tier 2 interventions are typically delivered in
    small-group format. About 15 of students in the
    typical school will require Tier 2/supplemental
    intervention support. Group size for Tier 2
    interventions is limited to 3-5 students.
    Students placed in Tier 2 interventions should
    have a shared profile of intervention need.
  • Programs or practices used in Tier 2
    interventions should be evidence-based.
  • The progress of students in Tier 2
    interventions are monitored at least 2 times per
    month.

Source Burns, M. K., Gibbons, K. A. (2008).
Implementing response-to-intervention in
elementary and secondary schools. Routledge New
York.
18
Source New York State Education Department.
(October 2010). Response to Intervention
Guidance for New York State School Districts.
Retrieved November 10, 2010, from
http//www.p12.nysed.gov/specialed/RTI/guidance-oc
t10.pdf p. 14
19
Tier 3 Intensive Individualized
Interventions(Problem-Solving Protocol)
  • Tier 3 interventions are the most intensive
    offered in a school setting.
  • Students qualify for Tier 3 interventions
    because
  • they are found to have a large skill gap when
    compared to their class or grade peers and/or
  • They did not respond to interventions provided
    previously at Tiers 1 2.
  • Tier 3 interventions are provided daily for
    sessions of 30 minutes or more. The
    student-teacher ratio is flexible but should
    allow the student to receive intensive,
    individualized instruction.
  • The reading progress of students in Tier 3
    interventions is monitored at least weekly.

Source Burns, M. K., Gibbons, K. A. (2008).
Implementing response-to-intervention in
elementary and secondary schools. Routledge New
York.
20
Secondary Students Unique Challenges
  • Struggling learners in middle and high school
    may
  • Have significant deficits in basic academic
    skills
  • Lack higher-level problem-solving strategies and
    concepts
  • Present with issues of school motivation
  • Show social/emotional concerns that interfere
    with academics
  • Have difficulty with attendance
  • Are often in a process of disengaging from
    learning even as adults in school expect that
    those students will move toward being
    self-managing learners

21
School Dropout as a Process, Not an Event
  • It is increasingly accepted that dropout is
    best conceptualized as a long-term process, not
    an instantaneous event however, most
    interventions are administered at a middle or
    high school level after problems are severe.

Source Jimerson, S., Reschly, A.L., Hess, R.
(2008). Best practices in increasing the
likelihood of school completion. In A. Thomas
J. Grimes (Eds). Best Practices in School
Psychology - 5th Ed (pp. 1085-1097). Bethesda,
MD National Association of School
Psychologists.. p.1090
22
Student Motivation The Need for Intervention
  • A common response to students who struggle in
    sixth grade is to wait and hope they grow out of
    it or adapt, to attribute early struggles to the
    natural commotion of early adolescence and to
    temporary difficulties in adapting to new
    organizational structures of schooling, more
    challenging curricula and assessment, and less
    personalized attention. Our evidence clearly
    indicates that, at least in high-poverty urban
    schools, sixth graders who are missing 20 or
    more of the days, exhibiting poor behavior, or
    failing math or English do not recover. On the
    contrary, they drop out. This says that early
    intervention is not only productive but
    absolutely essential.

Source Balfanz, R., Herzog, L., MacIver, D. J.
(2007). Preventing student disengagement and
keeping students on the graduation path in urban
middle grades schools Early identification and
effective interventions. Educational
Psychologist,42, 223235. .
23
What Are the Early Warning Flags of Student
Drop-Out?
  • A sample of 13,000 students in Philadelphia were
    tracked for 8 years. These early warning
    indicators were found to predict student drop-out
    in the sixth-grade year
  • Failure in English
  • Failure in math
  • Missing at least 20 of school days
  • Receiving an unsatisfactory behavior rating
    from at least one teacher

Source Balfanz, R., Herzog, L., MacIver, D. J.
(2007). Preventing student disengagement and
keeping students on the graduation path in urban
middle grades schools Early identification and
effective interventions. Educational
Psychologist,42, 223235. .
24
What is the Predictive Power of These Early
Warning Flags?
Number of Early Warning Flags in Student Record Probability That Student Would Graduate
None 56
1 36
2 21
3 13
4 7
Source Balfanz, R., Herzog, L., MacIver, D. J.
(2007). Preventing student disengagement and
keeping students on the graduation path in urban
middle grades schools Early identification and
effective interventions. Educational
Psychologist,42, 223235. .
25
Challenge Promoting Staff Understanding
Support for RTIJim Wrightwww.interventioncentra
l.org
26
Tipping point any process in which, beyond a
certain point, the rate at which the process
increases dramatically. (Tipping Point, 2010).


The tipping point is the moment of critical
mass, the threshold, the boiling point.
(Gladwell, 2000 p. 12)


Sources Gladwell, M. (2000). The tipping point
How little things can make a big difference.
Little, Brown and Company NY. Tipping point
(sociology). (2010, February 17). In Wikipedia,
The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 0252, March 1,
2010, from http//en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?tit
leTipping_point_(sociology)oldid344548179
27
  • Q What Conditions Support the Successful
    Implementation of RTI?
  • Continuing professional development to give
    teachers the skills to implement RTI and educate
    new staff because of personnel turnover.
  • Administrators who assert leadership under RTI,
    including setting staff expectations for RTI
    implementation, finding the needed resources, and
    monitor ingthe fidelity of implementation.
  • Proactive hiring of teachers who support the
    principles of RTI and have the skills to put RTI
    into practice in the classroom.
  • The changing of job roles of teachers and support
    staff (school psychologists, reading specialists,
    special educators, etc.) to support the RTI
    model.
  • Input from teachers and support staff
    (bottom-up) about how to make RTI work in the
    school or district, as well as guidance from
    administration (top-down).

Source Fuchs, D., Deshler, D. D. (2007). What
we need to know about responsiveness to
intervention (and shouldnt be afraid to ask)..
Learning Disabilities Research Practice,
22(2),129136.
28
Engaging the Reluctant Teacher 7 Reasons Why
Instructors May Resist Implementing Classroom RTI
Interventions
29
Engaging the Reluctant Teacher 7 Reasons Why
Instructors May Resist Implementing Classroom RTI
Interventions
  • Lack of Skills. Teachers lack the skills
    necessary to successfully implement academic or
    behavioral interventions in their content-area
    classrooms (Fisher, 2007 Kamil et al., 2008).
  • Not My Job. Teachers define their job as
    providing content-area instruction. They do not
    believe that providing classwide or individual
    academic and behavioral interventions falls
    within their job description (Kamil et al.,
    2008).

30
Engaging the Reluctant Teacher 7 Reasons Why
Instructors May Resist Implementing Classroom RTI
Interventions(Cont.)
  • No Time. Teachers do not believe that they have
    sufficient time available in classroom
    instruction to implement academic or behavioral
    interventions (Kamil et al., 2008 Walker,
    2004).
  • No Payoff. Teachers lack confidence that there
    will be an adequate instructional pay-off if they
    put classwide or individual academic or
    behavioral interventions into place in their
    content-area classroom (Kamil et al., 2008).

31
Engaging the Reluctant Teacher 7 Reasons Why
Instructors May Resist Implementing Classroom RTI
Interventions (Cont.)
  • Loss of Classroom Control. Teachers worry that if
    they depart from their standard instructional
    practices to adopt new classwide or individual
    academic or behavior intervention strategies,
    they may lose behavioral control of the classroom
    (Kamil et al., 2008).
  • Undeserving Students. Teachers are unwilling to
    invest the required effort to provide academic or
    behavioral interventions for unmotivated students
    (Walker, 2004) because they would rather put that
    time into providing additional attention to
    well-behaved, motivated students who are more
    deserving.

32
Engaging the Reluctant Teacher 7 Reasons Why
Instructors May Resist Implementing Classroom RTI
Interventions (Cont.)
  • The Magic of Special Education. Content-area
    teachers regard special education services as
    magic (Martens, 1993). According to this view,
    interventions provided to struggling students in
    the general-education classroom alone will be
    inadequate, and only special education services
    have the power to truly benefit those students.

33
Engaging the Reluctant Teacher Seven Reasons Why
Instructors May Resist Implementing Classroom RTI
Literacy Interventions
  1. Lack of Skills. Teachers lack the skills
    necessary to successfully implement academic or
    behavioral interventions in their content-area
    classrooms.
  2. Not My Job. Teachers define their job as
    providing content-area instruction. They do not
    believe that providing classwide or individual
    academic and behavioral interventions falls
    within their job description.
  3. No Time. Teachers do not believe that they have
    sufficient time available in classroom
    instruction to implement academic or behavioral
    interventions.
  4. Insufficient Payoff. Teachers lack confidence
    that there will be an adequate instructional
    pay-off if they put classwide or individual
    academic or behavioral interventions into place
    in their content-area classroom.
  5. Loss of Classroom Control. Teachers worry that if
    they depart from their standard instructional
    practices to adopt new classwide or individual
    academic or behavior intervention strategies,
    they may lose behavioral control of the
    classroom.
  6. Undeserving Students. Teachers are unwilling to
    invest the required effort to provide academic or
    behavioral interventions for unmotivated students
    because they would rather put that time into
    providing additional attention to well-behaved,
    motivated students who are more deserving.
  7. The Magic of Special Education. Content-area
    teachers regard special education services as
    magic. According to this view, interventions
    provided to struggling students in the
    general-education classroom alone will be
    inadequate, and only special education services
    have the power to truly benefit those students.

34
RTI Challenge Promoting Staff Understanding
Support for RTI
  • Discuss the degree to which your staff currently
    understand the RTI model and support it.
  • What are some positive steps that your school has
    taken to improve staff understanding and support?
  • What are significant challenges that must still
    be addressed in the area of staff understanding
    and support to reach a positive RTI tipping
    point?

35
Challenge Verifying that Strong Core
Instruction and Interventions Are Being
Delivered in ClassroomsJim Wrightwww.interventi
oncentral.org
36
Source New York State Education Department.
(October 2010). Response to Intervention
Guidance for New York State School Districts.
Retrieved November 10, 2010, from
http//www.p12.nysed.gov/specialed/RTI/guidance-oc
t10.pdf p. 12
37
The Key Role of Classroom Teachers in RTI 6 Steps
  1. The teacher defines the student academic or
    behavioral problem clearly.
  2. The teacher decides on the best explanation for
    why the problem is occurring.
  3. The teacher selects evidence-based
    interventions.
  4. The teacher documents the students Tier 1
    intervention plan.
  5. The teacher monitors the students response
    (progress) to the intervention plan.
  6. The teacher knows what the next steps are when a
    student fails to make adequate progress with Tier
    1 interventions alone.

38
Building Teacher Capacity to Deliver Tier 1
Interventions An 8-Step Checklist
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RTI Challenge Verifying that Strong Core
Instruction and Interventions Are Being
Delivered in Classrooms
  • Discuss the capacity of general-education
    teachers in your school to provide appropriate
    instruction and research-based instructional
    interventions in their classrooms.
  • What are some positive steps that your school has
    taken?
  • What are significant challenges that must still
    be addressed in helping teachers to understand
    and support their role as classroom
    interventionists?

51
Promoting Student Reading Comprehension Fix-Up
SkillsJim Wrightwww.interventioncentral.org
52
Reading Comprehension Fix-Up Skills A Toolkit
  • Good readers continuously monitor their
    understanding of informational text. When
    necessary, they also take steps to improve their
    understanding of text through use of reading
    comprehension fix-up skills.
  • Presented here are a series of fix-up skill
    strategies that can help struggling students to
    better understand difficult reading assignments

53
Reading Comprehension Fix-Up Skills A Toolkit
(Cont.)
  • Core Instruction Providing Main Idea Practice
    through Partner Retell (Carnine Carnine,
    2004). Students in a group or class are assigned
    a text selection to read silently. Students are
    then paired off, with one student assigned the
    role of reteller and the other appointed as
    listener. The reteller recounts the main idea
    to the listener, who can comment or ask
    questions. The teacher then states the main idea
    to the class. Next, the reteller locates two key
    details from the reading that support the main
    idea and shares these with the listener. At the
    end of the activity, the teacher does a spot
    check by randomly calling on one or more students
    in the listener role and asking them to recap
    what information was shared by the reteller.

54
Reading Comprehension Fix-Up Skills A Toolkit
(Cont.)
  • Accommodation Developing a Bank of Multiple
    Passages to Present Challenging Concepts (Hedin
    Conderman, 2010 Kamil et al., 2008 Texas
    Reading Initiative, 2002). The teacher notes
    which course concepts, cognitive strategies, or
    other information will likely present the
    greatest challenge to students. For these
    challenge topics, the teacher selects
    alternative readings that present the same
    general information and review the same key
    vocabulary as the course text but that are more
    accessible to struggling readers (e.g., with
    selections written at an easier reading level or
    that use graphics to visually illustrate
    concepts). These alternative selections are
    organized into a bank that students can access as
    a source of wide reading material.

55
Reading Comprehension Fix-Up Skills A Toolkit
(Cont.)
  • Student Strategy Promoting Understanding
    Building Endurance through Reading-Reflection
    Pauses (Hedin Conderman, 2010). The student
    decides on a reading interval (e.g., every four
    sentences every 3 minutes at the end of each
    paragraph). At the end of each interval, the
    student pauses briefly to recall the main points
    of the reading. If the student has questions or
    is uncertain about the content, the student
    rereads part or all of the section just read.
    This strategy is useful both for students who
    need to monitor their understanding as well as
    those who benefit from brief breaks when engaging
    in intensive reading as a means to build up
    endurance as attentive readers.

56
Reading Comprehension Fix-Up Skills A Toolkit
(Cont.)
  • Student Strategy Identifying or Constructing
    Main Idea Sentences (Davey McBride, 1986
    Rosenshine, Meister Chapman, 1996). For each
    paragraph in an assigned reading, the student
    either (a) highlights the main idea sentence or
    (b) highlights key details and uses them to write
    a gist sentence. The student then writes the
    main idea of that paragraph on an index card. On
    the other side of the card, the student writes a
    question whose answer is that paragraphs main
    idea sentence. This stack of main idea cards
    becomes a useful tool to review assigned
    readings.

57
Reading Comprehension Fix-Up Skills A Toolkit
(Cont.)
  • Student Strategy Restructuring Paragraphs with
    Main Idea First to Strengthen Rereads (Hedin
    Conderman, 2010). The student highlights or
    creates a main idea sentence for each paragraph
    in the assigned reading. When rereading each
    paragraph of the selection, the student (1) reads
    the main idea sentence or student-generated
    gist sentence first (irrespective of where that
    sentence actually falls in the paragraph) (2)
    reads the remainder of the paragraph, and (3)
    reflects on how the main idea relates to the
    paragraph content.

58
Reading Comprehension Fix-Up Skills A Toolkit
(Cont.)
  • Student Strategy Summarizing Readings (Boardman
    et al., 2008). The student is taught to summarize
    readings into main ideas and essential
    details--stripped of superfluous content. The act
    of summarizing longer readings can promote
    understanding and retention of content while the
    summarized text itself can be a useful study
    tool.

59
Reading Comprehension Fix-Up Skills A Toolkit
(Cont.)
  • Student Strategy Linking Pronouns to Referents
    (Hedin Conderman, 2010). Some readers lose the
    connection between pronouns and the nouns that
    they refer to (known as referents)especially
    when reading challenging text. The student is
    encouraged to circle pronouns in the reading, to
    explicitly identify each pronouns referent, and
    (optionally) to write next to the pronoun the
    name of its referent. For example, the student
    may add the referent to a pronoun in this
    sentence from a biology text The Cambrian
    Period is the first geological age that has large
    numbers of multi-celled organisms associated with
    it Cambrian Period.

60
Reading Comprehension Fix-Up Skills A Toolkit
(Cont.)
  • Student Strategy Apply Vocabulary Fix-Up
    Skills for Unknown Words (Klingner Vaughn,
    1999). When confronting an unknown word in a
    reading selection, the student applies the
    following vocabulary fix-up skills
  • Read the sentence again.
  • Read the sentences before and after the problem
    sentence for clues to the words meaning.
  • See if there are prefixes or suffixes in the word
    that can give clues to meaning.
  • Break the word up by syllables and look for
    smaller words within.

61
Reading Comprehension Fix-Up Skills A Toolkit
(Cont.)
  • Student Strategy Compiling a Vocabulary Journal
    from Course Readings (Hedin Conderman, 2010).
    The student highlights new or unfamiliar
    vocabulary from course readings. The student
    writes each term into a vocabulary journal, using
    a standard sentence-stem format e.g., Mitosis
    means or A chloroplast is. If the student is
    unable to generate a definition for a vocabulary
    term based on the course reading, he or she
    writes the term into the vocabulary journal
    without definition and then applies other
    strategies to define the term e.g., look up the
    term in a dictionary use Google to locate two
    examples of the term being used correctly in
    context ask the instructor, etc.).

62
Reading Comprehension Fix-Up Skills A Toolkit
(Cont.)
  • Student Strategy Encouraging Student Use of
    Text Enhancements (Hedin Conderman, 2010). Text
    enhancements can be used to tag important
    vocabulary terms, key ideas, or other reading
    content. If working with photocopied material,
    the student can use a highlighter to note key
    ideas or vocabulary. Another enhancement strategy
    is the lasso and rope techniqueusing a pen or
    pencil to circle a vocabulary term and then
    drawing a line that connects that term to its
    underlined definition. If working from a
    textbook, the student can cut sticky notes into
    strips. These strips can be inserted in the book
    as pointers to text of interest. They can also be
    used as temporary labelse.g., for writing a
    vocabulary term and its definition.

63
Reading Comprehension Fix-Up Skills A Toolkit
(Cont.)
  • Student Strategy Reading Actively Through Text
    Annotation (Harris, 1990 Sarkisian et al.,
    2003). Students are likely to increase their
    retention of information when they interact
    actively with their reading by jotting comments
    in the margin of the text. Using photocopies, the
    student is taught to engage in an ongoing
    'conversation' with the writer by recording a
    running series of brief comments in the margins
    of the text. The student may write annotations to
    record opinions about points raised by the
    writer, questions triggered by the reading, or
    unknown vocabulary words.

64
Defensive Behavior Management The Power of
Teacher PreparationJim Wrightwww.interventionce
ntral.org
65
Defensive Management A Method to Avoid Power
Struggles
  • Defensive management (Fields, 2004) is a
    teacher-friendly six-step approach to avert
    student-teacher power struggles that emphasizes
    providing proactive instructional support to the
    student, elimination of behavioral triggers in
    the classroom setting, relationship-building,
    strategic application of defusing techniques when
    needed, and use of a reconnection conference
    after behavioral incidents to promote student
    reflection and positive behavior change.

Source Fields, B. (2004). Breaking the cycle of
office referrals and suspensions Defensive
management. Educational Psychology in Practice,
20, 103-115.
66
Defensive Management Six Steps
  1. Understanding the Problem and Using Proactive
    Strategies. The teacher collects
    information--through direct observation and
    perhaps other means--about specific instances of
    student problem behavior and the instructional
    components and other factors surrounding them.
    The teacher analyzes this information to discover
    specific trigger events that seem to set off
    the problem behavior(s) (e.g., lack of skills
    failure to understand directions).The
    instructor then adjusts instruction to provide
    appropriate student support (e.g., providing the
    student with additional instruction in a skill
    repeating directions and writing them on the
    board).

Source Fields, B. (2004). Breaking the cycle of
office referrals and suspensions Defensive
management. Educational Psychology in Practice,
20, 103-115.
67
Defensive Management Six Steps
  1. Promoting Positive Teacher-Student Interactions.
    Early in each class session, the teacher has at
    least one positive verbal interaction with the
    student. Throughout the class period, the teacher
    continues to interact in positive ways with the
    student (e.g., brief conversation, smile, thumbs
    up, praise comment after a student remark in
    large-group discussion, etc.). In each
    interaction, the teacher adopts a genuinely
    accepting, polite, respectful tone.

Source Fields, B. (2004). Breaking the cycle of
office referrals and suspensions Defensive
management. Educational Psychology in Practice,
20, 103-115.
68
Defensive Management Six Steps
  1. Scanning for Warning Indicators. During the class
    session, the teacher monitors the target
    students behavior for any behavioral indicators
    suggesting that the student is becoming
    frustrated or angry. Examples of behaviors that
    precede non-compliance or open defiance may
    include stopping work muttering or complaining
    becoming argumentative interrupting others
    leaving his or her seat throwing objects, etc.).

Source Fields, B. (2004). Breaking the cycle of
office referrals and suspensions Defensive
management. Educational Psychology in Practice,
20, 103-115.
69
Defensive Management Six Steps
  1. Exercising Emotional Restraint. Whenever the
    student begins to display problematic behaviors,
    the teacher makes an active effort to remain
    calm. To actively monitor his or her emotional
    state, the teacher tracks physiological cues such
    as increased muscle tension and heart rate, as
    well as fear, annoyance, anger, or other negative
    emotions. The teacher also adopts calming or
    relaxation strategies that work for him or her in
    the face of provocative student behavior, such as
    taking a deep breath or counting to 10 before
    responding.

Source Fields, B. (2004). Breaking the cycle of
office referrals and suspensions Defensive
management. Educational Psychology in Practice,
20, 103-115.
70
Defensive Management Six Steps
  1. Using Defusing Tactics. If the student begins to
    escalate to non-compliant, defiant, or
    confrontational behavior (e.g., arguing,
    threatening, other intentional verbal
    interruptions), the teacher draws from a range of
    possible descalating strategies to defuse the
    situation. Such strategies can include private
    conversation with the student while maintaining a
    calm voice, open-ended questions, paraphrasing
    the students concerns, acknowledging the
    students emotions, etc.

Source Fields, B. (2004). Breaking the cycle of
office referrals and suspensions Defensive
management. Educational Psychology in Practice,
20, 103-115.
71
Defensive Management Six Steps
  1. Reconnecting with The Student. Soon after any
    in-class incident of student non-compliance,
    defiance, or confrontation, the teacher makes a
    point to meet with the student to discuss the
    behavioral incident, identify the triggers in the
    classroom environment that led to the problem,
    and brainstorm with the student to create a
    written plan to prevent the reoccurrence of such
    an incident. Throughout this conference, the
    teacher maintains a supportive, positive, polite,
    and respectful tone.

Source Fields, B. (2004). Breaking the cycle of
office referrals and suspensions Defensive
management. Educational Psychology in Practice,
20, 103-115.
72
Team Activity What Questions Do You Have About
RTI and Middle Schools?
  • At your table
  • Discuss the RTI information presented.
  • What questions do you have about RTI that you
    would like to have answered today?
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