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Sub-Groups of American History

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Title: Sub-Groups of American History


1
Sub-Groups of American History
  • Leaders of our past for key groups
  • throughout American History

2
Life in the Colonies
  • Puritans valued family, literacy, parental
    direction.
  • Chesapeake colonies had shorter life span due to
    disease and had fewer children with fewer
    families.
  • Indentured servants were used more than slaves
    40 of indentured servants die before they
    achieve their freedom. As economics changed in
    Europe, fewer people needed indentured servants,
    so slavery became the new option.

3
Life in the Colonies
  • Men were in the power positions, and situations
    like Anne Hutchinson or the Salem Witch Trials as
    moments when women attempted to influence
    government.
  • In the Puritan society, the women had no
    decision-making ability they could be be member
    of the church (like the men) but the women still
    could not vote.
  • Thanksgiving with Squanto and the Pilgrims
    Pocahontas and John Smith King Philips War are
    examples of culture clash.

4
Pocahontas (1595-1617)
  • A Powhatan tribal member, she saved John
    Smiths life. She later marries and Englishman
    and goes to England and received royally. She
    becomes ill and dies there.

5
Squanto (1585-1623)
  • In Plymouth colony he was made Gov. William
    Bradford's Indian emissary. He was credited
    with participating the 1st Thanksgiving

6
Anne Hutchinson (1591-1643)
  • She held unorthodox views that challenged the
    authority of the clefty and views the very
    integrity of the Puritan experience in
    Massachusetts Bay Colony.

7
King Philip (1675)
  • Also known as Metacom, this Wampanoag chief
    planned an attack for 13 years by planning
    alliances with other tribes against the Puritans.
    The Puritans got the Iroquois to join them and
    King Philip was defeated. A higher of
    colonists were killed in this war than the
    American Revolution War later.

8
Father Junipero Serra (1713-1784)
  • Founded the 1st Catholic settlement in California
    in the mid-18th century.
  • Franciscan priest who traveled from Spain to
    Mexico to set up missions, some of which became
    San Diego San Francisco.

9
Olaudah Equiano (1745-1797
  • Kidnapped as a boy from Africa, Equiano survived
    the Middle Passage to live a life of a slave.
    Later he bought his freedom and became an
    abolitionist in England.
  • He wrote The Interesting Narrative of Olaudah
    Equiano
  • The 18th century was the busiest time of the
    slave trade, as over 6 million people were
    brought over. By the end of the 1700s, slaves
    made up 80 of the Caribbean colonies.

10
Tecumseh (early 1800s)
  • Shawnee chief, along with his brother The
    Prophet, pushed for Indian alliances among
    tribes and the English. In the Battle of
    Tippencanoe, William Henry Harrison defeats The
    Prophet and the hope of the Indians.
  • The Great Spirit gave this great land to his red
    children.

11
Crispus Attucks
  • As a member of the Liberty Boys, he led colonists
    against the Redcoats in Boston he becomes one
    of 5 who were killed in the Boston Massacre.
  • This Attucksappears to have undertaken to be
    the hero of the night and to lead this army with
    bannersup to King Street with their clubs This
    man with his party cried, Do not be afraid of
    them! He had hardiness enough to fall in upon
    them! John Adams account of the Boston
    Massacre.

12
Life in the New Nation
  • After the American Revolution, the population was
    doubling every 25 years. There was also a
    migration west.
  • After indentured servant volunteers decreased
    and the cotton gin was invented, slavery became
    the major source of manpower in the South.
  • The growth of markets for farm products in the
    cities, coupled with the liberal land policies of
    the federal government let to steady growth in
    staple agricultural crops.
  • Before 1815, there were not many public schools
    most education was private.
  • Women were considered unfit for academics.

13
Life in the New Nation
  • In 1808, trade for slaves through the Middle
    Passage was outlawed, if not always obeyed. Slave
    marriages were not recognized and slave families
    could be separated when slaves were sold down
    the river towards New Orleans.
  • The Native Americans had split on their
    loyalities during the French-Indian War. During
    the American Revolution, most had sided with the
    French.
  • Thomas Jefferson was one of the first to consider
    the idea of moving the Indians to a reservation
    system.

14
Phyllis Wheatley (1753-1784)
  • 1st great woman poet, whose poetry revolved
    around her faith and religious themes. When her
    first poetry book was published, many did not
    believe a former slave had written it. John
    Hancock vouched for her authorship.

15
Sacajawea (1804)
  • 15 year old wife of a French fur trader, this
    Mandan Indian maiden (with her baby son) went
    along with Lewis Clark to serve as an
    interpreter.

16
Abigail Adams (1744-1818)
  • If particular care and attention is not paid to
    the ladies, we are determined to foment a
    rebellion, and will not hold ourselves bound by
    any laws in which we have no voice, or
    representation.

17
Dolly Madison
  • Dolly saved many important documents and a
    portrait of President Washington when the British
    burned the Capitol during the War of 1812.

18
Life in the Jacksonian Antebellum Eras
  • There was a movement to allow all white males to
    vote (versus just the land-owning gentry) under
    Jackson Age of the Common Man.
  • Free blacks in the South were usually excluded
    from the polls, and even in Northern states.
  • Jackson supported the removal of all Indian
    tribes to west of the Miss. River. The Indian
    Removal Act (1830) and the refusal to enforce the
    Worcester v. Ga Supreme Court case sealed their
    fate.

19
Life in the Jacksonian and Antebellum Eras
  • Europeans such as Alex Touqueville described
    Americans as being restless, compulsive joiners
    of groups, committed to progress, hard-working,
    hard-playing, and driven to acquire wealth.
  • These Americans talked of equality, but the
    reality of the system led to class society and
    mob incidents.
  • The Transcendentalists began in Concord, Mass.
    Led by Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau,
    and Emily Dickinson repudiated the repression of
    society, the use of civil disobedience, and the
    lessons learned from nature.
  • Manifest Destiny is completed in President Polks
    adminstration.

20
Life in the Jacksonian and Antebellum Eras
  • Protestant Revivalism became a powerful force,
    including Charles Finneys Social Gospel.
  • Womens temperance movements started in 1826,
    though many immigrants fought it.
  • Dorthea Dix, Seneca Falls, and the Abolitionist
    Movement began during this period.
  • Birth rates began to drop, especially in cities.
    Children were more economic liabilities than
    assets. Immigration increased in the cities.
  • The 1st Industrial Revolution occurs, and for the
    1st time, there were more wage earners than
    self-employed Americans. King Cotton took over
    in the South. Gabriel Prosser, Denmark Vesey,
    and Nat Turner planned to lead slave revolts.

21
Sequoyah
  • Cherokee man, also known as George Guess
    created the 1st written language for a Native
    American tribe.
  • It was a syllabury, based on syllables rather
    than letters.

22
John Ross (1830s)
  • Cherokee chief who won Worcester v. Georgia, only
    to watch President Andrew Jackson refuse to
    support the decision. Chief Ross later was forced
    to lead his tribe on the Trail of Tears to
    Oklahoma.

23
Cult of Domesticity v. The Lowell Mill
  • Cult of Domesticity The prevailing view in the
    early 1800s that a womans roles were to be
    housework, child care, and teaching.
  • Lowell Mill hired women for less pay than men
    (though it did pay more than teaching). Theyd
    work 13 hours a day. They later organized the 1st
    strike by women workers.

24
Clara Barton
  • Clara served as a nurse during the Civil War and
    later started the Red Cross.
  • She went to Andersonville Prison in Georgia to
    identify graves of fallen Union prisoners.

25
Dorthea Dix (
  • As a prison and asylum reformer, she focused on
    rehabilitation treatment for the sick and
    imprisoned.
  • Injustice is also done to the convicts it is
    certainly very wrong that they should be doomed
    day after day and night after night to listen to
    the ravings of manmen and madwomen.

26
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
  • Attended the National Anti-Slavery Society and
    befriended Lucretia Mott.
  • They held the womens rights convention in Seneca
    Fall, New York in 1848.
  • We hold these truths to be self-evident that
    all men and women are created equal.

27
Lucretia Mott
  • With Elizabeth Stanton, she planned the Seneca
    Falls Womens Right Convention. She gave the
    opening speech closing speech.
  • She was a Quaker!
  • She and her husband later became a stop on the
    Underground RR.

28
Sarah Angelina Grimke
  • These sisters were daughters of a slave owner in
    South Carolina. These ladies began to speak for
    the abolition of slaves.
  • Angelina wrote An Appeal to Christian women of
    the South that spelled out the evils of slavery.
  • The Massachusetts clergy criticized the ladies
    for assuming the place tone of man as public
    reformers.

29
Emily Dickinson
  • Part of the Transcendentalism Movement in the
    mid-1800s, Alcott joined Ralph Waldo Emerson and
    Henry David Thoreau in the belief of living a
    simple life and celebrating the truth found in
    nature and in personal emotion and imagination.

30
Elizabeth Blackwell
  • In 1849, she became the 1st woman to graduate
    from a medical college.
  • She later opened the Infirmary for Women and
    Children.

31
Sojourner Truth (1797-1883)
  • Isabella Baumfree was born a slave, but became on
    July 4, 1827, when New York abolished slavery.
    She then traveled the country preaching and
    arguing for abolition of slaves.
  • Aint I a woman? I could work as much as eat as
    much as a manand bear the lash as well. Aint I
    a woman?

32
Nat Turner (1800-1831)
  • Slave preacher who was moved by the story of
    Moses leading the Israelites out of slavery. He
    leads a revolt that leads to many deaths,
    including his own.

33
Harriet Tubman (1820-1913)
  • Known as Black Moses, she led 300 people to
    freedom on the Underground RR after the Fugitive
    Slave Act.
  • A 40,000 bounty was put on her for her capture!
  • She later served as a spy for the North during
    the Civil War.

34
Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811-1896)
  • Abolitionist who wrote Uncle Toms Cabin in 1852.
  • Later, during the Civil War, Stowe met President
    Lincoln who said So this is the little lady who
    made the big war.

35
Henry Box Brown (1815-???)
  • Slave who got his friends to mail him to
    freedom from Virginia to the Abolitionist Society
    in Philadelphia.
  • He spent 28 hours in a 4 foot box with biscuits
    and water.

36
Frederick Douglass (1818-1895)
  • Former slave who spoke wrote eloquently about
    abolition of slavery.
  • Published the North Star newspaper.
  • Pushed President Lincoln for emancipation of
    slaves during Civil War.

37
Civil War, Reconstruction, New South
  • Shermans total warfare devastated life in the
    South 10 of the men had died, property had been
    destroyed, value in slaves was lost, land was
    confiscated, carpetbaggers scalawags attempted
    to dominate, and the Ku Klux Klan begins to limit
    the rights of the newly freedmen.
  • Boss Tweeds Tammany Hall dominated local city
    politics and Confederate leaders were prohibited
    from holding office or voting.
  • Corruption in Grants time, Election of 1876, and
    Clevelands tenure led to increased power by
    Congress.

38
Civil War, Reconstruction,New South
  • Henry Gradys idea of the New South led to an
    expanse of business and industry, rather than
    just agriculture in the South.
  • Robber Barons such as Andrew Carnegie, John D.
    Rockefeller, Cornelius Vanderbilt, J.P. Morgan
    gain great wealth in their monopolies.
  • Skyscrapers, immigrants, Ellis Island, Statue of
    Liberty become big parts of America.
  • Social Gospel for better health, education and
    living conditions (besides spritual salvation)
    became the focus of those like Jane Addams.

39
Civil War, Reconstruction,New South
  • Temperance Movement (Carrie Nation) and Labor
    Unions (Samuel Gompers) begin to grow. Also
    missionaries for White Mans Burden becomes a
    goal for North America.
  • Industrial Revolution with Thomas Edison,
    Alexander Graham Bell, etc. occurs.
  • Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Dubois become
    leaders in the Separate but Equal time.
  • Latin American trade increases under President
    Hayes 1st ideas of a canal through Nicaragua is
    proposed.
  • Native Americans win Little Big Horn but lose
    the war and are forced onto reservations.
  • Mark Twain becomes the writer of the age.

40
David Farragut(1801-1870)
  • The most famous Hispanic of the Civil War and the
    1st to achieve the rank of admiral.
  • He captured many Confederate ships and secured
    New Orleans for the Union during the war.

41
Chief Joseph (1840-1904)
  • Leader of the Nez Perce Indians, who led 750
    people 1400 miles in a flight to Canada from the
    U.S. Army.
  • Treat all men alike. Give them all the same law.
    Give them all an even chance to live and grow.
    All men wer made by the same Great Spirit Chief.

42
Sitting Bull (1831-1890)
  • Sioux chief who defeated George Custer at Little
    Big Horn in June 1876.
  • Sitting Bull later joined Buffalo Bill Codys
    Wild West Show that toured the world.

43
Geronimo (1829- 1909)
  • Chief of the Apaches, he was the last leader to
    surrender in the Red River War it was one of the
    bloodiest Indian conflicts.

44
Booker T. Washington (1856-1915)
  • President of Tuskegee Institute
  • Saw education as key during the Separate But
    Equal time
  • 1st African-American to be invited to a White
    House dinner (TR)
  • 5 Finger Speech

45
W.E.B. Dubois
  • Founder of the Niagara Movement (later the
    NAACP), Dubois disagreed with Booker T.
    Washington on how to move against the separate
    but equal mandate of the Supreme Court in the
    1890s.
  • Souls of Black Folk was his greatest writing,
    and it called for a demand in equality for
    African-Americans and to educate the Top 10 of
    African-Americans in universities.

46
Ida Wells (1880s)
  • Born into slavery, she moved to Memphis after
    emancipation. She worked as a teacher and
    newspaper editor.
  • This is what opened my eyes to what lynching
    really was. An excuse to get rid of Negroes who
    were acquiring wealth and property and thus keep
    the race terrorized.

47
George Washington Carver(1864-1943)
  • Great educator and scientist, Carver taught at
    Tuskegee Institute and help diversify farming
    techniques such as
  • Crop rotation
  • Peanut usage
  • Soybean usage
  • Sweet potato usage

48
Susan B. Anthony(1820-1906)
  • Worked for womens rights for 50 years.
  • Wrote a weekly paper The Revolution, which
    stressed the importance of womens suffrage.
  • Shes on the silver dollar coin.

49
Margaret Sanger (1920s)
  • As a nurse, she opened the 1st clinic for women
    and the distribution of birth control
    information.
  • She later founded the group that became Planned
    Parenthood.

50
Populists- Roaring Twenties
  • Populists wanted a silver standard, a graduated
    income tax, rural postal system, public ownership
    of RR, telephone, telegraph, 8 hour workday, 1
    single 6-year term for the President, and direct
    election of U.S. Senators.
  • Jane Addams Hull House helped settle new
    immigrants from Greece, Germany, Italy, Poland,
    and Russia.
  • Progressives led to Hepburn Act (inter-state
    commerce) and Pure Food Drug Act (1906)

51
Populists Roaring Twenties
  • Baseball and basketball are launched as major
    leagues.
  • Progressives included honest government, economic
    regulation, environmental concerns including
    building and controlling the Panama Canal (which
    was completed in 1914).
  • National American Woman Suffrage Association,
    leading to the 19th amendment in 1920.
  • The Prohibition movement led to the 18th
    amendment, which outlawed alcohol.

52
Populists-Roaring Twenties
  • Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vazetti were
    immigrants who were admitted anarchists, who were
    tried for murder and robbery. Their trials were
    seen as being unfair after their convictions.
  • Flappers represented the wild, urban times
    after WWI. The younger generations reaction to
    the death and destruction of the War to End All
    Wars occurred during this time that 51 of the
    U.S. population lived in urban areas (the first
    time that had happened). Margaret Sangers birth
    control discussions were controversial.
  • There was a Great Migration of African-Americans
    to the cities as the separate but equal life in
    the South as tenant farmers sharecroppers had
    left many to move to better lifestyles.
  • The 1920s saw a continuance of Mexican workers
    to the U.S. and the start of massive immigration
    from Puerto Rico to New York.

53
Louis Armstrong
  • 1st great African-American trumpet player and
    band leader.
  • Armstrong made personal expression a vital part
    of jazz performance.
  • When I get to the Pearly Gates, Ill play a duet
    with Gabriel. Well play Sleepy Time Down
    South. He wants to be remembered for his music
    just like I do.

54
Bessie Smith
  • Probably the greatest vocalist of the 1920s
    during the Harlem Renaissance, she became the
    highest paid African-American performer in 1927.
  • The Harlem Renaissance was a time of great social
    and cultural changes that occurred during the
    Roaring Twenties.

55
Marcus Garvey (1887-1940)
  • Called for a separate society for
    African-Americans. He later encouraged people to
    move back to Africa. His legacy was one of an
    awakened black pride, economic independence, and
    reverence for Africa.

56
Margaret Sanger (1879-1966)
  • Margaret Sanger was an early advocate for womens
    rights and coining the term birth control. Her
    involvement in socialism and sending information
    through the mail led to several arrests.

57
Reactions to Margaret Sanger
  • Theodore Roosevelt opposed her work because it
    would reduce the population.
  • W.E.B. Dubois supported her work because he
    supported the right of motherhood to be a
    womens discretion.
  • Marcus Garvey opposed her because he thought her
    ideas were a trick by white society to limit the
    population of the black society.
  • FDR was not her favorite president, as he did not
    include her issue in his public health education
    programs.
  • It was also never an issue that Eleanor Roosevelt
    was ever heard discussing in public as First
    Lady.
  • Sanger opened up a public health clinic in Harlem
    during the Harlem Renaissance and went to the
    Cotton Club and other speakeasies of the day.

58
Aimee Semple McPherson(1920s)
  • A Los Angles-based preacher who used flowing
    Satin robes and a theatrical delivery to preach
    her conservative religious views. She later was
    one of the 1st ministers to use the radio for her
    sermons against evolution.

59
Edna St. Vincent Millay
  • The quintessential modern, young woman of the
    1920s, this flapper lived a bohemian life in
    Greenwich Village, NY.
  • My candle burns at both end it will not last
    the night But ah, my foes, and oh, my friends
    it gives a lovely light!- First Fig by Millay.

60
Georgia OKeefe
  • Great painter of the 1920s, she is best known
    for her paintings of flowers and the grandeur of
    New York City.
  • I will make even busy New Yorkers take time to
    see what I see in flowers.

61
Langston Hughes
  • A leader of the Harlem Renaissance, Hughes imbued
    his poetry with the rhythms of the jazz and blues
    music of the age.
  • Dreams of freedom and equality were themes in his
    work.

62
Duke Ellington (1899-1974)
  • One of the greatest composers of the 20th
    century, he also led the band at Harlems Cotton
    Club for many years.
  • Ellington plays the piano, but his real
    instrument is his band.

63
Amelia Earhart(1897-1937)
  • 1st woman to fly across the Atlantic Ocean the
    1st to receive a pilots license.
  • She attempted to fly around the world at its
    widest point, but lost radio contact around the
    Pacific islands.
  • She inspired girls to consider non-traditional
    careers.

64
Great Depression- 1960s
  • African-Americans suffered more than any other
    group during the Great Depression. 40 were still
    sharecroppers who were hurt by the initial AAA
    plans of the New Deal.
  • The Indian Reorganization Act restored tribal
    ownership of lands, recognized tribal
    constitutions, and gave loans to help develop
    tribal lands under the CCC plan.
  • Few programs of the New Deal were designed to
    help the Mexican American workers, and many were
    replaced by white Americans who had lost their
    other jobs.
  • Housewives learned to make do with what they
    had for their families at home, while their
    husbands traveled around, looking for work.

65
Great Depression 1960s
  • FDRs Fireside Chats were weekly radio programs
    that encouraged the Americans that the only
    thing we have to fear is fear itself.
  • Truman begins the de-segregation of society by
    ordering the military to end its segregated
    units.
  • Brown v. Board of Education (1954), Little Rock
    Guardsmen, March on Washington I Have a Dream,
    Civil Rights Act, Voting Registration Act were
    passed to begin Civil Rights era.
  • Malcolm X Black Power Movement (Stokely
    Carmichael) also starts up.
  • Cult of feminine domesticity re-emerged after
    Rosie the Riveter movement of WWII.

66
Great Depression-1960s
  • Cesar Chavez starts the United Farm Workers
    Organizing Committee to unionize Mexican-American
    workders.
  • Native Americans start AIM (American Indian
    Movement) in 1968. In the 1970s, they will begin
    to bring lawsuits.
  • The Feminine Mystique by Betty Friedan argued
    that middle-class society stifled women and did
    not let them use their talents. She attacked the
    cult of domesticity and formed the National
    Organization of Women (NOW). They pushed
    (unsuccessfully) for the E.R.A. amendment to be
    passed by Congress and the states.

67
Eleanor Roosevelt (1884-1962)
  • Niece of Teddy Roosevelt, Eleanor married
    Franklin and thrived in the role of First Lady.
    She spoke out on issues such as child welfare,
    housing reform, Tuskegee Airmen, and equal rights
    for women minorities.
  • She later served as the U.S. ambassador to the
    U.N.

68
Dorothea Lange (1895-1965)
  • A documentary photographer during the Great
    Depression, Langes images showed the sufferings
    of the rural poor in our nation.
  • One should really use the camera as though
    tomorrow youd be stricken blind.

69
Frances Perkins (1882-1965)
  • After witnessing the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory
    fire in 1911, she pledged to fight for labor
    reforms, especially for women.
  • She later became the 1st woman to serve in the
    Cabinet she was the Sec. of Labor for FDR.

70
Flannery OConnor (1925-1964)
  • Born in Savannah, OConnors stories of the South
    dealt with strange, unusual characters and
    spiritual thoughts about deep issues.
  • Most famous work Its Hard to Find a Good Man

71
Jackie Robinson
  • 1st African- American to play Major League
    Baseball.
  • 1st ever Rookie of the Year winner.
  • Born in Cairo, Ga.
  • Spoke to Congress for racial equality

72
Thurgood Marshall (1908-1993)
  • Winning lawyer of the Brown v. Bd. Of Education
    case.
  • 1st African-American to serve on the U.S. Supreme
    Court.
  •  In recognizing the humanity of our fellow
    beings, we pay ourselves the highest
    tribute.Thurgood Marshall

73
Rosa Parks
  • In 1955, Rosa was arrested in Montgomery, Alabama
    for not giving up her seat to a white passenger.
    Her case led to a bus boycott led by Dr. King,
    Jr.
  • Ms. Parks won the Congressional Gold Medal in
    1999- the nations highest civil honor. Bill
    Clinton said, Her action that December day was,
    in itself, a simple one but it required uncommon
    courageRosa Parks short bus trip, and all the
    distance she has traveled in the years since,
    have brought the American people ever closer to
    the promised land we know it can truly be.

74
Martin Luther King, Jr.
  • Civil Rights Movement of Non-Violence
  • Led SCLC
  • Won Nobel Peace Prize
  • Got LBJ to sign Civil Rights Bill Voting Rights
    Act

75
Malcolm X
  • Led Black protest movement, allowing for violent
    responses to prejudice. Later, hes killed by his
    former group.
  • A man who believes in freedom will do anything
    under the sun to acquire . . . or preserve his
    freedom."

76
Rita Moreno (1950-)
  • One of the few people to win an Oscar, a Tony, an
    Emmy, and a Grammy throughout her long career.
  • Her most famous role was in the movie version of
    the musical Westside Story.
  • She has been one of the leading entertainers of
    the past century.

77
Cesar Chavez (1927-1993)
  • As a son of a migrant worker in the 1930s,
    Chavez attended 37 elementary schools in his
    career.
  • Later, he led boycotts as a union leader to get
    better pay and conditions for workers. His
    efforts led to a national farm workers union
    that used non-violent strikes and boycotts for
    improvements for these migrant workers.
  • I really hadnt thought much about what I was
    going to do, but I had to do something.

78
1970s- Present
  • Jimmy Carters presidency found its greatest
    success in human rights and world peace
    initiatives.
  • Sandra Day OConnor was appointed by President
    Reagan to be the 1st woman to serve on the U.S.
    Supreme Court.
  • Jesse Jackson (Rainbow Coalition) became the
    1st serious African-American candidate in 1984.
  • The Americans with Disabilities Ace was passed in
    1990 to bar discrimination based on physical or
    mental disabilities.
  • Women serving in combat units in the military
    began.

79
1970s- Present
  • Geraldine Ferraro (1984) Sarah Palin (2008)
    become the 1st women ever to run for the
    Vice-President. Hillary Clinton becomes the 1st
    serious woman candidate for President (2008).
  • Anti-Immigration laws (Arizona Georgia) are
    strengthened to deal with illegal aliens and
    our borders.
  • After 9/11, Homeland Security is created to
    protect the U.S. from terrorist attacks. This
    includes greater scrutiny of travelers to our
    country.
  • Barack Obama (2008) is the first African-American
    to be elected as President.

80
Gloria Steinem (1934-)
  • Founder of Ms. Magazine, she was a leader of the
    feminist movement of the 1970s. (The Ms. title
    was used to replace Miss and Mrs..
  • 1n 1971, her group, the Womens Political Caucus,
    encouraged women to run for political office.
  • I have yet to hear a man ask for advice on how
    to combine marriage and a career.

81
Phyllis Schlafly
  • A leading conservative thinker who led the
    resistance against the Equal Rights Amendment.
    She moved the debate from political economic
    issues to cultural ones that attacked the social
    order.
  • The U.S. Constitution is not the place for
    symbols or slogans it would be a tragic mistake
    for our nation to succumb to the tirades and
    demands of a few women who are seeking a
    constitutional cure to their personal problems.

82
Red Power (Alcatraz)
  • In November, 1969, an 18 month occupation of the
    island of Alcatraz was held by Native Americans
    they demanded it to be given back and used to
    build an Indian university and cultural center.
    They were removed in June, 1971.
  • Later, President Nixon did return 48,000 acres to
    the Taos Indians.

83
Russell Means (1960-1970s)
  • Leader of the American Indian Movement (AIM), he
    organized the Trail of Broken Treaties and
    delivered to Washington D.C. building for the
    Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA).
  • In 1975, Congress passed the Indian
    Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act,
    which gave tribes greater control over their
    people.

84
Roberto Clemente(1934-1972)
  • 1st Hispanic elected to the Baseball Hall of
    Fame.
  • Played for the Pirates for 18 years, won 12
    Golden Gloves in a row, and an MVP award.
  • He died taking supplies to Panama and was awarded
    the U.S. Presidential Medal of Freedom.

85
Henry Aaron
  • Broke Babe Ruths Home Run Record
  • Withstood racial prejudice while breaking the
    record
  • Silver Bat Award is named for him

86
Sarah Day OConnor (1980s)
  • President Reagan chose OConnor to be the 1st
    lady to serve on the U.S. Supreme Court.
  • The power I exert on the court depends on the
    power of my arguments, not on my gender.

87
Andrew Young
  • Martin L. Kings entourage with Jesse Jackson
    John Lewis
  • U.S. Representative to the United Nations.
  • Mayor of Atlanta

88
Bill Richardson(1947-)
  • 1st Hispanic to hold the postion of U.S.
    ambassador to the U.N. Hes also been a
    Congressman 1st Hispanic to be governor of New
    Mexico. He also ran for President in 2008.
  • He has been nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize
    three times in his life.

89
Hillary Rodham Clinton
  • From serving as First Lady to U.S. Senator to
    Presidential candidate, to serving as Sec. of
    State for President Obama, she has played a vital
    role in American politics since the 1990s.

90
Barack Obama
  • 1st African-American President
  • 4th president to win Nobel Peace Prize
  • National Health Care Bill is passed
  • Promised Change

91
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