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Teaching Students to Comprehend More Deeply

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Fifth through eight grade came and went by, And I came to hate ... remember and reapply what they have read. create new background knowledge for themselves ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Teaching Students to Comprehend More Deeply


1
Teaching Students to Comprehend More Deeply
  • How can we help our students become more
    strategic readers to enhance their comprehension?

2
Help ME! A Reading Biography A Reflection on
Entering High School
Fifth through eight grade came and went by, And
I came to hate reading and they didnt know
why. I expected high school to be the same, To
me, reading books is simply lame. I did enough
reading to just get by. But I hated to read and
they didnt know why. Teachers assigned me stuff
day after day Well get him to read, Well find
a way
3
Not a day went by without a real try, But I hated
to read and they didnt know why. Phonics,
Textbooks, Grammar, Spelling. Sometimes my
teachers would end up yelling. And look like
they were about to cry But I still hated reading
and they didnt know why. You see, no one helps
me how to do it And so I am frustrated all the
way through it
4
I just want to know the secret things that
readers do that make books sing. And helps
people love stories And learn from them too. But
no one has helped me, So sad and so true No one
has taught me What I need to do
5
And that is why I just dont get it So if you
cant help me Ill just have to forget it. And
give up interest in ever reading. . .and Believe
me Id rather be lying here bleeding. -Jack
6
Jack
  • Do you have Jack in your classroom?
  • Is the frustration evident daily?
  • Imagine yourself in a situation where you dont
    know the rules and cant play the game.
  • How can you assist Jack ?

7
Research
  • Meta analysis of several international
  • studies shows the following
  • 2nd grade American students rank second in the
    world in reading
  • They fall to a middle ranking by the end of 8th
    grade
  • They are 29th out of 29 by the end of high school
  • -Wilhelm, citing Dick Allington

8
Current practice
  • Reviews of American education show we spend our
    time
  • Teaching students information - the declarative
    knowledge (the what)
  • Instead we should be assisting students in better
    ways of reading, problem solving, and making
    meaning (the how)
  • Research shows that good readers employ certain
    strategies to enhance their comprehension. Our
    Grade Level Expectations in reading identify
    those strategies. (the why)

9
  • When students are asked to learn information
    without actively using procedures to construct
    meaning, they usually end up forgetting the
    content.
  • How do we support students in understanding and
    learning the information they read?

10
International Reading Associations statement on
Adolescent Literacy says
  • Students need direct reading instruction
    throughout adolescence as they struggle to meet
    the demands of more sophisticated kinds of
    literary texts, a variety of informational text
    and genres, and more substantial and complex
    content.

11
  • The statement goes on to say that we need to
    actively instruct adolescents at their current
    state of development.
  • What does this active teaching of reading look
    like?

12
Active Teaching of Reading
  • Find resources at the appropriate reading level
    for your students. You may want to bookmark
    Internet sites on the same topic but at different
    readability levels. Teach in the Zone of Proximal
    Development. (download Vygotskys Zone for more
    information.)
  • Examine the Reading Grade Level Expectations for
    one or two areas that may give your students
    difficulty when reading the text. (Download the
    CA Reading GLEs)
  • Choose one or two strategies to model that will
    link to the GLEs.

13
Explicit Instruction
  • Explain the strategy
  • Explain why the strategy is important
  • Explain when to use the strategy
  • Model how to perform the strategy in the actual
    context of a reading.
  • After students have had sufficient opportunity to
    see the strategy modeled and they have discussed
    it, move to the next phase.

14
Explicit Instruction
  • Teacher then guides learner practice.
  • See handout sent to you for more information
    about the steps of Gradual Release of
    Responsibility.
  • Goal is for students to independently use the
    strategy in the appropriate context.

15
One StrategyReciprocal Teaching
  • This strategy provides instruction and practice
    of the four main comprehension strategies -
    predicting, questioning, clarifying, and
    summarizing.
  • The purpose of this strategy is to gradually
    release responsibility to the individual to make
    meaning from the text.
  • Reciprocal teaching involves a high degree of
    social interaction and collaboration as students
    take on the role of the teacher in working
    together to construct meaning.

16
Steps in Reciprocal Teaching
  • Teacher chooses text(s) according to students
    zone of proximal development.
  • Teacher explicitly models each of the four basic
    strategies predict, question, connect, and
    summarize.
  • Students must understand that skilled readers do
    this each time they read and it is imperative to
    good comprehension.
  • First this should be modeled with the entire
    class by brainstorming examples of each of the
    categories.

17
Steps in Reciprocal Teaching
  • Next, students work in groups of four to answer
    questions for each category and share with the
    class.
  • When students first work independently, they may
    annotate a short text or complete a graphic
    organizer to record their application of the
    strategy.

18
Steps in Reciprocal Teaching
  • Students then work in a small groups to share
    their annotations and construct meaning of the
    text. One student is chosen as teacher to
    facilitate the groups task, progress, and time
    management.
  • Students must cite text references during
    discussion that focus the questions, what needs
    to be clarified, the accuracy of their
    predictions, or their comments in summarization.

19
Steps in Reciprocal Teaching
  • All students add comments to their sheet to add
    to depth of understanding of text.
  • Bring closure to the lesson through whole group
    discussion or comments by groups about what was
    discovered.
  • A single text or multiple texts may be used to
    meet individual needs.

20
Reciprocol Teaching Handout
  • Download one or both of the student handouts for
    reciprocal teaching.

21
Caution
  • Reading strategies are important only in so far
    as they assist
  • readers to construct meaningful understandings of
    texts.
  • Teaching strategies is only important only when
    they
  • assist readers to comprehend and respond to text.
  • Think alouds are not appropriate when students
    already know
  • how to use a featured reading strategy, when they
    do not have
  • a need to use the strategy, or when the strategy
    is so complex
  • that it lies beyond their zone of proximal
    development.

22
The What Strategies for constructing deeper
meaning
  • Ask Questions
  • Connect
  • Predicting
  • Summarizing
  • Synthesizing
  • Visualizing
  • Analyzing
  • Critiquing
  • Inferring

23
How do good readers use these strategies to
extend their meaning of the text?
  • The following pages contain some of the
    strategies good readers use to comprehend what
    they read and are taken from the GLEs.
  • Each gives examples of how the expert reader uses
    the strategy.
  • Following that are ways teachers can model for
    students the use of the strategy.

24
Ask questions of themselves, the authors, and
the text before, during, and after reading.
  • Good readers ask questions to
  • clarify meaning
  • wonder about what is to come in the text
  • determine the authors intent, style, content, or
    format
  • to help interpret what they read
  • to focus attention on important ideas in the text
  • to deepen their understanding
  • listen to others questions to help understand the
    text

25
Asking questions strategies
  • Have a question marathon with your students.
    Record their questions based on the text.
    Evaluate which questions will actually make a
    difference in their understanding of a reading.
  • Introduce QAR - question answer relationships -
    provides teachers and students with a common
    vocabulary for discussing different types of
    questions and sources of information for
    answering these questions. There are four levels
    of questioning in this strategy right there
    (LITERAL), think and search (interpretive),
    author and you (evaluative), and on my own
    (application).
  • For more information about this strategy, go to
    http//www.kimskorner4teachertalk.com/readingliter
    ature/readingstrategies/QAR.htm

26
ConnectActivate relevant, prior knowledge
before, during, and after reading text
  • Good readers make connections by
  • relating unfamiliar text to their prior world
    knowledge and experience
  • text-to-self - things you have experienced
  • text-to-text - things you have read about
  • text-to-world - things you have heard about
  • use what they know about an author and his or her
    style to predict and better understand a text
  • identify potentially difficult or unfamiliar text
    structures or formats
  • recognize inadequate background information and
    learn how to build the information before reading
  • Strategy for connecting
  • Read aloud a short text and think aloud your
    comments. Show students
  • connections. Challenge them to define and create
    new connections that go beyond
  • the connections originally suggested.

27
SummarizeTrack down the most important ideas
and themes.
  • Good readers make decisions about what is
    important in the text by
  • Word level -pick out the words that carry the
    meaning of the sentence
  • Sentence level - pick out the key sentences that
    carry the weight of meaning for a passage or
    section. Often these sentences begin or end a
    paragraph, or in nonfiction, refer to a table or
    graph
  • Text Level - pick out the key ideas, concepts,
    and themes in the text. Opinion may change about
    what is most important as a passage is read.
    Final conclusions about what is most important
    are made after reading the passage.
  • Decisions about what is most important are based
    on prior knowledge and beliefs, opinions, and
    personal experiences.
  • It helps to point out what is unimportant to help
    students distinguish what is most important
  • Students need to work toward defending their
    positions, while realizing that
  • there is often more than one true set of
    most important ideas

28
Track down important information or summarize
  • Give students a 3x3 sticky note and fringe it
    into 3-4 pieces. As they read challenge them to
    tear off a piece of fringe and use it to mark
    what they think is an important piece of
    information. This will mimic highlighting but
    allow the student to change their mind as read a
    passage and will limit how much they think is
    important.

29
Making Inferences
  • Inferences
  • Good readers use their prior knowledge and
    information from the text to draw conclusion,
    make judgments and predictions, and form
    interpretations about what they are reading.
  • Good readers draw inferences by
  • creating personal meaning from the text - It
    involves a mental process of combining what is
    read with relevant prior knowledge. The readers
    unique interpretation of text is the product of
    this blending.
  • creating a meaning that is not necessarily stated
    explicitly in the text. The process implies that
    readers actively search for, or are aware of,
    implicit meaning.
  • revise based on the inferences and
    interpretations of other readers

30
Making Inferences
  • When good readers infer, they
  • draw conclusions from text
  • make reasonable predictions as they read and
    revise those predictions as they read further
  • create dynamic interpretations of text that are
    adapted asthey continue to read and after they
    read
  • make connections between conclusions they draw
    and other beliefs or knowledge
  • make critical or analytical judgments about what
    they read
  • When good readers infer, they are more able to
  • remember and reapply what they have read
  • create new background knowledge for themselves
  • discriminate and critically analyze text and
    authors
  • engage in conversation and/or other analytical or
    reflective responses to what they read

31
Making Inferences
  • At least once a day, read aloud a short passage
    and think aloud your inferences. Have students
    decide what types of inferences you are making.
    Try Two Minute Mysteries by Donald Sobol. These
    short text offers lots of opportunities for
    inferencing.
  • See this website for more examples and ideas.
  • http//www.kimskorner4teachertalk.com/readingliter
    ature/readingstrategies/inferences.htm

32
What does this mean for our classroom today?
  • Reading today views readers as active
    participants in the reading process and invites
    them to move from passively accepting the texts
    message to question, examine, or dispute the
    message from the author.
  • In order for us to engage in explicit instruction
    of cognitive strategies, we must become more
    metacognitive of our own thinking when reading
    and share it with our students.
  • After modeling the use of the strategy, students
    must become active participants in their reading
    of the text using the strategy.

33
Think about your classroom
  • What behaviors do you see that are cries for help
    with reading?
  • Choose one student you will follow through this
    course. Write a one page reflection of what you
    see (i.e., reading level, specific grade level
    expectations that are needs of the child, etc.)
    and what you have tried to support this child.
    Send the reflection to each member of the group.
  • Choose one or two strategies to support this
    student and explain how you would teach it based
    on the information you have learned. Send this
    information to each member of the group.
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