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Reading Comprehension

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Reading Comprehension Suggestions for Vocabulary Instruction Rationale Research has shown that many children who read at grade level in grade 3 will not automatically ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Reading Comprehension


1
Reading Comprehension
  • Suggestions for Vocabulary Instruction

2
Rationale
  • Research has shown that many children who read at
    grade level in grade 3 will not automatically
    become proficient comprehenders in later grades.
    Therefore, teachers must teach comprehension
    explicitly, beginning in the primary grades and
    continuing through high school (RAND Reading
    Study Group, 2002).

3
Content Area Reading Research
  • Content literacy can be defined as the ability to
    use reading and writing for the acquisition of
    new content in a given discipline (McKenna
    Robinson, 1990, p. 184).

4
Important Concept
  • Its not doing more
  • its doing things differently.

5
Strategic Teaching
  • Strategic teaching is the process of
    incorporating purposeful planning, multiple
    strategies, connected strategies, and explicit
    instruction to maximize the understanding and
    retention of content material.

6
Strategic Teaching
  • An on-going practice
  • Not a series of stand-alone lessons or random
    activities sprinkled throughout lesson plans

7
Strategic Teaching
  • Strategic teaching incorporates before, during,
    and after reading strategies as well as a variety
    of vocabulary development and writing strategies.
    The strategies a teacher chooses will depend on
    the purpose of the lesson, the nature of the
    material being studied, and student data.

8
Vocabulary Development
  • Vocabulary knowledge is critical to reading
    comprehension. If a word is decoded and
    pronounced but the meaning is not recognized,
    comprehension will be impaired (Stanovich, 1993).
  • A number of studies indicate that reading
    comprehension requires a high level of word
    knowledge- higher than the level achieved by many
    types of vocabulary instruction. The implication
    is that teachers should augment traditional
    methods of vocabulary instruction with more
    intensive instruction aimed at producing richer,
    deeper word knowledge (Nagy, 2002)
  • Think about the following
  • HOW DO YOU TEACH VOCABULARY?

9
Vocabulary Development Research
  • Most vocabulary is learned indirectly.
  • Some vocabulary must be taught directly.
  • Students have 4 vocabularies listening,
    speaking, reading, and writing.
  • Struggling students large listening
    vocabularies
  • Proficient students know 4 times as many words as
    struggling students.

10
Indirect Word Learning
  • Students learn word meanings indirectly in three
    ways
  • 1. They engage daily in oral language.
  • 2. They listen to adults read to them.
  • 3. They read extensively on their own.

11
Specific Word Instruction
  • Specific word instruction can deepen students
    knowledge of word meanings.
  • Teaching specific words before reading helps both
    vocabulary learning and reading comprehension.
  • Extended instruction that promotes active
    engagement with vocabulary improves word
    learning.
  • Repeated exposure to vocabulary in many contexts
    aids word learning.

12
Responsibility of Content Area Teachers
  • To help students learn and understand the
    vocabulary of the discipline they teach
  • To apply the correct label to the new concepts
    they meet
  • Avoid look-it-up, use-it-in-a-sentence,
    take-a-quiz-on-Friday strategy
  • To show students that common words are often used
    differently in different subject areas

13
Integration and Repetition
  • Words must be hooked onto experiences in our
    lives.
  • Research (Nagy, 1998) tells us that effective
    vocabulary instruction must include integration
    and repetition and have meaning in our lives.

14
Vocabulary Research
  • . . . By no means will all unfamiliar words
    encountered in reading be learned, and those that
    are learned will require multiple encounters with
    them before learning is accomplished (Beck,
    McKeown, Kucan, 2002).

15
Multiple Exposures
  • Words are learned incrementally through multiple
    exposures (Stahl, 2003).
  • As many as 4 encounters with a word do not
    reliably improve reading comprehension skills a
    minimum of 12 exposures is suggested.

16
Teaching Vocabulary in the Classroom
  • An effective vocabulary development program for
    secondary students should include 3 main
    strategies
  • Promoting broad and intensive reading and oral
    discussions
  • Encouraging students to experiment with words
  • Explicitly teaching word meanings and
    word-learning strategies

17
Knowledge Ratings
  • purpose is to create an awareness of known and
    unknown words
  • a pre-reading activity
  • gives students and teacher an idea of which words
    need attention and which ones dont

18
Connecting the Visual to the Verbal
  • Examples Vocabulary Word Maps, Quadrant Cards,
    Vocabulary Squares, Verbal/Visual Word
    Association
  • Graphic organizers
  • Allows students to pictorially link words with
    their meanings
  • Time-tested way for students to learn new words
    more deeply

19
Sketching Vocabulary
  • Draw a picture, symbol, or icon for the following
    words
  • Love
  • Religion
  • Divorce
  • Egregious
  • Forsade

20
  • Teaching vocabulary involves
  • rich discussions about the meaning(s) of
    unfamiliar words
  • making connections between new words and familiar
    concepts
  • using words in context
  • analyzing word parts and
  • active student engagement.

21
Selection Criteria
  • Choose the words you teach carefully. Teach
    words that are important for understanding a
    concept or the text. Teach words that students
    are likely to see and use again and again.
  • Provide instruction for words that are
    particularly difficult for your students.

22
  • Final Note on Vocabulary
  • Please do not have students copy definitions
    directly from a dictionary or textbook glossary.
    This is a passive learning activity that rarely
    leads to students having ownership of new
    vocabulary.
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