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Informatics and Evidence-based Practice

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Informatics and Evidence-based Practice M8120 Fall 2001 Suzanne Bakken, RN, DNSc, FAAN School of Nursing & Department of Medical Informatics Columbia University – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Informatics and Evidence-based Practice


1
Informatics andEvidence-based Practice
  • M8120
  • Fall 2001
  • Suzanne Bakken, RN, DNSc, FAAN
  • School of Nursing Department of Medical
    Informatics
  • Columbia University

2
Whats the Problem in Practice?
  • Avoidable errors
  • Under-utilization of services
  • Overuse of services
  • Variation in services
  • Gap between best practice and actual practice

3
Ways of Knowing for Practice
  • Tradition
  • Authority
  • Personal experience
  • Trial and error
  • Intuition
  • Logical reasoning inductive or deductive
  • Systematic inquiry

4
What is Evidence-Based Practice?
  • Evidence-based medicine is the practice of making
    medical decisions through the judicious
    identification, evaluation, and application of
    the most relevant information (Friedland, 1998)

5
What is Evidence-Based Practice?
  • Traditional conceptualizations
  • Research utilization
  • Clinical trials-based
  • Clinical practice guidelines
  • Application of domain knowledge to patient care
  • Evidence as a continuum

6
What Data Do We Need for Evidence-Based Practice?
  • Information about the patient
  • Domain information and knowledge (the evidence)
    from systematic inquiry and other sources

7
Informatics Supports
  • Building the evidence
  • Retrieving the evidence
  • Analyzing the evidence
  • Applying the evidence

8
Foundation for Evidence-based Practice
  • Standardized terminologies
  • Digital sources of evidence
  • Standards that facilitate health care data
    exchange
  • Informatics competencies
  • Informatics processes that support the
    acquisition and application of evidence to a
    specific clinical situation

9
Standardized Terminologies
  • Capture patient care data in a standardized
    fashion
  • Facilitate data re-use and aggregation
  • Index information resources
  • Facilitate information retrieval

10
Standardized Terminologies
System Problem/Dx Interventions
Outcomes NANDA Taxonomy 1 x Current
Procedural Terminology x Nursing
Interventions Classification x Omaha
System x x x Home Health Care
Classification x x x International
Classification of Diseases x SNOMED
International x x x Nursing Outcomes
Classification x National Health Service
Clinical Terms (Read) x x x Medcin x x x
First Data Bank Pharmacy KB x x
11
Outcomes of Interest
  • Traditional
  • Mortality
  • Morbidity
  • Health services utilization
  • Clinical phenomena (e.g., pain, decubitus ulcers)
  • Patient health status
  • Knowledge
  • Caregiver
  • Family
  • Community

12
M8120
  • Strengths and weaknesses of existing
    terminologies
  • National and international standardization
    efforts related to representing concepts in
    computer-based
  • Unified Medical Language System

13
Foundation for Evidence-based Practice
  • Standardized terminologies
  • Digital sources of evidence
  • Standards that facilitate health care data
    exchange
  • Informatics competencies
  • Informatics processes that support the
    acquisition and application of evidence to a
    specific clinical situation

14
Types and Sources of Digital Evidence
  • Bibliographic
  • Primary literature
  • Synthesized
  • Practice parameters
  • Standards of care
  • Practice guidelines
  • Disease management plans
  • Comparative databases
  • Knowledge bases
  • Diagnostic decision support systems
  • Pharmacy

15
M8120
  • Bibliographic sources
  • Primary
  • Cochrane Collaboration
  • Diagnostic decision support systems
  • Clinical practice guidelines

16
Foundation for Evidence-based Practice
  • Standardized terminologies
  • Digital sources of evidence
  • Standards that facilitate health care data
    exchange
  • Informatics competencies
  • Informatics processes that support the
    acquisition and application of evidence to a
    specific clinical situation

17
Standards for Healthcare Data Exchange for EBP
  • Data and knowledge representation
  • Messaging
  • Privacy, confidentiality, and security
  • Digital library

18
M8120
  • Data and knowledge representation
  • Messaging
  • Privacy, confidentiality, and security

19
Foundation for Evidence-based Practice
  • Standardized terminologies
  • Digital sources of evidence
  • Standards that facilitate health care data
    exchange
  • Informatics competencies
  • Informatics processes that support the
    acquisition and application of evidence to a
    specific clinical situation

20
Informatics Competencies
  • Acquire various types of data, information, and
    knowledge
  • Organize data, information, and knowledge
  • Critically analyze and synthesize data,
    information, and knowledge
  • Apply data, information, and knowledge in the
    clinical decision making and care provision
    process
  • Use informatics-based approaches and information
    technologies in clinical decision making and care
    provision process

21
Basic Computer Literacy Skills Required for M8120
Assignments
  • Access and download documents from WWW
  • E-mail and e-mail attachments
  • Word-processing
  • Power point slide presentation
  • These will not be taught in M8120! Classes
    available on campus.

22
M8120 Informatics Competencies
  • Acquire various types of data, information, and
    knowledge
  • Retrieve EBP literature from a variety of sources
    (Medline, CINAHL, CliniWeb, Cochrane
    Collaboration)
  • Organize data, information, and knowledge
  • Organize literature retrieved using a systematic
    approach (e.g., EndNote)

23
M8120 Informatics Competencies
  • Critically analyze and synthesize data,
    information, and knowledge
  • Prognosis
  • Diagnosis
  • Clinical practice guideline
  • Therapy
  • Apply data, information, and knowledge in the
    clinical decision making and care provision
    process
  • Evidence-based practice synthesis
  • Assessment of practice relevance in critiques
  • Expected value decision making
  • DXplain

24
Foundation for Evidence-based Practice
  • Standardized terminologies
  • Digital sources of evidence
  • Standards that facilitate health care data
    exchange
  • Informatics competencies
  • Informatics processes that support the
    acquisition and application of evidence to a
    specific clinical situation

25
Informatics-based Approaches
  • Patient care systems
  • Integration of disparate sources
  • MedWeaver
  • Skolar and Skolar RN
  • Task-specific information retrieval
  • Infobuttons
  • Alerts and reminders related to practice
    guidelines
  • Tailored delivery of informational and
    educational interventions
  • PatCIS
  • MI Heart
  • Elicitation of client preferences
  • Expected value decision making (decision analysis)

26
Patient Care Systems
  • Electronic health records
  • Care management (e.g., care plans, critical
    pathways)
  • Ancillary systems
  • Laboratory
  • Radiology
  • Pharmacy

27
Integration of Disparate Sources
28
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29
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30
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31
Task-Specific Information Retrieval
32
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33
Tailored Delivery of Informational and
Educational Interventions
34
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35
Elicitation and Incorporation of Client
Preferences
36
Standard gamble
37
Expected Value Decision Making
38
A Simple Decision Tree
No cure
U2
Disease present
p.90
No cure
U2
Do not operate
Survive
p.10
p.10
p.10 p.90
U20
Cure
Try for the cure
p.90 p.10
p.90

U20


Cure
Disease absent
Disease present
Operative death U0 Operative death U0
p.10
Cure
p.02 p.98
U20
Palliate
p.10 p.90
Operative death
Operate
Survive
U0
U2
p.01 p.99
p.90
No Cure
Disease absent
U20
Survive
39
M8120
  • Electronic health records
  • Dxplain
  • Alerts and reminders
  • Expected value decision making (Data 3.5)
  • Interactive health communication
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