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The Nature of Science

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The Nature of Science Chapter 1 Science is built up with facts, as a house is with stones. But a collection of facts is no more a science than a heap of stones is ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Nature of Science


1
The Nature of Science
  • Chapter 1

2
Science is built up with facts, as a house is
with stones. But a collection of facts is no
more a science than a heap of stones is a house.
-Jules Henri Poincare
3
Science
  • Scientia Latin for to know
  • Science may seem like it is a series of facts, or
    ways to explain the universe. HOWEVER, the basis
    of all science is not the answers

4
  • The basis of all science is the
  • questions.

5
Goal of science
  • The goal of science is to understand the world
    around us and the relationships among the
    players. Art, history, language, music, and
    philosophy also try to do this.

6
  • The difference is the approach
  • used to understand the
  • relationships.

7
Scientific Method
  • The process (or system) of questions, tests,
    observations, deductions, and conclusions.

8
  • Few true scientists rigidly adhere to this system
    in an orderly manner. In other words, there is
    no set pattern to this process.

9
  • Identify the problem
  • Gather information
  • Develop a hypothesis through reasoned inductive
    or deductive thought
  • Experiment
  • Collect data
  • Draw a conclusion
  • Verify and report results

10
Scientific Method
  • Regardless, scientists all share 3
    characteristics
  • 1)They have confidence that the natural world is
    explainable in terms we can understand

11
  • 2)Descriptions and explanations of the world are
    based on repeated observations that can be
    changed, or thrown out, by other observations.
  • 3)Willingness to accept the fact that they could
    be wrong.

12
Limitations of scientific inquiry
  • Because science is limited to objective
    (unbiased), observable, measurable phenomena it
    cannot make moral or value judgments.

13
  • For example, science gave
  • us the atomic bomb, but
  • science cannot tell us
  • whether or not it
  • is right or moral to use it.

14
  • Science cannot say whether
  • a painting is beautiful, but it
  • can analyze peoples
  • responses to a painting.

15
  • Science is progressive, self-correcting,
  • replicating,competitive and
  • cooperative.

16
Types of Science
  • Physical science chemistry , physics, geology
  • Natural Sciences biology, physiology, anatomy
  • Social sciences psychology, sociology

17
Ways to do science
  • Pure science science for the sake of knowledge
  • Ex learning how plants use sunlight to make
    glucose

18
  • Applied science science that uses the knowledge
    gained in pure science
    Ex using knowledge about photosynthesis to
    develop plants that make large amounts of glucose
    using very little sun.

19
Biology
  • Bio life ology study of
  • There is a need to study biology because we need
    to study the relationships within, and between
    living systems in order to understand them

20
Themes in Biology
  • Energy
  • System and interactions
  • Unity within diversity
  • Homeostasis
  • Evolution
  • Science as a process

21
Hypothesis vs. Theory
  • Hypothesis an
  • educated guess about
  • what is likely to occur
  • in an experiment
  • Ex. If I add bleach to this bacterial culture,
    then the bacteria will die because bleach is
    known to kill most cells

22
Hypothesis vs. Theory
  • Theory a hypothesis that is repeatedly tested
    and is unlikely to be disproved
  • Ex. Germ Theory of Disease has been shown that
    germs cause many types of diseases

23
Characteristics of Life
  • Cells are basic units all living organisms are
    made up of 1 or many cells
  • Response to stimuli all
  • living organisms respond
  • and adapt to the stimuli that is presented to
    them in their environment

24
Characteristics of Life
  • Growth and development all living organisms
    grow and develop throughout their lifespan
  • Reproduction all living organisms must have the
    capability to reproduce in order to carry on
    their species but, not every individual within a
    species must reproduce

25
Characteristics of Life
  • Homeostasis all living organisms must maintain
    constant internal balance
  • -ex. Constant body temperature in mammals
  • Need for energy all living organisms require
    energy to survive

26
Characteristics of Life
  • Made up of a genetic code - DNA
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