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CHAPTER ONE Studying Adult Development and Aging

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Title: Adulthood and Aging Author: Neil C. Davis Last modified by: Owner Created Date: 1/9/2003 9:44:11 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CHAPTER ONE Studying Adult Development and Aging


1
CHAPTER ONE Studying Adult Development and Aging
2
Perspectives on Adult Development and Aging
  • Gerontology The study of aging from maturity
    through old age
  • AGEISM, a form of discrimination against older
    adults based on their age.
  • What are some of the myths and stereotypes about
    aging?
  • Do you have any erroneous beliefs about aging?
  • Do you harbor any stereotypes about older people?

3
  • Ageism Survey

4
Aging Stereotypes
Perspectives on Adult Development and Aging
  • Stereotype 1 Physical
  • Most people over 65 are physically impaired.
    Large percentages live in nursing homes.
  • Stereotype 2 Cognitive
  • People over 65 are unable to think clearly,
    remember well, or learn new things. A large
    percentage is senile.

5
Aging Stereotypes, (cont.)
Perspectives on Adult Development and Aging
  • Stereotype 3 Emotional
  • People over 65 are unhappy, fearful, and
    depressed. Psychological problems are rampant in
    old age.
  • Stereotype 4 Social
  • People over 65 are isolated, alone, and
    disconnected from family and friends. Poverty is
    endemic in the later years.

6
Aging Stereotypes, (cont.)
Perspectives on Adult Development and Aging
  • Number 1. Physical
  • Large percentage live in nursing homes.
  • Fact Although most older adults do suffer from
    at least one chronic disease, the vast majority
    report no impairments in their ability to
    function. Only 5 of older Americans live in
    nursing homes.

7
Aging Stereotypes, (cont)
Perspectives on Adult Development and Aging
  • Number 2. Cognitive
  • People over 65 cant think clearly.
  • Fact Although losses in thinking, speed, and
    memory do occur with age, the vast majority of
    older adults are alert, mentally capable, and
    definitely able to learn. Only about 5-7 have
    Alzheimer's disease.

8
Aging Stereotypes, (cont)
Perspectives on Adult Development and Aging
  • Number 3. Emotional
  • People over 65 are unhappy.
  • Fact Anxiety, depression, and unhappiness are no
    more prevalent among the old than the young. In
    fact, rates of many emotional disorders are at
    their lowest ebb among people over 65.

9
Aging Stereotypes, (cont)
Perspectives on Adult Development and Aging
  • Number 4. Social
  • People over 65 are isolated.
  • Fact Older adults are typically in close contact
    with family, and even those over age 85 have at
    least one close friend. With 12 of older
    Americans living under the poverty line, compared
    to one-fourth of American children under age 6,
    dire poverty is twice as common at life's
    beginning than at its final stage.

10
The Life Span Perspective (LSP)
  • LSP views life from conception to death
  • LSP divides human development into two phases
  • 1. Early (childhood and adolescence)
  • 2. Later (young adulthood, middle age, and old
    age)

11
The Life Span Perspective
  • Paul Baltes (1987) identified FOUR key features
  • 1. Multidirectionality development involves
    both growth and decline
  • 2. Plasticity ones capabilities potential
    are not fixed

12
The Life Span Perspective
  • 3. Historical context development occurs within
    a certain set of historical circumstances
  • Cohort a group of people who share historical
    influences of a particular time
  • 4. Multiple causation
  • development is influenced by
  • biological, psychological,
  • sociocultural, and life-cycle
  • forces.

13
The Demographics of Aging Population Trends in
the United States
  • July 1, 2000

14
The Demographics of Aging Population Trends in
the United States
  • Projected to July 1, 2025

15
The Demographics of Aging Population Trends in
the United States
  • Projected to July 1, 2050

16
The Demographics of Aging Population Trends in
the United States
  • Projected to July 1, 2100

17
Biopsychosocial framework
  • Forces of development
  • Biological forces genetic
  • and health-related factors
  • Psychological forces internal perceptual,
    cognitive, emotional, and personality factors
  • Sociocultural forces interpersonal, societal,
    cultural, and ethnic factors
  • Life-cycle forces provide a context in which all
    the other forces may combine and interact

18
Interrelations between the Forces Developmental
Influences
  • Normative age-graded influences occur to most
    people at the same age

19
Interrelations between the Forces Developmental
Influences
  • Normative history-graded influences events that
    most people in a specific culture experience at
    the same time.

20
Interrelations between the Forces Developmental
Influences
  • Non-normative influences random/rare events that
    happen to an individual

21
Issues in Studying Adult Development and Aging
The Meaning of Age
  • Primary aging normal and disease-free
  • Secondary aging related to disease, lifestyle,
    and environmental factors
  • Tertiary aging rapid losses that occur shortly
    before death (cognition changes, etc.)

22
Issues in Studying Adult Development and Aging
Definitions of Age
  • Chronological age age in years since birth
  • Perceived age the age you think of yourself as
  • Biological age where one is in relation to
    possible life span
  • Psychological age Involves functioning levels
  • Sociocultural age refers to expected roles one
    has in relation to others

23
Issues in Studying Adult Development and Aging
Core Issues in Development
  • The nature-nurture issue Do genetics or
    environment shape the individual?
  • The stability-change issue Do people remain the
    same over time?
  • The continuity-discontinuity controversy Is
    development smooth or does it occur in abrupt
    shifts?
  • Plasticity capacity is not fixed and can be
    changed
  • The universal versus context-specific
    development controversy Is development the same
    for everyone all over the world?

24
Research Methods
  • Theory an organized system of assumptions and
    principles that tries to explain a certain set of
    phenomena and their interrelationships
  • Example Boys are rougher than girls

25
Research Methods
  • Hypothesis a statement that attempts to predict
    or account for a set of phenomena.
  • Example Toys that are played with by boys will
    show more signs of wear than toys that are played
    with by girls
  • Operational definition a precise definition of a
    term in a hypothesis

26
Collecting data
  • Research methods

27
Systematic Observation
  • Researchers carefully and systematically observe
    and record behavior without interfering with
    behavior
  • Naturalistic observation
  • Purpose is to observe how people or animals
    behave in their natural environments.
  • Laboratory (Structured) observation
  • Purpose is to observe how people or animals
    behave in a more controlled setting.

28
Descriptive methods
chapter 1
  • Methods that yield descriptions of behavior, but
    not necessarily causal explanations
  • Include
  • Observational studies
  • Case studies
  • Psychological tests
  • Self reports

29
Case studies
  • A detailed description of a particular individual
    being studied or treated, which may be used to
    formulate broader research hypotheses
  • Most commonly used by clinicians occasionally
    used by researchers

30
Self Reports Surveys
  • Questionnaires and interviews that ask people
    about experiences, attitudes, or opinions
  • Social desirability the tendency of
    participants to respond in a way they think is
    socially acceptable or desirable rather than how
    they truly feel or think

31
Correlational study
  • A descriptive study that looks for a consistent
    relationship between two phenomena
  • Correlation
  • A statistical measure of how strongly two
    variables are related to one another.
  • Correlational coefficients can range from -1.0 to
    1.0.

32
Direction of correlations
  • Positive correlations
  • An association between increases in one variable
    and increases in another, or decreases in one
    variable and decreases in the other.
  • Negative correlations
  • An association between increases in one variable
    and decreases in another.

33
Explaining correlations
  • Correlations show patterns, not causes.
  • Third variable effect Perhaps the phenomenon is
    caused by an unknown third variable

34
Experimental research
  • ? Allows psychologists to determine the cause of
    a behavior

35
  • and
  • ? ?

36
Experiment
  • A controlled test of a hypothesis in which the
    researcher manipulates one variable to discover
    its effect on another.

37
Variables of interest
  • Independent variables
  • Variables the experimenter manipulates
  • Dependent variables Variables the experimenter
    predicts will be affected by manipulations of the
    independent variable(s)

38
Violent cartoons
39
Nonviolent cartoons
40
Representative sample
  • A subgroup that accurately reflects the
    population about which the researcher wishes to
    draw conclusions

41
Experimental condition
  • Group that is exposed to the variable of interest

42
Control condition
  • In an experiment, a comparison condition in which
    subjects are not exposed to the same treatment as
    in the experimental condition.

43
Random assignment
  • Each individual participating in the study has
    the same probability as any other of being
    assigned to a given group.

44
Experimenter effects
  • Unintended changes in subjects behavior due to
    cues inadvertently given by the experimenter.
  • Strategies for preventing experimenter effects
    include single- and double-blind studies.

45
Placebo effect
  • Occurs when participant expectations, rather than
    the experimental treatment, produce the desired
    outcome.
  • Placebo an inactive substance or fake treatment.

46
Evaluating findings
47
Descriptive statistics
  • Statistical procedures that organize and
    summarize research data

48
Inferential statistics
  • Statistical procedures that allow researchers to
    draw inferences about how statistically
    meaningful a studys results are.
  • The most commonly used inferential statistics are
    significance tests.
  • Statistical tests that show how likely it is that
    a studys results occurred merely by chance

49
Integrating Findings from Different Studies
Research Methods
  • Meta-analysis
  • Powerful tool
  • Determines whether a finding generalizes across
    many studies that used different methods

50
Conducting Research Ethically
  • Minimize risks to research participants.
  • Describe the research to potential participants.
  • Avoid deception.
  • Results should be anonymous or confidential.

51
Research Methods
  • Reliability Consistency in findings
  • Validity Does research measure the phenomenon of
    interest?

52
Designs for Studying Development
Research Methods
  • Cross-sectional designs test or observe people
    of different ages at the same time
  • Longitudinal designs test or observe the same
    individuals repeatedly at different points in
    their lives
  • Sequential designs represent different
    combinations of cross-sectional or longitudinal
    studies
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