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Chapter 8 Personality, Lifestyle, and Self-Concept

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Title: Chapter 8 Personality, Lifestyle, and Self-Concept


1
Chapter 8
Personality, Lifestyle, and Self-Concept
  • Personality, Lifestyle,
  • and Self-Concept

2
What Is Personality?
  • The sum total
  • of an individuals
  • inner psychological attributes

3
What Is Personality?
  • What characterizes personality?
  • Personality is
  • unique.
  • Consistent
  • across diverse circumstances.
  • not static.

4
3 Personality Theories
  • Freudian theory
  • Neo-Freudian theory
  • Trait theory

5
Freudian Psychoanalytic Personality Theory
  • Strong emphasis on
  • biological sexual motivation
  • Personality develops
  • as we progress through
  • a sequence of psychosexual stages
  • during infancy.

6
Freudian Psychoanalytic Personality Theory
  • Personality interaction conflict between
  • The Id
  • pleasure principle
  • The Superego
  • social, moral, ethical inhibitions
  • The Ego
  • mediator between ids impulses superegos
    restrictions

7
Freudian Psychoanalytic Personality Theory
(contd)
  • Anxiety plays a major role in personality
    development.
  • Freud discerned 3 types of anxiety
  • Reality anxiety fear of tangible danger
  • Neurotic anxiety fear of punishment for
    instinctual gratification
  • Moral anxiety fear of our own conscience

8
Freudian Theory Anxiety - Personality
  • 3 types of anxiety
  • Reality anxiety
  • fear of tangible danger
  • Neurotic anxiety
  • fear of punishment for instinctual gratification
  • Moral anxiety
  • fear of our own conscience

9
Freudian Theory Defense Mechanisms
  • to overcome anxiety,
  • Repression
  • Rationalization
  • Regression
  • Projection
  • Aggression
  • Withdrawal

10
3 Marketing Applications of Freudian Theory
  • Ads frequently address the id
  • by emphasizing the pleasure and self-indulgent
    aspects
  • of product or service offerings.

11
3 Marketing Applications of Freudian Theory
  • Promotions address the ego
  • via free offers
  • as well as by employing
  • leisure, freedom, escape, and fantasy appeals.

12
3 Marketing Applications of Freudian Theory
  • Promotional appeals address the superego
  • by emphasizing
  • social amenities,
  • ethics,
  • tradition.

13
Neo-Freudian Personality theory
14
Neo-Freudian Personality Theory
  • Social variables
  • rather than biological instincts
  • underlie personality formation

15
Neo-Freudian Personality Theory
  • 4 theories of Freuds disciples
  • Adler
  • overcoming real perceived inferiorities
  • pursuit of superiority perfection
  • Horney
  • dealing with anxiety

16
Neo-Freudian Personality Theory
  • 4 theories of Freuds disciples
  • Fromm
  • escape from loneliness
  • seeking meaningful relationships
  • Sullivan
  • interpersonal relationships

17
Marketing Applications of Neo-Freudian Theory
  • Ads emphasize
  • social relationships human interaction.
  • Promotional appeals
  • depict warm interaction
  • between individuals
  • in a social or a family setting.

18
Marketing Applications of Neo-Freudian Theory
  • Appeals may also emphasize the
  • role of products
  • as enhancers of
  • positive interpersonal relationships
  • with others or
  • protectors
  • against offending others.

19
Marketing Applications of Neo-Freudian Theory
  • Cohens C-A-D scale
  • a paradigm to classify people
  • based on their degree of
  • compliance,
  • aggression,
  • detachment

20
Trait theory
21
Trait Theory of Personality
  • Classifies people by
  • dominant characteristics or
  • identifiable traits
  • Measuring personality traits
  • Standard clinical personality tests
  • tailor-made test
  • modified tests

22
Trait Theory Assumptions
  • Traits are
  • identifiable limited in number.
  • relatively stable.
  • measured via behavioral indicators.
  • People with similar traits behave similarly.

23
Trait Theory of Personality (contd)
  • Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
  • measures traits by employing 4 scales
  • Extroversion/introversion
  • Sensate/Intuitive
  • Thinking/feeling
  • Judging/perceiving

24
Trait Theory of Personality (contd)
  • Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
  • results in 16 personality types,
  • representing a persons
  • behavioral tendencies
  • on the 4 traits.

25
Marketing Applications of Trait Theory
  • Marketers search for correlations
  • between sets of
  • specific personality traits
  • and consumer behavior patterns.

26
Marketing Applications of Trait Theory
  • Correlations occur in the form of
  • one or more personality traits
  • and such specific tendencies as
  • product purchase,
  • brand choice,
  • retail store selection,
  • media habits.

27
Psycho-graphics
28
Psychographics
  • The objective is to assess
  • consumers lifestyles
  • so that meaningful
  • consumer typologies
  • can be identified.

29
Psychographics
  • Profiles can be obtained through
  • AIO Inventories
  • activities,
  • interests,
  • opinions

30
Marketing Applications of Psychographics
  • VALS defines 8 market segments
  • each has a unique combination of
  • psychological attributes
  • demographic attributes.
  • www.sric-bi.com

31
Marketing Applications of Psychographics
  • VALS segments the market re
  • primary motivations
  • resources/innovation.

32
Marketing Applications of Psychographics
  • Primary motivations
  • ideals,
  • achievements,
  • self-expression.

33
Marketing Applications of Psychographics
  • Resources range from
  • minimal to abundant

34
Marketing Applications of Psychographics
  • Resources
  • covers individuals
  • psychological,
  • physical,
  • demographic,
  • material means.

35
VALS Consumer Categories
Self-Orientation
36
Marketing Applications of VALS
  • VALS helps marketers
  • Identify and select
  • target markets
  • Develop effective media plans
  • to reach specific target markets

37
Marketing Applications of VALS
  • VALS helps marketers
  • Create ads and appeals
  • that match the attributes
  • of desirable target segments

38
SELF CONCEPT
39
The Self-Concept
  • The sum total
  • of our beliefs and feelings
  • about our self

40
The Self-Concept
  • 5 original concepts of self
  • real-self,
  • ideal self,
  • self-image,
  • apparent-self,
  • reference-group self

41
The Self-Concept
  • Other concepts of self
  • Extended-self
  • Possible-self

42
Measuring the Self-Concept
  • The Q-Sort technique
  • gives respondents a number of cards
  • (60-120),
  • self-describing statement
  • or situation
  • For respondent to evaluate.

43
Measuring the Self-Concept Q-Sort
  • Card are sorted
  • into a number of piles
  • reflecting their assessment of
  • how well each statement
  • matches or differs from
  • their own self perception.

44
Self Concept and Social Roles
  • At different times,
  • we assume diverse social roles
  • spouse,
  • parent,
  • employer,
  • or student.

45
Self Concept and Social Roles
  • While in a specific role,
  • we are often concerned about
  • the impression we make
  • on others.

46
Self-Concept Consumption
  • We purchase products
  • that match our
  • personality and
  • self concept.

47
Self-Concept Consumption
  • Products we own or use
  • serve as social symbols
  • designed to communicate
  • to others
  • who we are.

48
Self-Concept Consumption
  • Self-product congruence
  • We tend to select and use products
  • that match
  • aspects of self.

49
Stability of the Self-Concept
  • Even though self concept
  • is relatively stable,
  • it is not static.
  • Does not stay same always
  • New experiences
  • can change our self concept.

50
Stability of the Self-Concept
  • Symbolic self-completion
  • We tend to complement self
  • by displaying symbols
  • associated with our identity.

51
Snapshot from the Marketplace
  • Body image is an inseparable component of our
    self concept.
  • An ideal of beauty varies cross-culturally and
    over time.

52
Snapshot from the Marketplace
  • Since we compare ourselves
  • to idealized images depicted in ads,
  • marketers use such a tactic
  • to create sufficient temporary dissatisfaction
  • to motivate us to act.

53
THE END
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