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Leadership Behavior and Management Styles

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Leadership Behavior and Management Styles * Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC * Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC * * Leadership: part of every nurses role; process of guiding ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Leadership Behavior and Management Styles


1
Leadership Behavior and Management Styles
2
Leadership vs Management
  • There is only one manager, but anyone can be a
    leader if they act on their good ideas!
  • Leadership
  • Influence based to reach a goal
  • Informal designation independent of
  • management
  • Achieved positions special skills
  • Examples!

3
Leadership vs Management
  • Management
  • Authority based appointed
  • Formally designated
  • Assigned position
  • Replaced if poor manager good leadership skills
    help!

4
Leadership Theories
  • Hegel
  • 1800s
  • Leaders must serve as followers
  • Great Man/Trait
  • Earliest theories
  • I was born to lead!
  • Have innate characteristics
  • Not accepted today (Great Man theory
  • Trait/attribute-from Great Man
  • Personal leadership characteristics
  • looks, walks, talks like a leader
  • Limited
  • Does not consider situation
  • Does not consider follower

5
Leadership Theories cont
  • Behavioral Theories
  • Aka Humanist approach
  • Emerged in 1940s 50s
  • Looked at behaviors leaders engaged in
  • Applied to nursing
  • Identifies the relationship between the work
    environment and positive patient outcomes

6
Leadership Theory
  • Situational
  • Varies with situation
  • considers structure, atmosphere and leaders
    characteristics
  • Contingency
  • Different situation require different leadership
    types
  • Keys to the above theories
  • Effective leadership style depends upon the
    situation what is successful in one situation,
    may not be effective in the next!
  • Model that predicts which leadership style most
    effective in situations. Based on followers
    maturity Involves telling, selling, participating
    and delegating!
  • By Hersey and Blanchard
  • Path-goal looks at supervision more than decision
    making
  • Minimizes goal obstruction rewards followers
    focuses on goal achievement

7
Leadership Theory cont.
  • Process theories- as they relate to group
    interaction
  • Transactional/Transformational
  • Motivates followers to full potential
  • Influence perceptions
  • Foster a sense of direction!
  • What is focus of transformational leader?
  • Relational
  • Accomplish a common goal
  • Servant
  • Dedicates lives to serving others
  • Social Change
  • Work toward common goal, improving quality of
    life for all
  • shift from task- oriented to a relationship
    oriented focus

8
Women and Leadership
  • Historical perspective
  • Stereotyping-women less competent than men
  • Nursing
  • A predominately female-oriented profession
  • Leadership roles encounter challenges

9
Leadership and Cultures
  • Culture influences leadership
  • Legal mandates, affirmative action, civil rights
    regulations, and social pressure
  • Minorities in leadership roles- improving but
    still has a ways to go.

10
What leadership qualities do you possess??
Use the next slide to consider your own
attributes as a leader/manager!
11
Leadership Qualities and Behaviors
  • Integrity Think critically
  • Courage Solve problems
  • Initiative Respect person
  • Energy Listen
  • Optimism Skillful Communication
  • Perseverance Set goals
  • Balance Envision future
  • Ability to handle stress Develop oneself
  • Self-awareness Coach others

12
Leadership Styles and Effective Management
(Pattern of Behavior)
  • Leadership styles
  • Authoritarian (military)
  • Strong control, directive
  • Downward and task directed
  • Democratic
  • Subordinates involved in decision-making
  • Lengthy process, communications flow up and down
  • Laissez-Faire or Permissive
  • Little or no direction
  • Maximum freedom for individuals-delegating
    approach
  • Multicratic- Combines best of all
  • Adapt the leadership style needed for particular
    situation!!

13
Consider Ann is a nurse manager for a 26 bed
ICU. She is people and relationship oriented.
Ann promotes and facilitates group discussion and
decision making. Teamwork is the focus for any
project and she provides the necessary resources.
She wants everyone to have a role on the unit
and input into decisions.
  • What leadership style is exhibited?
  • Is this style effective in all situations?
  • What leadership style do you prefer?

Democratic
No, not in situations where immediate action
needed.
14
Power and Leadership/Management Styles
  • Powerwhat is it??
  • Influence of others through persuasion or
    coercion
  • Non-static ever changing
  • Power sources legitimate (authority)
  • Referent (symbol of leader)
  • Reward (favor granting)
  • Coercive (punishment)
  • Expert (special knowledge) Nurisng!!!

15
Power and Leadership/Management Styles
  • Poweranswer these questions!
  • The nurse who can accurately interpret an ECG has
    ____ power.
  • The nurse manager who can write a letter of
    commendation about your performance in the unit
    newsletter has ____ power.
  • Your nurse manager has authority to grant you a
    salary increase this manager has ______ power.

16
Power and Leadership/Management Styles
  • Power
  • The nurse who can accurately interpret an ECG has
    EXPERT power.
  • The nurse manager who can write a letter of
    commendation about your performance in the unit
    newsletter has REWARD power.
  • Your nurse manager has authority to grant you a
    salary increase this manager has LEGITIMATE
    power. (reward)

17
  • Give an example in which coercive power
    (punishment) might be appropriately used in the
    nursing profession.

Refer to texta nurse who is abusing drugs faces
loss of license, job, salarypatient safety is
priority!
Referent powerhow might referent power influence
your career as a nurse?
Textan exampleas a nurse you carefully follow
directions of your assigned department headthat
individual possess symbol of power!
18
Power and Leadership/Management Styles
  • Empowerment
  • Share power with others enables them to act
    transformational leadership
  • Delegates much authority for decision- making
  • Encourages others to excel!

19
Three Factors of Empowerment
  • Direction sufficient instructions to give
    confidence
  • Challenge an element of stretch that will bring
    out creativity and satisfaction on completion
  • Autonomy/support confidence that there is
    further help and direction available if needed

20
Reasons to Empower
  • Work output increases
  • Nursing better care for more patients
  • Places decision making in the hands of those
    individuals closest to the situation
  • Nursing decisions tend to be safer and better
    fitted to the needs of a particular patient or
    patient care situation
  • A more enthusiastic, satisfied, and healthy group
    of workers
  • Nursing reducing employee turnover

21
Question
  • A unit with what type of leadership enables
    empowerment of staff?
  • A. Situational leadership
  • B. Great man leadership
  • C. Transformational leadership
  • D. Trait leadership

22
Answer
  • C. Transformational leadership
  • Rationale many hospital units operate in some
    type of transformational leadership that involves
    individuals other than the manager in decision
    making and supports democratic leadership.

23
The Reciprocal Role
  • Two parties to any leadership situation
  • We all begin our careers in a follower-type
    position
  • Role of the follower
  • Being a good follower

24
The Effective Follower!
  • What is the effective follower?
  • Perceives the relationship between institutional
    goals and personal goals
  • Views leader as working toward both
  • Need to be both a leader and a follower
    (interchangeable!)

25
Qualities of a Good Follower! (Important as a
GN) Know these characteristics!
  • Invest self in the organization and its goals
  • Know your responsibilities as a follower
  • Job description
  • Report to whom?
  • Evaluated by whom?
  • Identify your expectations of the leader.
  • Support your leader and the group
  • Stimulate leader and the group!
  • Follow channels of communication

26
Developing Your Leadership Role and Skills!
  • Evaluate your own leadership qualities!
  • (Leadership exercises)
  • Strengths
  • Weaknesses

27
Developing Your Leadership Role and Skills!
  • Evaluate your own leadership qualities!
  • Ways to enhance your own personal power
  • Increase Knowledge and competence
  • Flexibility
  • Self-confidence, decisiveness and integrity
  • Walk, talk, and look poised and confident
  • Alliances
  • Develop personal physical resources- healthy
    living

28
Assessing Your Own Effectiveness as a Leader
  • Self-assessment
  • Environmental assessment
  • Identifying role models
  • Trying out leadership styles
  • Evaluating effectiveness

29
Test Your Understanding
  • Which leadership style is considered people
    oriented?
  • Laissez-faire
  • Authoritarian
  • Coercive
  • Democratic
  • A nurse with the responsibility of deciding the
    number of staff member will be assigned to a unit
    has what kind of power?
  • Legitimate
  • Reward
  • Coercive
  • Referent
  • Which method is BEST to assess ones
    effectiveness as a leader?
  • Review amount of formal education
  • Ask opinion from friend
  • Wait for input from others
  • Review personal interactions

30
Test Your Understanding!
  • Which description characterizes the path-goal
    theory of leadership?
  • Identifies common traits exhibited by leaders
  • Reflects four behaviors telling, selling,
    participating, and delegating
  • Minimizes goal obstruction and reward followers
  • Born with leadership qualities
  • Which of the following factors MOST affects ones
    effectiveness as a manager?
  • Number of people managed
  • Salary received
  • Status within organization
  • Leadership style

31
Test Your Understanding!
  • Which leadership style is considered people
    oriented?
  • Laissez-faire
  • Authoritarian
  • Coercive
  • Democratic
  • A nurse with the responsibility of deciding the
    number of staff member will be assigned to a unit
    has what kind of power?
  • Legitimate
  • Reward
  • Coercive
  • Referent
  • Which method is BEST assess ones effectiveness
    as a leader?
  • Review amount of formal education
  • Ask opinion from friend
  • Wait for input from others
  • Review personal interactions
  1. Which of the following factors MOST affects ones
    effectiveness as a manager?
  2. Number of people managed
  3. Salary received
  4. Status within organization
  5. Leadership style
  6. Which description characterizes the path-goal
    theory of leadership?
  7. Identifies common traits exhibited by leaders
  8. Reflects four behaviors telling, selling,
    participating, and delegating
  9. Minimizes goal obstruction and reward followers
  10. Born with leadership qualities

32
The End
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