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Chapter 2: Nature of Science

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Chapter 2: Nature of Science Chapter 2.1 The Scientist s Mind 3 Scientists, 3 Individuals Carl Sagan a noted astronomer popularized science through books ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 2: Nature of Science


1
Chapter 2 Nature of Science
2
Chapter 2.1
3
The Scientists Mind
4
3 Scientists, 3 Individuals
  • Carl Sagan a noted astronomer popularized
    science through books and TV.
  • Enriqueta Barrera became interested in local
    geology while taking walks. Now the director of
    Geology at National Science Foundation
  • Evan Forde 1st African American in the Alvin
    (submersible sub.)
  • All 3 scientists became Earth Scientists due to
    curiosity

5
Different lives common Goals
  • Scientists will teach research in labs or out in
    nature, on or in oceans.
  • Scientists look at the world in both logic and
    curiosity.

6
Qualities of Scientific Thinking
  • Scientists are observant they make predictions
    based on evidence (materials or data that can be
    measured and tested to verify a prediction)
  • Hypothesis a tentative explanation for an
    observation of phenomenon

7
  • Must be skeptical they question long-held
    assumptions and try to prove or disprove ideas
  • Technology is the practical application of
    science to meet human needs.
  • The object of scientific study is to understand
    the natural world.

8
Chapter 2.2
9
Scientific Methods of Inquiry
  • Creativity plays a large role in science along
    with logic
  • Being able to test ideas with experiments is the
    key to much of science

10
How scientists approach questions
  • Scientific Inquiry - which involves observing,
    asking questions, forming a hypothesis, gathering
    data testing the hypothesis, and sharing what has
    been learned

11
Peer Review and Scientific Journals
  • After the experiment the new knowledge needs to
    be shared with and tested by other scientists
  • To share the knowledge Scientific Journals are
    used
  • If the experts agree the paper has merit, it my
    be published
  • If the experts feel the scientist has not done
    enough to prove her point it is not published and
    sent back with suggestions

12
Importance of testing Ideas
  • Some advances that look promising fall short when
    tested
  • E.g. cold fusion HH He

13
Scientific Theories and Laws
  • Theory is an explanation of observable events or
    facts for which no exception has been found
  • Theories rise and fall from favor and new
    information comes to light.
  • Scientific law a re generalizations about how
    the natural world behaves under certain
    conditions
  • No exceptions have ever been found

14
Chapter 2.3
15
Scientists Tools
16
Geology
  • Rock hammer used to collect specimens in the
    field
  • Soil augers pulls up a sample of soil
  • Crushers to pulverize materials to study
  • Range finders distance
  • Seismographs to determine composition of rock
    below ground

17
Tools to study Sky and Stars
  • Meteorologist
  • Thermometers
  • Arco vane wind speed and direction
  • Radar and satellites
  • Astronomer
  • Telescopes - light, radio, x-rays, infrared

18
Tools with many uses
  • Computers and satellites have revolutionized
    earth science
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