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Nursing Informatics

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Title: Nursing Informatics


1
Nursing Informatics
  • Unit 2 Electronic communication

2
Electronic communications
  • Why is electronic communications essential in
    health care?
  • Communicating through email and through
    teleconferencing can enable research, education
    and clinical expertise.
  • It brings relevant information to the health care
    professional and to the public.
  • It can result in quick communication of
    information.
  • It enables to access to various services which
    would not be available without connection.
  • It continues to grow.

3
The history of computing
  • Late 1800s steam powered machines that transfer
    information onto punch cards
  • 1918 A calculator that is based on binary
  • 1940s With the onset of the Second World War,
    the Germans, British and Americans advanced the
    development of computers to exchange strategic
    information.
  • 1945 Electronic calculator
  • 1960s Computer scientist begin exploring ways
    to directly connect remote computers and their
    users.
  • 1969 the U.S. government Department of Defense
    Advanced Research Agency (ARPA), funded a pilot
    network called ARPANET.
  • The main goal of ARPANET was to conduct research
    and to develop a reliable network with
    researchers and universities.
  • This goal was accomplished and the military began
    using the Internet in war.
  • ARPANET quickly became popular and many
    universities wanted access to accommodate
    research activities and the growing desire to
    expand doors to numerous sites.

4
The history of the Internet
  • Early 1980s ARPANET established an IP (Internet
    Protocol) to interconnect research networks.
  • The National Science Foundation then developed
    NSFNET.
  • 1990 ARPANET was shut down and NSFNET now
    provides the backbone.
  • In Canada, research networking began in the early
    1980s.
  • Most of the larger universities began expensive
    multi-year projects to get connected.

5
The development of the Internet
  • In many countries, the backbone of the Internet
    in that country is funded by government
    organizations.
  • In the U.S., the National Science Foundation
    provides this funding.
  • In Canada, CAnet is the backbone of the
    Internet. It is run by CANARIE, Canadian Network
    for the Advancement of Research, Industry and
    Education).
  • Although there is no specific governance of the
    Internet, the Internet is overseen by various
    groups and associations (ie. Internet Society,
    Internet Architecture Board).

6
What is CANARIE?
  • CANARIE Inc. - Canada's advanced Internet
    development organization - is a not-for-profit
    corporation supported by its members, project
    partners and the Federal Government.
  • CANARIE's mission is to accelerate Canada's
    advanced Internet development and use by
    facilitating the widespread adoption of faster,
    more efficient networks and by enabling the next
    generation of advanced products, applications and
    services to run on them (CANARIE, 2004).
  • CANARIE is dedicated to the research and
    implementation of advanced networks and
    applications that will stimulate economic growth
    and increase Canada's international
    competitiveness.

7
What is CANARIE?
  • CANARIE has already succeeded in enhancing
    Canadian Internet speeds by a factor of almost
    one million since its inception in 1993.
  • CANARIE has also funded numerous advanced
    Internet applications projects, providing some
    500 companies with the opportunity to achieve
    business success through innovation.
  • CANARIE also intends to act as a catalyst and
    partner with governments, industry and the
    research community to increase overall IT
    awareness, ensure continuing promotion of
    Canadian technological excellence and ultimately,
    foster long-term productivity and improvement of
    living standards.

8
What is CANARIE and CAnet?
  • The original CAnet was created in 1990 with
    support from the National Research Council. Its
    purpose was to provide Internet connectivity
    between universities and research organizations
    in Canada, with connections to similar networks
    in other countries. That initiative and the
    organizations that took part in it were the
    pioneers of the Internet in Canada.
  • By supporting and building a Canadian backbone,
    Canadians were assured connectivity from coast to
    coast and to northern cities including
    Yellowknife and Whitehorse. For several years,
    CAnet was the only Internet backbone in Canada.
  • CAnet II was launched officially on June 26th,
    1997, and immediately set the standard for
    advanced, next-generation networks around the
    world. It was and remains a virtual network.

9
What is CANARIE and CAnet?
  • As with the original CAnet, CAnet II connects
    to individual universities, government labs and
    research institutes.
  • In February 1998, the federal government
    announced a 55 million commitment to CANARIE to
    build a national optical Internet network, CAnet
    3.
  • CA net3 is 250 times the speed of the current
    CAnet II backbone and roughly 750,000 times the
    speed of the original CAnet.
  • It represented the first Optical Internet.

10
What is CANARIE and CAnet?
  • In 1998, CANARIE deployed CAnet 3, the world's
    first national optical Internet research and
    education network.
  • CAnet 3 was among the most advanced in the world
    when it was built, and its design has since been
    replicated by many network operators, both in the
    research and education as well as commercial
    domains.
  • However, exponential growth in network traffic,
    expected growth in new high bandwidth
    applications, and planned extreme high bandwidth
    grid projects require that a new network be built
    to support leading-edge research in Canada.
  • To this end, the Government of Canada committed
    110 million to CANARIE for the design,
    deployment, and operation of CAnet 4.

11
CAnet 3 CAnet4
  • CAnet 4, as did its predecessor CAnet 3,
    interconnects the provincial research networks,
    and through universities, research centres,
    government research laboratories, schools, and
    other eligible sites, both with each other and
    with international peer networks.
  • Through a series of point-to-point optical
    wavelengths, CAnet 4 yields a total initial
    network capacity of between four and eight times
    that of CAnet 3.

12
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13
Broadband access technologies
  • Satellite
  • Terrestrial
  • Optical Fiber
  • Cable
  • ADSL
  • Wireless

14
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15
Connecting to the Internet
  • A modem enables a computer to transmit
    information over a standard telephone line.
  • A direct or dedicated connection wires a computer
    directly to the Internet through a router or a
    gateway. This type of connection is more
    expensive and usually is the method of connection
    for large organizations.
  • A remote connection can be made by using
    anothers gateway.
  • The most common way to connect to the Internet is
    by subscribing to an Internet Service Provider
    (ISP).

16
Connecting to the Internet
17
Accessing information on the Internet
  • Common methods of accessing information on the
    Internet are
  • Email electronic mail that allows sending and
    receiving of messages between computers across a
    network. Most useful tool due to speed of
    transfer.
  • FTP file transfer protocol is a way of sharing
    files through a secured address. A user ID and
    password is required to send and receive.
  • USENET newsgroups, online discussions that store
    messages and can been viewed by all. Comparable
    to a bulletin board.
  • Listservs Email distribution list.
  • Chat Rooms synchronous discussions, real-time

18
Accessing information on the Internet
  • WWW World Wide Web is the fastest growing part
    of the Internet. It is a computer based
    information resources connected together. Offers
    universal access to information. Although there
    is no clear map on using it, the web uses
    hypertext and hypermedia.
  • Browser The web can be viewed using a browser
    which is an application used to access the Web
    and its functionality (Netscape, Internet
    Explorer).
  • Intranet the internet allows users to read
    files, listen to music and view text from various
    locations, the intranet is an in-house
    communication network.

19
Yesterdays Internet
  • Thousands of users
  • Remote login, file transfer
  • Interconnect mainframe computers
  • Applications capitalize on underlying technology

20
Todays Internet
  • Millions of users
  • Web, email, low-quality audio video
  • Interconnect personal computers and servers
  • Applications adapt to underlying technology

21
Tomorrows Internet
  • Billions of users and devices
  • Convergence of todays applications with
    multimedia (telephony, video-conference, HDTV)
  • Interconnect personal computers, servers, and
    embedded computers
  • New technologies enable unanticipated
    applications (and create new challenges)

22
Some points to consider
  • The Internet was not designed for
  • Millions of users
  • Congestion
  • Multimedia
  • Real time interaction
  • But, only the Internet can
  • Accommodate explosive growth
  • Enable convergence of information, mass media,
    and human collaboration

23
Some points to consider
  • Only the Internet can
  • Provide reliable end-to-end performance
  • Encourage cooperation on new capabilities
  • Allow testing of new technologies
  • Support development of revolutionary applications

24
What are the possibilities?
25
What are the possibilities?
  • Here is an example of a virtual space lab

26
What are the possibilities?
  • Here is an example of a telemedicine consultation

27
What are the possibilities?
  • Here is an example of a virtual classroom

28
E Learning
  • E Learning is a means of using technology to
    enhance learning.
  • The characteristics of the teacher using
    technology is often described as the guide on
    the side or the facilitator.
  • The students take an active role in acquiring,
    integrating, synthesizing and analyzing
    information.
  • Technology can provide the mechanism for
    interactive learning and electronic
    communication.
  • This can be done face-to-face or virtually!
  • The use of technology supports adult learning
    theory and life-long learning.

29
References
  • Canadian Nurses Association. (2001). What is
    nursing informatics and why is it so important?
    Nursing Now, 11, Retrieved on August 20, 2004,
    http//www.cna-nurses.ca/_frames/issuestrends/issu
    estrendsframe.htm
  • CANARIE . (2004). CANARIE. CAnet. Retrieved on
    September 2, 2004, http www.canarie.ca
  • Royle, J. Blythe, J. (2003). Using information
    technology to enhance nursing practice A Study.
    Nursing Effectiveness, Utilization and Outcomes
    Research Unit. Retrieved on August 30, 2004,
    http//www-fhs.mcmaster.ca/nru/publications/factsh
    eets/UsingInfoTechnologytoEnhance.pdf
  • Young, K. M. (2000). Informatics for healthcare
    professionals. Philadelphia F.A. Davis Company.
  •  
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