Chapter 3 Human Development - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Chapter 3 Human Development PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 3bab49-MTI0N



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Chapter 3 Human Development

Description:

Chapter 3 Human Development Developmental psychology: The study of progressive changes in behavior and abilities Developmental level: An individual s current state ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:1027
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 78
Provided by: learnRogu
Learn more at: http://learn.roguecc.edu
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Chapter 3 Human Development


1
Chapter 3 Human Development
2
(No Transcript)
3
  • Developmental psychology The study of
    progressive changes in behavior and abilities
  • Developmental level An individuals current
    state of physical, emotional, and intellectual
    development

4
Periods of Development
  • Prenatal- conception to birth
  • Infancy- shortly after birth until walking
    securely
  • Early Childhood- 15/18 months to age 6
  • Middle Childhood-ages 6 to 12
  • Adolescence- beginning of pubescence until full
    social maturity is reached
  • Young adulthood- ages 19 to 25
  • Adulthood- ages 26 to 40
  • Maturity- 41 plus
  • Senescence- varies per individual

5
Heredity
  • Heredity (nature) Genetic transmission of
    physical and psychological characteristics from
    parents to their children
  • DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) Molecular structure
    shaped like a double helix that contains coded
    genetic information

6
Genes
  • Specific areas on a strand of DNA that carry
    hereditary information
  • Dominant The genes feature will appear each
    time the gene is present
  • Recessive The genes feature will appear only if
    it is paired with another recessive gene
  • Still only 25 chance trait will be expressed
    (Figure 3.3, Page 80)

7
Fig. 3-3, p. 80
8
Fig. 3-1, p. 80
9
Fig. 3-2, p. 80
10
Prenatal Issues
  • Congenital problem A problem or defect that
    occurs during prenatal development birth
    defect (e.g., virus in the womb)
  • Genetic disorder Problem caused by inherited
    characteristics from parents (e.g., cystic
    fibrosis)

11
Teratogens (teh-RAT-un-jens)
  • Anything capable of directly causing birth
    defects (e.g., narcotics, radiation, cigarette
    smoke, lead, and cocaine)
  • Nonheritable (not inherited)

12
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
  • Caused by repeated heavy alcohol consumption
    during pregnancy
  • Infants
  • Have low birth weight, a small head, body
    defects, and facial malformations
  • Lack cupids bow, the bow-shaped portion of the
    upper lip (look in the mirror to see)

13
p. 82
14
Environments Deprivation and Enrichment
  • Environment (Nurture) All external conditions
    that affect a person, especially the effects of
    learning
  • Deprivation Lack of normal stimulation,
    nutrition, comfort, or love
  • Enrichment When an environment is deliberately
    made more complex and intellectually stimulating
    and emotionally supportive

15
Fig. 3-5, p. 84
16
Temperament
  • Temperament The inherited physical core of
    personality includes sensitivity, irritability,
    distractibility, and typical mood (Kagan, 2000)

17
Temperments of Newborn Babies
  • Based on research conducted by Chess Thomas,1986
  • - Easy children 40 relaxed and agreeable
  • - Difficult children 10 moody, intense, easily
    angered
  • - Slow-to-warm-up children 15 restrained,
  • unexpressive, shy
  • - Remaining children Do not fit into any
    specific category

18
Newborns (Neonates) and their Reflexes
All reflexes are automatic responses (i.e., they
come from nature, not nurture)
Grasping reflex If an object is placed in the
neonates palm, shell grasp it
automatically Rooting reflex Lightly touch the
infants cheek and hell turn toward the object
and attempt to nurse helps infant find bottle or
breast Sucking reflex Touch an object or nipple
to the infants mouth and shell make rhythmic
sucking movements Moro reflex If a babys
position is abruptly changed or if he is startled
by a loud noise, he will make a hugging motion
19
Breast Crawl
  • Instinctive movements newborns make to initiate
    breast feeding
  • Feet kick mothers abdomen
  • Hands
  • Crawl to breast and nurse

20
Fig. 3-6, p. 86
21
Fig. 3-8, p. 87
22
Maturation
  • Physical growth and development of the body,
    brain, and nervous system
  • Increased muscular control occurs in patterns
    order of maturation is almost universal
  • Cephalocaudal From head to toe
  • Proximodistal From center of the body to the
    extremities

23
Fig. 3-9, p. 88
24
Emotional Development
  • Basic emotions Anger, fear, joy appear to be
    unlearned
  • Social smile Smiling elicited by social stimuli
    like seeing a parents face
  • Affectional needs Emotional needs for love and
    affection Universal among humans

25
Social Development
  • Development of self-awareness, attachment to
    parents/caregivers, and relationships with other
    children/adults
  • Basically equates to awareness in relation to
    others

26
Attachment
  • Emotional attachment Close emotional bond that
    infants form with parents, caregivers, or others
  • Separation anxiety Crying and signs of fear when
    a child is left alone or is with a stranger
    generally appears around 8-12 months

27
Quality of Infant Attachment (Ainsworth)
  • Secure Stable and positive emotional bond
  • Insecure-avoidant Anxious emotional bond
    tendency to avoid reunion with parent or
    caregiver
  • Insecure-ambivalent Anxious emotional bond
    desire to be with parent or caregiver and some
    resistance to being reunited with mother

28
Jean Piaget and Cognitive Development
  • Piaget believed that all children passed through
    a set series of stages during their cognitive
    development like Freud, he was a stage theorist
  • Piaget and Vygotsky
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vIvl7x_8XX0wfeature
    related

29
Piaget Assimilation
  • Application of existing mental patterns to new
    situations new situation is assimilated to
    existing mental schemes

30
Piaget Accommodation
  • Existing ideas are changed to fit new
    requirements mental schemes are changed to
    accommodate new information
  • More advanced form of cognitive processing

31
Piagets Stages of Cognitive Development
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vue8y-JVhjS0feature
    PlayListpD040BA09E49C1E63index0

32
Four Stages of Piagetian Cognitive Development
33
The Sensorimotor Stage (0-2 Years)
  • All sensory input and motor responses are
    coordinated most intellectual development here
    is nonverbal
  • Object permanence Concept that objects still
    exist when they are out of sight

34
The Preoperational Stage (2-7 Years)
  • Children begin to use language and think
    symbolically, yet their thinking is still
    intuitive and egocentric
  • Intuitive thinking makes little use of reasoning
    and logic
  • Egocentric thinking Child is unable to
    accommodate viewpoints of others thoughts are
    self-centered

35
The Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 Years)
  • Children become able to use concepts of time,
    space, volume, and number BUT in ways that remain
    simplified and concrete, not abstract
  • Piagets Conservation Mass, weight, and volume
    of matter remain unchanged even when the shape or
    appearance of objects changes

36
The Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 Years)
  • Piagets Reversibility of Thought Relationships
    involving equality or identity can be reversed
  • If AB then BA

37
Fig. 3-16, p. 98
38
The Formal Operations Stage (11 Years and Up)
  • Thinking now includes abstract, theoretical, and
    hypothetical ideas
  • Abstract principles Concepts and examples
    removed from specific examples and concrete
    situations
  • Hypothetical possibilities Suppositions,
    guesses, or projections

39
Physical Changes Growth and Motor Development
From 6 to 12
  • Grow 2 3 inches and add 6 pounds a year
  • Increased large-muscle coordination
  • Better hand-eye coordination
  • Significant gains in fine motor control
  • Girls by age 12 94 of adult height attained
  • Boys by age 12 84 of adult height attained
  • Slightly more muscle mass in boys
  • Slightly more body fat in girls

40
Lev Vygotskys Sociocultural Theory
  • Childrens cognitive development is heavily
    influenced by sociocultural factors
  • Childrens thinking develops through dialogues
    with more capable people
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vhx84h-i3w8U

41
Zone of Proximal Development
  • Range of tasks a child cannot yet master alone
    even though they are close to having the
    necessary mental skills
  • they need guidance from a skilled partner in
    order to complete the task

42
Scaffolding
  • Framework or temporary support. Adults help
    children learn how to think by scaffolding, or
    supporting, their attempts to solve a problem or
    to discover principles
  • Scaffolding must be responsive to a childs needs

43
Contexts of Development
  • Critical period
  • Sensitive period
  • On-time events
  • When most members of a society experience events
    such as marriage
  • Off-time events
  • Atypical development
  • Mental retardation, psychopathology

44
Parenting Styles (Baumrind, 2005)
45
Effective Parenting
  • Take a moment to consider the components of
    effective parenting. What are these components?
    Discuss with your neighbor
  • Influence of parents on children
    http//searchcenter.intelecomonline.net/playClip.a
    spx?idHu7C0aAlSxaYaJAMNzL5306NzLM60wRPFcbmN-isHDN
    zL95298

46
Authoritarian Parents
  • Enforce rigid rules and demand strict obedience
    to authority
  • Children tend to be emotionally stiff and lacking
    in curiosity

47
Overly Permissive
  • Give little guidance
  • Allow too much freedom, or dont hold children
    accountable for their actions
  • Children tend to be dependent and immature and
    frequently misbehave

48
Authoritative
  • Provide firm and consistent guidance combined
    with love and affection
  • Children tend to be competent, self-controlled,
    independent, and assertive

49
Types of Child Discipline
  • Power assertion Using physical punishment or a
    show of force (e.g., removing toys or privileges)
  • Withdrawal of love Withholding affection
  • Management techniques Combine praise,
    recognition, approval, rules, and reasoning to
    encourage desirable behavior

50
Effective Parenting- Authoritative
  • Have stable rules of conduct (consistency)
  • Show mutual respect, love, encouragement, and
    shared enjoyment
  • Have effective communication
  • You-message Threats, name-calling, accusing,
    bossing, criticizing, or lecturing (avoid this)
  • I-message Tells children the effect their
    behavior had on you (use this)

51
Consequences
  • Natural consequences Effects that naturally
    follow a particular behavior intrinsic effects
  • Logical consequences Rational and reasonable
    effects defined by parents
  • Effective parenting should instruct child in
    natural and logical consequences

52
Lawrence Kohlberg and Moral Development
  • Moral development When we acquire values,
    beliefs, and thinking abilities that guide
    responsible behavior
  • Stage theorist, like Freud and Erikson
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vO7pQJ0ptjk0

53
Kohlbergs Three Levels of Moral Development
  • Preconventional moral reasoning Moral thinking
    based on consequences of ones actions
    (punishment, reward, exchange of favors) or
    choices
  • Conventional moral reasoning Reasoning based on
    a desire to please others or to follow accepted
    rules and values
  • Postconventional moral reasoning Follows
    self-chosen moral principles, not those supplied
    by outside authorities

54
Erik Eriksons Eight Stages of Psychosocial
Dilemmas
55
p. 107
56
Eriksons Stages of Psychosocial
Dilemna/Development
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vvapEpQmz86o

57
Life Events
  • Developmental tasks Any skill that must be
    mastered, or personal change that must take
    place, for optimal development (e.g., learning to
    read and adjusting to sexual maturity)
  • Psychosocial dilemma Conflict between personal
    impulses and the social world

58
Stage One Trust versus Mistrust (Birth1)
  • Children are completely dependent on others
  • Trust Established when babies given adequate
    warmth, touching, love, and physical care
  • Mistrust Caused by inadequate or unpredictable
    care and by cold, indifferent, and rejecting
    parents

59
Stage Two Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt (13)
  • Autonomy Doing things for themselves
  • Overprotective or ridiculing parents may cause
    children to doubt abilities and feel shameful
    about their actions

60
Stage Three Initiative versus Guilt (35)
  • Initiative Parents reinforce via giving children
    freedom to play, use imagination, and ask
    questions
  • Guilt May occur if parents criticize, prevent
    play, or discourage a childs questions

61
Stage Four Industry versus Inferiority (612)
  • Industry Occurs when child is praised for
    productive activities, such as painting and
    building
  • Inferiority Occurs if childs efforts are
    regarded as messy or inadequate

62
Theories of Social and Personality Development
from ages 6- 12
  • Freud
  • Challenge is to form emotional bonds with peers
    and move beyond sole bonds with parents formed
    earlier
  • Erikson
  • Industry versus Inferiority Stage
  • Develop a sense of competence
  • Willingness to work towards a goal
  • Failure leads to feelings of inferiority in
    school or social settings

63
Stage Five (Adolescence) Identity versus Role
Confusion
  • Identity For adolescents problems answering,
    Who am I?
  • Role Confusion Occurs when adolescents are
    unsure of where they are going and who they are

64
Psychoanalytic Perspectives Erickson Identity
versus Role Confusion Stage
  • Identity is a sense of self-continuity
  • Reflects understanding of ones unique traits and
    how they manifest across ages and social roles
  • Identity crisis
  • Identification with peer groups protects against
    emotional turmoil
  • Role confusion results from the inability to have
    an integrated view of self
  • Adolescence brings new demands and roles

65
Stage Six (Young Adulthood) Intimacy versus
Isolation
  • Intimacy Ability to care about others and to
    share experiences with them
  • Isolation Feeling alone and uncared for in life

66
Figure 14.2 Household Composition
67
Stage Seven (Middle Adulthood) Generativity
versus Stagnation
  • Generativity Interest in guiding the next
    generation
  • Stagnation When one is only concerned with ones
    own needs and comforts

68
Physical Changes in Middle Adulthood
  • Physical development matter of diversity in
    middle adulthood
  • Primary agingmore universal (gray hair)
  • Secondary agingearlier habits have strong
    effects (smoking, drinking, exercise)
  • More research on midlife is needed!

69
Stage Eight (Late Adulthood) Integrity versus
Despair
  • Integrity Self-respect developed when people
    have lived richly and responsibly
  • Despair Occurs when previous life events are
    viewed with regret experiences heartache and
    remorse

70
Eriksons Stages Ego Integrity vs. Despair
  • Ego Integrity
  • The sense that one has lived a useful life
  • Must come to terms with
  • Who she is and has been
  • How her life has been lived
  • The opportunities gained and lost
  • Come to terms with death
  • Despair
  • Failure to achieve Ego Integrity can lead to
    hopelessness because of too little time to make
    meaningful changes

71
Gerontology and the Study of Aging
  • Ageism Discrimination or prejudice based on a
    persons age
  • Gerontologists study aging and its effects
  • Intellectual Abilities
  • Fluid abilities Abilities requiring speed or
    rapid learning based on perceptual and motor
    abilities may decrease with age
  • Crystallized abilities Learned (accumulated)
    knowledge and skills vocabulary and basic facts

72
Death and Dying Elizabeth Kubler-Ross
  • Ross was a thanatologist One who studies
    emotional and behavioral reactions to death and
    dying
  • Ross described five basic reactions to death that
    occur, not necessarily in the following order or
    experienced by everyone

73
Stages of Death and Dying Process According to
Kubler-Ross
  • Denial and Isolation- Denying deaths reality and
    isolating oneself from information confirming
    that death will occur
  • Anger- Asking, Why me? Anger may then be
    projected onto the living.
  • Bargaining- Terminally ill will bargain with God
    or with themselves (If I can live longer Ill
    be a better person)
  • Depression- Feelings of futility, exhaustion and
    deep sadness
  • Acceptance- If death is not sudden, many will
    accept death calmly
  • Person is at peace finally with the concept of
    death

74
Kubler-Ross Makes Her Transition
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vZ6a0ActS4C8feature
    related

75
Where Death Occurs
  • Hospitals in the U.S.
  • Once the majority of deaths
  • Now slightly under half of deaths
  • Decedents home
  • Currently 24 of deaths
  • Nursing home
  • Currently 22 of deaths
  • Among old old, death in nursing home common

76
Healthy Aging
  • What are behaviors/ habits that will enhance
    quality of life as we age?

77
The Happiest, Healthiest Older People
  • Are optimistic and have an interest in the future
  • Are socially connected with others
About PowerShow.com