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The United Nations: The World in One Building

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At its meetings, any country can bring a problem to the attention of the world. ... be at war e.g. Ruritania and Utopia are at war again. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The United Nations: The World in One Building


1
The United Nations The World in One Building
1. Warm-up Questions
2. Background Knowledge
3. Text Analysis
4. Exercises
5. Questions For Discussion
2
Questions for Discussion
1.In the U.N. all the member states, large or
small, developed or underdeveloped, have the same
rights and obligations. Do you think this
principle is being strictly applied? 2.Where
would we be without the U.N.?
Return
3
1. How the U. N. came into existence The
name United Nations is accredited to U.S.
President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and the first
group of representatives of member states met and
signed a declaration of common intent on New
Years Day 1942. Representatives of five powers
worked together to draw up proposals, completed
at Dumbarton Oaks in 1944. These proposals,
modified after deliberation at the conference
4
on International Organization in San Francisco
which began in April 1945, were finally agreed on
and signed as the U.N. Charter by 50 countries on
26 June 1945. Poland, not represented at the
conference, signed the Charter later and was
added to the list of original members. It was not
until that autumn, however, after the Charter had
been ratified by China, France, the U.S.S.R., the
U.K. and the U.S. and by a majority of
participants that the U.N. officially came into
5
existence. The date was 24 October, now
universally celebrated as United Nations Day.
More
6
2. Essential functions of the U.N. The
essential functions of the U.N. are to maintain
international peace and security, to develop
friendly relations among nations, to cooperate
internationally in solving international
economic, social, cultural, and human problems,
promoting respect for human rights and
fundamental freedom and to be a center for
coordinating the actions of nations in attaining
these common ends.
More
7
3. Six major organs of the U.N. The General
Assembly (picture) The Security Council
(picture) The Economic and Social Council
(picture) The Trusteeship Council (picture) The
International Court of Justice (picture) The
Secretariat
Return
8
The General Assembly ???????
Return
9
The Security Council ????????
Return
10
The Economic and Social Council ???????????
Return
11
The Trusteeship Council ???????
Return
12
The International Court of Justice (???)????
Return
13
Answer the following questions to see what
you know about the U.N.
1. What is the U.N.?
14
Answer the following questions to see what
you know about the U.N.
1. What is the U.N.?
Answer An international organization of the
worlds states, which aims to promote peace and
cooperation.
Next
15
2. When was it founded?
16
2. When was it founded?
Answer It was founded at the 1945 San Francisco
conference prepared by the Big Three Allied
Powers of WWII (the U.S., the U.K. and the
U.S.S.R.).
Next
17
3. What are the essential functions of the U.N.?
18
3. What are the essential functions of the U.N.?
Answer To keep world peace, to find answers to
the worlds social and economic problems, to win
respect for human rights, and to help win freedom
for all people on earth.
Next
19
4. How many member states are there now in the
U.N.?
20
4. How many member states are there now in the
U.N.?
Answer 189.
Next
21
5. Where are the U.N. Headquarters?
22
5. Where are the U.N. Headquarters?
Answer In New York City, New York, U.S.A.
Next
23
6. Can you name some important UN offices which
are not in New York City?
24
6. Can you name some important UN offices which
are not in New York City?
Answer The World Health Organization in Geneva
The International Court of Justice in the Hague
The Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization in Paris.
Next
25
7. How often does the General Assembly meet?
26
7. How often does the General Assembly meet?
Answer Once a year.
Next
27
8. Can you name some persons who were the UN
Secretary General?
28
8. Can you name some persons who were the UN
Secretary General?
Answer Thant, U ?? Waldheim, Kurt ?????
Pérez do Cuéllar, Javier ????? Boutros-Ghali
??
Next
29
9. Who is the UN Secretary General now?
30
9. Who is the UN Secretary General now?
Answer Kofi Annan ??
Next
31
10. How many working languages are used now at
the General Assembly?
32
10. How many working languages are used now at
the General Assembly?
Answer Five (English, French, Russian, Spanish,
and Chinese).
Return
33
Exercises
  • Multiple-choice Questions
  • 2. True/False Questions

Return
34
Multiple-choice Questions
1. The purpose of this article is . A)
to defend the U.N. Charter B) to introduce early
developments in the U.N. C) to introduce the
different organizations of the U.N. D) to
offer a defense for the existence of the U.N.
35
Multiple-choice Questions
1. The purpose of this article is D . A)
to defend the U.N. Charter B) to introduce early
developments in the U.N. C) to introduce the
different organizations of the U.N. D) to
offer a defense for the existence of the U.N.
Next
36
Multiple-choice Questions
2. What was the main reason for the creation
of the United Nations at the end of W.W.II? A)
To end W.W.II. B) To find a way to solve world
health problems. C) To prevent wars from starting
again. D) To allow small nations an opportunity
to speak.
37
Multiple-choice Questions
2. What was the main reason for the creation
of the United Nations at the end of W.W.II? C A)
To end W.W.II. B) To find a way to solve world
health problems. C) To prevent wars from starting
again. D) To allow small nations an opportunity
to speak.
Next
38
Multiple-choice Questions
3. Some people feel the U.N. is too weak
because it cannot . A) act without the
agreement of all the five big powers B) allow
every nation an equal say in world affairs C)
make all nations rich D) create a single
world language
39
Multiple-choice Questions
3. Some people feel the U.N. is too weak
because it cannot A . A) act without the
agreement of all the five big powers B) allow
every nation an equal say in world affairs C)
make all nations rich D) create a single
world language
Next
40
Multiple-choice Questions
4. We learn from the article that
. A) all important problems must be brought to
the General Assembly B) international debates
should be sent to the Court of Justice C) the
important organizations of the U.N. can decide
war or peace D) important problems can be
solved at the Security Council when the General
Assembly is closed
41
Multiple-choice Questions
4. We learn from the article that D
. A) all important problems must be brought to
the General Assembly B) international debates
should be sent to the Court of Justice C) the
important organizations of the U.N. can decide
war or peace D) important problems can be
solved at the Security Council when the General
Assembly is closed
Next
42
Multiple-choice Questions
5. The U.N. is described in this article as an
organization that . A) uses many
languages to discuss world affairs B) has
beautiful hopes for and far-reaching effects on
world peace C) never lets the small countries
speak D) creates wars more often than it
solves
43
Multiple-choice Questions
5. The U.N. is described in this article as an
organization that B . A) uses many
languages to discuss world affairs B) has
beautiful hopes for and far-reaching effects on
world peace C) never lets the small countries
speak D) creates wars more often than it
solves
Return
44
True/False Questions
1. The first international meeting of the
United Nations was held in 1945. 2. Most of
the important U.N. organizations are in the
United States. 3. The General Assembly is
always held in New York City. 4. People are
not always satisfied with the work of the U.N.
45
True/False Questions
1. The first international meeting of the
United Nations was held in 1945. (T) 2. Most
of the important U.N. organizations are in the
United States. 3. The General Assembly is
always held in New York City. 4. People are
not always satisfied with the work of the U.N.
46
True/False Questions
1. The first international meeting of the
United Nations was held in 1945. (T) 2. Most
of the important U.N. organizations are in the
United States. (F) 3. The General Assembly is
always held in New York City. 4. People are
not always satisfied with the work of the U.N.
47
True/False Questions
1. The first international meeting of the
United Nations was held in 1945. (T) 2. Most
of the important U.N. organizations are in the
United States. (F) 3. The General Assembly is
always held in New York City. (T) 4. People
are not always satisfied with the work of the
U.N.
48
True/False Questions
1. The first international meeting of the
United Nations was held in 1945. (T) 2. Most
of the important U.N. organizations are in the
United States. (F) 3. The General Assembly is
always held in New York City. (T) 4. People
are not always satisfied with the work of the
U.N. (T)
Next
49
True/False Questions
5. The U.N. can help people win human rights
in any country. 6. The U.N. cannot exist
without the support of its member countries.
7. The U.N. was established because people felt
that only an international organization could
keep world peace and control modern science.
8. When the U.N. was first started, all its
member states were large countries.
50
True/False Questions
5. The U.N. can help people win human rights
in any country. (F) 6. The U.N. cannot exist
without the support of its member countries.
7. The U.N. was established because people felt
that only an international organization could
keep world peace and control modern science.
8. When the U.N. was first started, all its
member states were large countries.
51
True/False Questions
5. The U.N. can help people win human rights
in any country. (F) 6. The U.N. cannot exist
without the support of its member countries.
(T) 7. The U.N. was established because people
felt that only an international organization
could keep world peace and control modern
science. 8. When the U.N. was first started,
all its member states were large countries.
52
True/False Questions
5. The U.N. can help people win human rights
in any country. (F) 6. The U.N. cannot exist
without the support of its member countries.
(T) 7. The U.N. was established because people
felt that only an international organization
could keep world peace and control modern
science. (T) 8. When the U.N. was first
started, all its member states were large
countries.
53
True/False Questions
5. The U.N. can help people win human rights
in any country. (F) 6. The U.N. cannot exist
without the support of its member countries.
(T) 7. The U.N. was established because people
felt that only an international organization
could keep world peace and control modern
science. (T) 8. When the U.N. was first
started, all its member states were large
countries. (F)
Next
54
True/False Questions
9.  Except the World Health Organization and
the International Court of Justice, all the
offices of the U.N. are in New York City. 10.
The job of the Security Council is to solve
serious problems before they lead to war. 11.
Two working languages are used in the U.N.
English and French. 12. People have different
opinions about the U.N.
55
True/False Questions
9.  Except the World Health Organization and
the International Court of Justice, all the
offices of the U.N. are in New York City. (F)
10. The job of the Security Council is to solve
serious problems before they lead to war. 11.
Two working languages are used in the U.N.
English and French. 12. People have different
opinions about the U.N.
56
True/False Questions
9.  Except the World Health Organization and
the International Court of Justice, all the
offices of the U.N. are in New York City. (F)
10. The job of the Security Council is to solve
serious problems before they lead to war. (T)
11. Two working languages are used in the U.N.
English and French. 12. People have different
opinions about the U.N.
57
True/False Questions
9.  Except the World Health Organization and
the International Court of Justice, all the
offices of the U.N. are in New York City. (F)
10. The job of the Security Council is to solve
serious problems before they lead to war. (T)
11. Two working languages are used in the U.N.
English and French. (F) 12. People have
different opinions about the U.N.
58
True/False Questions
9.  Except the World Health Organization and
the International Court of Justice, all the
offices of the U.N. are in New York City. (F)
10. The job of the Security Council is to solve
serious problems before they lead to war. (T)
11. Two working languages are used in the U.N.
English and French. (F) 12. People have
different opinions about the U.N. (T)
Return
59
The United Nations The World in One Building
What do you know about the United Nations?
How important is it to world development and
world peace? The following article may add
something to your knowledge.
60
Do you know the old Arab story about a bird
called the phoenix? First it burned to death.
Then it came back to life. That doesnt sound
believable, does it? But there is an example of
the phoenix in our own time The United Nations.
In 1945, it brought the dream of world peace back
to life again after World War II.
61
Since the day of its birth, the United
Nations has been the subject of much debate. Some
people attack the organization because they think
it is too powerful. Others think that it is too
weak. We can better understand this debate if we
learn more about the U.N. and its history.
62
The U.N. was started for two reasons. First,
when the idea was born, people all over the world
were tired of war. They were tired not just of
World War II, but of war itself. They felt that
there must be peaceful answers to the worlds
problems. They felt that only an international
organization could keep world peace.
63
The second reason was that modern science had
developed new bombs and airplanes. These weapons
made it almost impossible for a country to defend
itself. National borders were beginning to lose
their meaning. There was also a feeling that this
was only the beginning. Science would develop
even more dangerous weapons in the future. Only
an international organization would be able to
control modern science.
64
Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who was President
of the United States at the time,believed that
the Allies should plan for peace before the war
ended. On December 1, 1943, Roosevelt, Winston
Churchill of Great Britain and Joseph Stalin of
the former Soviet Union agreed to start an
organization for world peace. They asked all
countries, large and small, to join them.
65
During the next year and a half, the idea of
such an organization was debated in all the
capitals of the world. Then came a big day in
modern history. On April 11, 1945, the first
international meeting of the United Nations took
place in San Francisco.
66
The goal of the meeting was to write the U.N.
Charter. All of the fifty-one nations at the
meeting had their own ideas to offer for the
Charter. After a long debate, a Charter was
agreed upon. Every nation present voted for the
Charter, no one voted against it.
67
The U.N. Charter is a beautiful piece of
writing. In clear language it explains why the
U.N. was started. The reasons are 1)to keep
world peace 2)to find answers to the worlds
social and economic problems 3) to win respect
for human rights and 4) to help win freedom for
all people on earth.
68
Since 1945, the number of nations that have
signed the U. N. Charter has more than doubled.
These countries contain almost the whole
population of the world. Every kind of government
can be found at the U.N. And there is one idea
which all these countries agree on the need for
world peace.
69
Most of the offices of the United Nations are
in New York City. But there are other important
U. N. offices all over the world. The World
Health Organization, for example, is in Geneva,
Switzerland. The International Court of Justice
is in the Hague, Holland.
70
The buildings in New York stand along the
East River on the island of Manhattan. The park
around them leads right to the water. The park
contains many works of art that were given as
presents to the U.N. by member countries. There
is a Russian work of art next to an American one.
In another part of the garden there is a
beautiful Japanese bell. In some ways the garden
itself shows the idea of the U. N.peace among
the nations of the world.
71
Outside the U. N. buildings there is a line
of flags almost five blocks long. These are the
flags of the member nations. The flag of the
United Nations flies above them. When all the
flags are flying, the General Assembly is meeting
inside.
72
The General Assembly is the most important
part of the U.N. At its meetings, any country can
bring a problem to the attention of the world.
But the first big problem of the U. N. was what
language to use. How would the delegates
understand each other? Should they translate
everything into all languages, or should they
choose one
language and translate everything into it?
73
They decided to do neither. Instead, they
chose five languages. Everything that is spoken
at the General Assembly is translated into
Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish.
Above the hall of the General Assembly there are
several little glass rooms. The translators sit
inside them. They are very good at their jobs.
They must be able to listen to delegate and to
translate at the same time! This is a difficult
but very important job. One small mistake could
cause many problems.
74
The Security Council also meets in New York.
Its job is to solve serious problems before they
lead to war. It also has the power to send an
army into a countryif members of the Security
Council agree.
75
There are many other smaller organizations in
the U.N. One is supposed to help countries with
their economic and social problems. Another is
supposed to help countries win independence.
Another is meant to help women all over the
world.
76
Since its earliest days, many people have
criticized the U. N. They say that the U. N. is
too weak. As an example, they say that some
member countries promise to respect human rights,
but many member countries show little or no
respect for human rights. The U. N. can do
nothing about this. Some also say that the
Security Council is too weak to do any good. This
happens because all five big powers have to agree
before the U. N. can act.
77
But there are many people who defend the
United Nations. They say that only the citizens
of a country can make their government respect
human rights. The U. N. can act only when two
countries are at war. It cant help the people of
a country fight their own government.
78
Another important defense of the U. N. is
this where would we be without it? When someone
speaks at the U. N., everyone hears about it.
There are reports in the newspapers, on the
radio, and on television. No one can stop the
debates at the U. N. Even the smallest country on
earth can have its voice heard.
79
We are all citizens of the United Nations.
Each of us should learn more about how this
important organization works. If we work to make
it better, maybe this phoenix will never burn to
death again.
Return
80
phoenix 5finIks n. ?????a bird in Egyptian
mythology which, after living hundreds of years
in the Arabian desert, burnt itself on a funeral
pile and rose from the ashes young again, to live
for another cycle, it is often used as a symbol
of immortalitye.g. The new city of Tangshan rose
like a phoenix after the earthquake.
????????????????????
More
81
The use of the word phoenix It refers to
something that rises from the ashes of its
predecessor. The League of Nation (1920-1946) was
the first international association of countries.
It was established with the aim to resolve
conflicts peacefully and avert another
devastating war. Though it had a total of 63
member states, it never had much influence. The
Second World War proved it a failure. As the
author puts it, it burned to death.
More
82
Then the U.N. rose from its ashes and brought the
dreams of world peace back to life again. In the
last paragraph of the passage the author calls on
all the U.N. member states to offer every
assistance to make the U.N. better so that it
will never burn to death, that is, it will never
become a second League of Nations.
Return
83
debate dI5beIt n. vt. ??,??n.formal
discussione.g. After a long debate the bill was
passed by the House of Commons and sent to the
House of Lords. ???????,??????????,???????
v.have a debate aboute.g. We were
debating whether to go to the mountains or to the
seaside. ??????????????????
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84
organization CEnaI5zeIFEn n. ??organized
body of personse.g. He joined a revolutionary
organization headed by Helong. ??????????????
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85
international IntE5nAFEnEl a. ???existing,
carried on, between nationse.g. He was a
scientist of international reputation.
??????????????
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86
weapon 5wepEn n. ??sth designed for, or
used in, fighting or strugglinge.g. They fought
their oppressors with any weapon they could lay
hands on. ??????????????????
Return
87
border 5bCdE n. ??,??(land near the) line
dividing two states or countriese.g. The
criminal escaped over the border. ????????
Return
88
former 5fCmE a. ?(??????)???of an earlier
periode.g. They are all my former students.
???????????
Return
89
goal EJl n. ??,??object of efforts or
ambitione.g. It seemed therefore quite likely
that the years ambitious economic goals would be
reached. ????????????????????????
Return
90
social 5sEJFEl a. ???of people living in
communitiese.g. Young students need more chances
of social practice. ????????????????
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91
economic ikE5nRmIk a. ???of economicse.g.
There are many debates about the governments new
economic policy. ????????????????
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92
sign saIn vt. ????write ones name on (a
letter, document, etc) to show that one is the
writer or that one accepts or agrees with the
contentse.g. Please sign on the dotted line.
????????
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93
justice 5dVQstIs n. ????just conduct the
quality of being right and faire.g. The sense of
justice pushed him to do that.
????????????the International Court of Justice
????
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94
assembly E5semblI n. ????number of persons
who have come togethere.g. The assembly of
doctors discussed the latest medical research.
?????????????????the General Assembly ?????
Return
95
delegate 5delIEt n. ??person to whom sth is
delegated (e.g. an elected representative sent to
a conference or convention).e.g. He said his
government hadnt appointed any delegates.
???????????????
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96
security sI5kjJErItI n. ??(sth that
provides) safety, freedom from danger or
anxietye.g. You should cross the street in
security at a pedestrian crossing.
?????????????????
Return
97
council 5kaJnsEl n. ??????group of persons
appointed, elected or chosen to give advice, make
rules, and carry out plans, manage affairs, etc.
esp of governmente.g. This document was issued
by the State Council. ????????????
Return
98
independence IndI5pendEns n. ??the state of
being independent (independence from)e.g.
Several of these colonies have claimed and have
been given independence from the mother country.
????????????????????????????
Return
99
criticize 5krItIsaIz vt. ??form and give a
judgement of find fault with e.g. There are
several articles in the local newspaper
criticizing his work. ??????????????????
Return
100
citizen 5sItIzEn n. ??person who has full
rights in a State, either by birth or by gaining
such rightse.g. Shes a British citizen but
lives in India. ????????????
Return
101
defense dI5fens n. ???(legal) argument(s)
used to contest an accusatione.g. Counsel worked
out a very convincing defense.
??????????????????
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102
all over the world ???(?),????e.g. Now the
company has branches all over the
world.????????????????
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103
be tired of ?????e.g. She is never tired of
talking about her clever son.??????????,?????????

Return
104
take place ????e.g. The celebration took place
yesterday.?????????
Return
105
vote for ????e.g. The majority of delegates
voted for the proposal.??????????????
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106
vote against ????e.g. He voted against the
government party at the last election.???????????
????
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107
works of art ???e.g. These beautiful
needleworks are completely works of
art.??????????????
Return
108
be at war????e.g. Ruritania and Utopia are at
war again.????????????
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109
The United Nations???
Return
110
Franklin Delano Roosevelt (5rEuzEvelt)(1882-1945
)32nd U.S. president (1933-1945)???
Return
111
the Allies(TIAlaIz)????????????
Return
112
Winston Churchill(tF\tFIl)(1874-1965)Sir
Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill, British Prime
Minister (1940-1945 and 1951-1955)???
Return
113
Joseph Stalin (1879-1953)Premier of the former
Soviet Union, Supreme Commander of the Red Army
???
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114
The U.N.Charter????? ( Introduction to the
U.N. Charter )
Return
115
Introduction to the U.N. Charter We the
peoples of the U.N. determined to save succeeding
generations from the scourge of war, which twice
in our lifetime has brought untold sufferings to
mankind, and to reaffirm faith in fundamental
rights, in the dignity and worth of the human
person, in the equal rights of men and women and
of nations large and small, and to establish
conditions under which justice and respect for
the obligations arising from treaties and
116
other sources of international law can be
maintained, and to promote social progress and
better standards of life in larger freedom, and
for these ends, to practice tolerance and live
together in peace with one another as good
neighbours, and to unite our strength to maintain
international peace and security, and to ensure,
by the acceptance of principles and the
institution of methods, that armed forces shall
not be used, save in the common
117
interest, and to employ international machinery
for the promotion of economic and social
advancement of all peoples, have resolved to
combine our efforts to accomplish these aims.
Return
118
The World Health Organization ??????
Return
119
Geneva ( dVI5nivE) ???
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120
Switzerland (swItsElEnd)??
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121
the Hague (heI) ??
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122
the East River the east branch of the Hudson
River
Return
123
Manhattan ( mAnhAtn) one of the five
administrative divisions of New York City
???,??????????
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124
is supposed to help is expected to help
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125
is meant to help is expected to help
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126
too weak to do any good too weak to improve the
situation
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127
The buildings in New York stand along the East
River on the island of Manhattan. The park around
them leads right to the water.???????????????????
????,?????????????
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128
Outside the U.N. buildings there is a line of
flags almost five blocks long. These are the
flags of the member nations.?????????????????,???
???????????
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129
At its meetings, any country can bring a problem
to the attention of the world.???????????????????
??????
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130
?????????????????????????????????????????????????
?????????????????????
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131
No one can stop the debates at the U.N. Even the
smallest country on earth can have its voice
heard.?????????????????????????,????????????
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132
?????????????,?????????not just but ????not
only but also ?????????,???????????????????
??not merely but as well.e.g. You once told
me that you should know your buyers not just as
buyers, but as people.??????,??????????????,?????
????????
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133
This happens because all five big powers have to
agree before the U.N. can act.???????????????????
????????have to before (can)????????????e
.g. Much more research will have to be done
before we can be sure.????????????,?????????
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134
In 1945, it brought the dream of world peace back
to life again after World War II.1945???????????,
????????????????????
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135
Since the day of its birth, the United Nations
has been the subject of much debate.??????????,??
??????????
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136
These weapons made it impossible for a country to
defend itself. National borders were beginning to
lose their meaning.???????????????????????????
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137
Since 1945, the number of nations that have
signed the U.N. Charter has more than doubled.
These countries contain almost the whole
population of the world.1945???,?????????????????
?????????????????????
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138
Its job is to solve serious problems before they
lead to war.????????????????,???????
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139
As an example, they say that some member
countries promise to respect human rights, but
many member countries show little or no respect
for human rights.?????,???????????,??????????????
????
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140
Some also say that the Security Council is too
weak to do any good.??????,????????,?????????
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141
If we work to make it better, maybe this phoenix
will never burn to death again.????????????,?????
??????????
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