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Leadership Styles Leadership and Management Managers occupy


Leadership Styles Leadership and Management Managers occupy a role in an organization that performs at least one of the management functions: Planning Organizing ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Leadership Styles Leadership and Management Managers occupy

Leadership Styles
Leadership and Management
  • Managers occupy a role in an organization that
    performs at least one of the management
  • Planning
  • Organizing
  • Leading
  • Controlling
  • A leader is anyone who is able to influence

Leadership and Management
  • Most good managers are also good leaders.
  • It is possible to be a manager and not a leader.
  • It is also possible to be a leader and not a

Leadership Styles
  • There are two basic leadership styles
  • Autocratic leader
  • All decision making must be retained by the
    leader because employees are either unwilling or
    unable to make reasonable decisions.
  • This can be an effective management style but it
    can lead to low morale and malicious obedience
    (passive aggressive behavior).
  • Sometimes called Theory X.

Leadership Styles
  • Democratic leadership
  • Believe that authority should be delegated.
  • Employees are both willing and able to make
    reasonable decisions.
  • Democratic leadership is not a panacea.
  • Can lead to greater employee satisfaction but not
    necessarily greater employee productivity.
  • Can also have unexpected consequences.
  • Sometimes called Theory Y.

Leadership Continuum
  • There are actually four types of leadership
  • Directive autocratic
  • Subordinates are allowed no discretion in
    decision making or in carrying them out.
  • Permissive autocratic
  • Subordinates are allowed no discretion in
    decision making but considerable discretion in
    carrying out decisions.

Leadership Continuum
  • Directive Democratic
  • Allows subordinates to participate in decisions
    but supervises them closely when they carry out
  • Permissive Democrat
  • Allows subordinates great discretion in making
    decisions and in carrying them out.

Japanese Management System
  • All the rage in the 1980s due to the fabulous
    performance of the Japanese economy since the end
    of World War II.
  • Stresses a number of unique elements
  • Lifelong employment with seniority the basis of
  • Temporary employees are typically women and act
    as a buffer to protect mens jobs.

Japanese Management Contd
  • Participative decision making everyone who will
    feel the impact is involved in the decision until
    a consensus is reached.
  • Management training emphasizes company loyalty
    and is oriented towards the group not the
    individual and is designed to emphasize team
  • Other characteristics include daily exercise ,
    pep talks, identical uniforms, no unions, non
    specific job classifications and company outings.

Japanese Management
  • Has become far less popular since the
    difficulties with the Japanese economy in the
  • Weaknesses such as an oversized middle management
    have become evident.
  • As Japanese culture has become influenced by the
    US workers have begun to express a desire for
    greater autonomy.
  • Japanese management is sometimes referred to as
    theory Z.

Leadership Theories
  • Two types of leadership theories have emerged
  • Universalist theory suggests there is one best
    theory that is applicable in all situations.
  • Contingency theory suggests that different
    leadership styles are required for different

Universalist Theory
  • The trait approach emphasizes certain universal
    traits amount effective leaders.
  • The leader behavior approach emphasizes the
    behavior of the leader rather than the traits
    which are more easily observable.

The Situational Leadership Approach
  • Different situations dictate a different style of
  • Employees with a low level of development are
    best managed with a highly directive style.
  • Employees also tend to be very enthusiastic which
    also suggests the leader does not have to be very

Situational Leadership
  • When employees with limited skill levels are
    presented with a new task requires not only a
    directive approach but also a supportive one.
  • When employees have high skill level but low
    motivation a high supportive but less directive
    approach is called for.
  • When employees have a high skill level and high
    motivation little support or direction is needed.

Situational Leadership
High Directive High Supportive S2
High supportive Low directive S3
Supportive Behavior
High Directive Low Supportive S1
Low Supportive Low Directive S4
Directive Behavior
Impact of Technology on Management
  • Technology has frequently been embraced as a
    means of increasing productivity.
  • Also critical is the impact on employee morale.
  • Some employees feel isolated by the increase in
  • Employees do not talk face to face but email each
  • Employees leave voice mail rather than meeting
    face to face.
  • Projects are planned, organized and executed
    without collaborators ever meeting with each

Impact of Technology on Management
  • Other employees embrace enthusiastically the
    ability of technology to make them more
  • Technology allows for fewer employees performing
    low skill tasks and focuses on employees ability
    to perform analytical and other high level tasks.
  • Technology also can provide far greater flexible
    work environment.

Impact of Technology on Management
  • Technology also poses unique challenges to
  • When dealing with employees who require a highly
    directive environment technology may be able to
    provide some of the direction.
  • This is only true if the technology is well

Impact of Technology on Management
  • Poorly structured technology or instructions can
    frustrate and alienate employees especially those
    who require a highly directive environment. (S2)
  • Employees requiring less direction but motivation
    can be even more alienated by poorly performing
    technology (S3)

Impact of Technology on Management
  • Poorly performing technology requires quick
    attention by management to resolve any problems.
  • When technology performs well managers have at
    times embraced solutions which maximize the use
    of technology for the sake of efficiency.

Impact of Technology on Management
  • Some extreme elements of these solutions are
  • Telecommuting
  • Hotelling
  • Virtual office
  • These solutions like leadership style need to be
    tailored to the situation.

Impact of Technology on Management
  • Employees with a high level of training and high
    motivation (S4) would likely flourish in
    environments where flexible work and work hours
    can be implemented.
  • However, employees with low skill levels (S1)
    requiring a highly directive environment would
    likely perform poorly.

Impact of Technology on Management
  • Also need to also evaluate the impact of other
    work factors such as the social environment and
    team spirit.
  • Employee loyalty and espri de corps could be
    unexpected casualties to a highly decentralized
    work environment.
  • Managers also have expressed concern on the
    ability to monitor worker productivity.

Impact of Technology on Management
  • To address management concerns over productivity
    technology has been employed as a monitoring
  • A highly decentralized environment tends to focus
    on performance measures which are quantitative.
  • Overemphasis on quantitative measures which may
    have flaws can also sacrifice employee morale so
    they need to be chosen carefully.
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