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The World of Life Science Chapter 1 Holt Science and Technology Life Science, 2001

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Title: The World of Life Science Chapter 1 Holt Science and Technology Life Science, 2001


1
The World of Life ScienceChapter 1 Holt Science
and Technology Life Science, 2001
  • Science Reading Introduction
  • Miss Elizabeth
  • MLK JHS 2006-2007

2
What is Science
  • 1.Classifying so when reading we will classify
    text by identifying the main idea and details
  • 2.Experimenting so when reading we will look
    for sequencing the order of ideas
  • 3.Drawing Conclusion so when reading we will
    draw conclusion as we read

3
  • 4.Writing up experiment results so after reading
    we will write an expository essay. This is an
    essay that is meant to inform the reader. Some
    examples
  • Tell what happened when . . . 
  • Write a report on . . . 
  • Explain how to . . . 
  • Describe how to  for . . .  .
  • Some links to reference
  • http//www.geocities.com/fifth_grade_tpes/exposito
    ry.html
  • http//library.thinkquest.org/10888/expos.html

4
  • 5.Observing/inferring so when reading we will
    distinguish between cause and effect. Usually
    scientists observe the effect and infer its
    cause.
  • 6.Determining cause and effect so also when
    reading we will determine cause and effect the
    main cause and the main effect.
  • 7.Comparing and contrasting so when reading we
    will look for things that are similar and that
    are different. Comparing and contrasting allow
    readers and scientists to group similarities and
    separate differences.

5
Education
  • Is a two way street not just a one way with
    teacher providing information. Education is two
    way with half from teacher providing information
    and half your response.
  • Response is more than getting the right answer
    which requires memory but not deep thinking where
    a backhoe was used to build the second lane.

6
Science Notebook
  • We will have unit notebooks to keep all our
    papers together, but also a journal where we can
    gather our thoughts and our questions. To help
    with developing our questioning or interrogation
    skills copy the following T-chart to the inside
    of your first science journal.

7
T-Chart Question and Response T-Chart Question and Response
What is on the page What is between the lines
Direct information found in a portion of text you read just the facts. What is happening in the story what are the parts of the argument? What words, phrases do you like? What clues do they give about the meaning or purpose or sense of the passage? What questions do you have as you are reading? Where do these questions lead? What words are unfamiliar? What do they mean? What do they add? What main concepts begin to emerge for you? How do the parts of the story or argument or concept fit together?
Wonderings What is off the page Wonderings What is off the page
Wondering what do I wonder abut now? Memory what does this remind me of? Application what areas of my everyday life incorporate these ideas? Feeling how do I feel about this story Imagination what story can you imagine and write about? Wondering what do I wonder abut now? Memory what does this remind me of? Application what areas of my everyday life incorporate these ideas? Feeling how do I feel about this story Imagination what story can you imagine and write about?
8
  • Structured Notes to help get the main ideas and
    important details together.
  • In the beginning of the class we will work
    through structured notes before reading is
    assigned. You will have directed reading
    worksheets to complete while reading. Once
    through those we will practice deep reading
    when we are really thinking about what we are
    reading.

9
Chapter 1 The World of Life Science
  • What do you think complete sentences mean
    complete thoughts
  • What tools do life scientist use?
  • What methods do scientist use to study life
    science?
  • Can anyone become a life scientist?

10
1.1 Asking About Life
  • Wondering questions that just pop into your
    mind.
  • Observing the world around us, being curious.
    Leads to questioning our observations.
  • Life Science is the study of living thing.
  • It all starts with a question.
  • Easy to find in your backyard or touring the world

11
  • Looking for Answers
  • Science takes people with curiosity and
    determination.
  • Who? Anyone can investigate the world around us.
    Women and men from any cultural, ethnic, or
    income background can become life scientists.
  • Where? Doing investigations in a laboratory is an
    important part of life science, but science can
    be studied in many other places too.
  • What? Life Scientists or Biologists specialize in
    many different areas.

12
What Life Scientists Study
  • how organisms function and behave,
  • how organisms interact with each other and with
    their environment,
  • how organisms reproduce and pass traits from one
    generation to the next,
  • how organisms change over time and what are the
    origins of organisms

13
Why Ask Why?
  • Two ways listed in your textbook
  • to combat disease and
  • to protect the environment.
  • Can you think of some other reasons why study
    life science?
  • Life science affects you and all the living
    things around you.

14
Combating Disease
  • Polio is a disease of the brain and informs that
    causes paralysis.
  • We dont see many people now but before 1960, it
    infected 1 in every 3,000 Americans.
  • It was life scientists who discovered way to
    prevent the spread of the polio virus and we are
    now vaccinated.
  • Children get 4 doses of IPV, at these ages
  • ?A dose at 2 months ?A dose at 6-18 months
  • ?A dose at 4 months ?A booster dose at 4-6
    years

15
Current diseases that scientists search for ways
to fight
  • Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium
    tuberculosis, a slow-growing bacteria that thrive
    in areas of the body that are rich in blood and
    oxygen, such as the lungs.
  • AIDS caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)
  • Cystic Fibrosis caused by an inherited gene.

16
Protecting the Environment
  • Why protect the environment?
  • What environmental problem can you think of?
  • Pollution can harm our health and the health of
    other animals and plants. When we cut down trees
    we alter and sometimes destroy the habitat of
    other creatures or the climate.

17
1.2 Thinking Like a Life Scientist
  • The Scientific Method
  • Is a series of steps that is used to answer a
    question or solve a problem.
  • The steps are applied creatively meaning
    sometimes scientists come back to a step, do the
    steps in a different order, or skip a step
    depending on the question
  • .

18
The steps
  • Ask a question based on observations
  • Form a hypothesis a possible explanation for
    what you have observed.
  • Test the hypothesis by conducting experiments.
  • Analyze the results collected from experiments.
  • Draw conclusions from the results
  • Communicate results to other scientist in
    writing and in presentations

19
  • When researchers use the scientific method, can
    they repeat or switch the order of steps or do
    they need to keep them always exactly the same?
    Explain.
  • Scientists can repeat or switch the order of
    steps as needed.
  • The Scientific Method is a map and there is more
    than one way to reach your destination

20
Ask a question based on observations
  • Observations can take many forms
  • Measurements of length, volume, temperature, time
    or speed.
  • Descriptions of how loud or soft a sound is or
    the color or shape of an organisms what
    something does, how it moves, or its patterns of
    behavior.
  • Scientist have to be careful when making
    observations that the observations are accurately
    made and recorded.
  • Observations become data.

21
Form a hypothesis a possible explanation for
what you have observed
  • When scientists form hypotheses they think
    logically, creatively, and keep in mind what they
    already know.
  • A hypothesis must be testable by experiment or
    observation.
  • A hypothesis that is not testable may not be
    wrong, but it is not USEFUL because it cant be
    proved or disproved.
  • Different scientists can have different
    hypotheses for the same question.
  • Hypotheses are based on predictions.

22
Predictions
  • A prediction is a statement of cause and effect
    that can be used to set up a test for a
    hypothesis.
  • Predictions are usually stated in an If ,
    then. format.
  • Once predictions are made, scientists can design
    experiments to see which predictions, if any
    prove to be true and support the hypothesis.

23
Self Check Which of the following statements is
a hypothesis?
  1. Deformed frogs have been found in the United
    States and Canada.
  2. Insecticides and fertilizers caused the frog
    deformities.
  3. Frogs can easily absorb pollutants through their
    skin.

24
  • What do scientists use to answer a question or
    solve a problem?
  • the scientific method.
  • their imagination.
  • their creativity.

25
Test the hypothesis by conducting experiments.
  • Scientist try to design experiments that will
    clearly show whether a particular factor was the
    cause of an observed outcome.
  • A factor is anything in an experiment that can
    influence the experiments outcome. Here we have
    lots of causes.
  • Scientists control experiments so that only one
    factor at a time is tested.

26
  • In a controlled experiment there is a control
    group and one or more experimental groups.
  • All the factors in the control group and the
    experimental groups are the same except for one.
  • The one factor that differs is called the
    variable.
  • Because the variable is the only factor that
    differs between the control group and the
    experimental groups,
  • scientists have more certainty that variable is
    causing the differences observed in the results.

27
  • In order to be certain about the conclusions of
    an experiment, scientists should repeat the same
    experiment many times.
  • Designing a good experiment requires a lot of
    thought and planning.

28
Self Check
  • Henry is testing the effects of different
    antibacterial soaps on the growth of bacteria.
    His experiment contains several jars of the same
    strain of bacteria. Which of the jars described
    below is the control group?
  • To Jar A, Henry adds two drops of Super soap.
  • To Jar B, Henry adds two drops of Anti-B Suds.
  • To Jar C, Henry adds no soap.

29
Self Check
  • A scientist wants to study the possible side
    effects of a new medicine, how should he/she set
    up this experiment? (How many groups, how much
    medicine, control group?)
  • how many groups? Depends on the kinds of patients
    that will be treated by the drug.
  • how much medicine? Depends on potencies that have
    been established by other tests.
  • control group include a control group that
    receives no medicine

30
Analyze the results collected from experiments.
  • Ways to analyze results
  • organizing your data into tables, charts and
    graphs.
  • doing calculations to learn more about your
    results.

31
Math Break
  • Finding the average of a group of numbers is one
    way to analyze data.
  • Dr. Brown found that 3 seeds kept at 25C
    sprouted in 8, 8, and 5 days.
  • To find the average number of days that it took
    the seeds to sprout, she added 8,8, and 5 and
    divided their sum by, the number of subjects
    (seeds) in the group.
  • She found the average number of days to sprout at
    25C was 7 days.

32
Math Break Self Check
  • Dr. Brown also found that 3 seeds kept at 30C
    sprouted in 6,5, and 4 days.
  • Whats the average number of days that it took
    these seeds to sprout.

33
Draw conclusions from the results
  • When drawing conclusions, scientist have to
    decide whether the results of the experiment have
    shown that a prediction was correct or incorrect.
  • When scientist find that a hypothesis is not
    supported by the tests
  • they must try to find another explanation for
    what they have observed.
  • they realize that they have eliminated one
    possible factor.

34
What to do with a wrong hypothesis?
  • If a tested hypothesis does not produce the
    expected results,
  • don't trash the resultsit might lead to another
    discovery.
  • Proving that a hypothesis is wrong is just as
    helpful as supporting it.
  • Because either way, the scientist has learned
    something.

35
Communicate results to other scientist in
writing and in presentations
  • After concluding that your tests support your
    hypothesis, you should publish the results
  • so that other scientists can learn from you.
  • so that other scientists may repeat the
    experiments to see if they get the same results.

36
Scientific Knowledge Changes
  • Scientists continue to discover new information
    all the time.
  • Each time a prediction is proven true, a
    hypothesis gains more support.
  • A theory is a unifying explanation for a broad
    range of hypotheses and observations that have
    been supported by testing.

37
1.3 Tools of Life Scientists
  • Tools for seeing
  • Computers
  • Systems of Measurement
  • Safety Rules

38
Tools for Seeing
  • Magnifying tools enables scientists to observe
    smaller details
  • Compound Light Microscope
  • Compound because it has two lenses an ocular lens
    and an objective lens.
  • Uses light to illuminate
  • Electron microscope
  • Uses tiny particle called electrons to either
    bounce off or penetrate a non-living sample.
    Very high magnification.

39
Chapter 1 Tools
  • There are two types of microscopes that we will
    discuss
  • Compound light microscopes - uses light and two
    lenses
  • Electron microscopes - have better resolution
    than compound light microscopes and uses an
    electron beam.

40
Microscopy Vocabulary
  • Resolution the ability to clearly distinguish
    the individual parts of an object
  • Magnification the enlargement of a structure by
    means of bending the light that passes through
    lenses in the case of a light microscope or a
    beam of electrons in case of an electron
    microscope

41
Lenses
middle
  • Convex lens the ______ of the lens is thicker
    than the __________.
  • Concave lens the ______ of the lens is thicker
    than the __________.

edge
edge
middle
42
Other Seeing Tools
  • X-rays, Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and
    Computed Tomography (CT)
  • High energy photons pass through a sample and an
    image is created.
  • Computers
  • First built in 1946 sixty years ago
  • Not commercially available until 1980s.
  • Allow complex calculations and graphic
    representation of data used to decide whether
    differences in experimental data are important.

43
Systems of Measurement
  • The International System of Units, universally
    abbreviated SI (from the French Le Système
    International d'Unités), is the modern metric
    system of measurement.
  • Developed by the French Academy of Sciences in
    the late 1700s.
  • A system of measurement based on the number 10.

44
  • Scientists use the International System of Units
    because it
  • makes sharing results among scientists easier.
  • contains units that are based on the number 10.
  • standardizes a method of recording observations.

45
Common SI Units
  • Length meter
  • Volume cubic meter m3
  • Area square meter m2
  • Mass gram
  • Temperature degrees Celsius C

46
SI prefixes
  • King kilo - 1000
  • Henry hecto - 100
  • Died deko - 10
  • Drinking deci 1/10 0.1
  • Chocolate centi 1/100 0.01
  • Milk milli -1/1000 10-3 0.001
  • Even smaller
  • Micro 10-6 0.0000001
  • Nano 10-9 0.000000001

47
Safety Rules
  • Safety First is the motto.
  • Having experiments in class requires good
    behavior and good attention.
  • Always follow your teachers instruction
  • Dont take shortcuts
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