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Title: Functional Foods and Improved Industrial Value Toni Voelker Calgene Campus, Monsanto Company


1
Biotech Promise or Peril?
Presentation by Martina McGloughlin Director, UC
Systemwide Biotech Research and Education
Program www.biotech.ucdavis.edu/
http//ucsystembiotech.ucdavis.edu
AGST 3000 Agriculture, Society and the Natural
World
2
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3
The public has come to mistrust technology and
question the motives of scientists
4
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5
Biotechnology is not new
  • 6500 BC Encrusted residue in the shards of a
    hunter-gatherer camp unearthed in 1983 by
    Edinburgh archaeologist - Neolithic heather beer
  • 4000 BC Tigris-Euphrates cradle of civilization -
    viticulture established. Babylonia beer a more
    popular drink - climate more suited to growing
    grains than grapes. In Mesopotamia 40 of cereal
    production went into beer production.
  • 3000 BC Celts independently discover the art of
    brewing -Pliny the elder notes Western nations
    intoxicate themselves by means of moistened
    grain
  • Solom Katz, anthropologist suggests that these
    discoveries led to the transformation from
    hunting gathering to agricultural societies about
    10,000 year.

6
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7
  • Industrial biotechnology applications have led to
    cleaner processes with lower production of wastes
    and lower energy consumption
  • 90 of the enzymes used in large scale for
    commercial applications result from the
    exploitation of rDNA methods in the manufacturing
    process or for the improvement of the catalysts
    themselves.

8
Industrial Applications
  • Food human and animal
  • Cleaning
  • Textiles
  • Pulp and paper
  • Leather and Tanning
  • Fuels
  • Chemicals
  • Metals, minerals and energy.

9
We have recently advanced our knowledge of
genetics to the point where we can manipulate
life in a way never intended by nature. We must
proceed with the utmost caution in the
application of this new found knowledge.
LUTHER BURBANK, 1906
10
Frankly, I think well regret introducing
these organisms into the environment.
Drawing by Loren c1987 The New Yorker
Magazine.Inc.
11
  • Of the 90 million pop added each year, more than
    95 are born in the developing countries. Asia's
    growth of 58 million pa largest Africa's of
    2.9, is the steepest.
  • Losing about 3,000 square meters of forest and
    1,000 tons of topsoil every second arable land
    shrinks by 20,000 hectares yearly. Erosion made
    billion hectares of soil unusable for
    agriculture.
  • More than 25 of the grain needed in Africa is
    imported, while up to 40 of the harvest may be
    lost due to post-harvest damage

12
The Crop Agriculture Technology Timeline graph
Cultivation Selective Cross breeding Cell
culture Somaclonal variation Embryo rescue
Polyembryogenesis Mutagensis and selection
Anther culture Recombinant DNA Marker assisted
selection Genomics Bioinformatics ---omics Systems
Biology
2,000 BC 19thC Ea 20th C Md 20th
C 1930s 1940s 1950s 1970s 1980 1980s 1990s 2
000 2000 21st C
An Assyrian relief carving from 870 B.C. showing
artificial pollination of date palms.
13
Gamma Field for radiation breeding
100m radius 89 TBq Co-60 source at the
center Shielding dike 8m high
Institute of Radiation Breeding Ibaraki-ken,
JAPAN http//www.irb.affrc.go.jp/
14
Asian pear improved by radiation breeding
Gold Nijusseiki resistant to black spot
disease.
Nijus-seiki suscep-tible to black spot disease
Institute of Radiation Breeding Ibaraki-ken,
JAPAN http//www.irb.affrc.go.jp/
15
Pear radiation bred
CA
http//www.irb
16
Nutrition Facts Serving Size 2 Cookies
(33g) Servings per container 6 Amount per
serving Calories 140
Calories from fat 60 Total Fat 6g,
11 Daily Value Saturated Fat
2.5g 12 Cholesterol 20 mg
7 Sodium 65 mg
3 Total carbohydrate 19g
6 Protein 1g Vitamin A 4 PRODUCED
WITH GENETICALLY ENGINEERED INGREDIENTS INGREDIEN
TS UNBLEACHED WHEAT FLOUR, CANOLA OIL,
EVAPORATED CANE JUICE, BUTTER, STRAWBERRY JAM
(APPLE CONCENTRATE, STRAWBERRY CONCENTRATE,
WATER, STRAWBERRIES, LOCUST BEAN GUM, PECTIN,
CITRIC ACID), EGGS, WHEY, SALT, BAKING SODA
17
Nutrition Facts Serving Size 2 Cookies
(33g) Servings per container 6 Amount per
serving Calories 140
Calories from fat 60 Total Fat 6g,
11 Daily Value Saturated Fat
2.5g 12 Cholesterol 20 mg
7 Sodium 65 mg
3 Total carbohydrate 19g
6 Protein 1g Vitamin A 4 PRODUCT
OF RADIATION BREEDING DERIVED FROM CHEMICALLY
INDUCED MUTATIONS PRODUCT OF WIDE GENETIC CROSS
AND OVULE RESCUE CONSTITUENTS ALTERED BY
TRANSPOSON MUTAGENESIS PRODUCED WITH GENETICALLY
ENGINEERED INGREDIENTS INGREDIENTS UNBLEACHED
WHEAT FLOUR, CANOLA OIL, EVAPORATED CANE JUICE,
BUTTER, STRAWBERRY JAM (APPLE CONCENTRATE,
STRAWBERRY CONCENTRATE, WATER, STRAWBERRIES,
LOCUST BEAN GUM, PECTIN, CITRIC ACID), EGGS,
WHEY, SALT, BAKING SODA
18
This product contains potentially toxic genes
from deadly nightshade
19
Radish
Cabbage
A Russian scientist named Karpechenko promised
Stalin that he could double productivity by
crossing a cabbage with a radish
20
Radish
Cabbage
Raphanobrassica
Instead Karpechenko introduced a brand new
species to science and went to Siberia for his
efforts!! (Traditional crossbreeding selection,
mutation breeding, somaclonal selection and wide
crosses allow no control at the genome level and
it may take years of backcrossing to remove
unwanted effects)
21
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22
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23
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24
Lycopersicon esculentum
Lycopersicon chmielewskii
Back- cross series
Tomato Cultivar
25
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26
Crop Biotechnology
  • Agronomic Traits
  • Biotic Stress
  • Insect Resistance Bt, cystatin
  • Disease Resistance
  • Viral- coat protein protection (Papaya ringspot
    virus)
  • Bacterial, Fungal, Nematode (Rice blight, rice
    blast)
  • Weed- herbicide tolerance (Striga, orobanchia)
  • ABiotic Stress
  • Drought, Cold, Heat
  • Poor soil
  • Salinity tomatoes with transport protein
  • Aluminum -Citric acid

27
Crop Biotechnology continued…
  • Yield
  • Nitrogen Assimilation
  • nodulation by rhizobia,
  • GDH metabolic enzyme
  • Starch Biosynthesis, O2 Assimilation,
    photosynthesis/Rubisco

28
Crop Biotechnology continued…
  • Quality Traits
  • Processing
  • Post harvest loss reduction
  • Reproduction sex barriers, male sterility,
    seedless fruit
  • Nutrients (Nutraceuticals)
  • Macro Protein (Cassava-ASP), Carbohydrates,
    Fats, Fiber
  • Micro vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals
  • Anti-nutrients Phytase, Toxin removal

29
Crop Biotechnology continued…
  • Novel Crop Products
  • Proteins nutraceuticals, therapeutics, vaccines
  • Renewable resources
  • Biomass conversion, feedstocks, biofuels,
    phytoremediation

30
50 million hectares/ 125 million acres, world
wide 2001. This is more than a 10 year-on-year
growth compared with 2000.
31
Risk/Benefit of Bt Corn
  • Reduction of gt 46M lbs of pesticides by adopters
    of combined technologies
  • Studies found a 90-93 reduction in fumonisin in
    Bt ears
  • No Cry9C specific antibodies in any of
    individuals claiming an allergic response
  • PNAS Papers show Monarchs not in Danger

Insect feeding is one of the main pathways by
which mold infects grain
Iowa State University, USDA, Univerity of
Vermont
32
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33
Roundup Ready Soybeans
34
Benefits for the Farmer and the Environment
Improves Weed Control Fewer apps, less risk,
weather
Improves Farm Efficiency Less labor, time, use of
machinery
Encourages Adoption of No-till
Herbicide-tolerant crops
Losing about 3,000 square meters of forest and
1,000 tons of topsoil every second arable land
shrinks by 20,000 hectares yearly. Erosion made
billion hectares of soil unusable for agriculture.
  • Reduces Crop Injury
  • crop rotation

Sources National Center for Food and
Agricultural Policy, 2000, Kalaitzandanakes,
2001,
35
Decrease in application to soybean of herbicides
with groundwater advisory labeling
13
12
8
Million Kg active ingredient
5
1996
1997
1998
1999
Source Doane Market Research Groundwater
advisory herbicides registered for use on
soybeans acifluorfen, alachlor, bentazon,
dimethenamid, metolachlor, s-metolachlor,
metribuzin, flumetsulam, and fomesafen.
36
Percentage of Illinois water monitoring samples
containing major corn herbicides, 1999
Watershed planted to
12
10
Glyphosate-tolerant corn
8
Percentage of water samples contaminated
6
Conventional corn
4
2
0
gt4PPB
2-4PPB
Data of Acetochlor Registration Partnership (ARP)
of Monsanto and Zeneca corn herbicides
alachlor, metolachlor, atrazine, EPTC, butylate,
2,4-D, and acetochlor (provided by David
Gustafson) NOTE named herbicides cause no
detected contamination in most watersheds in
which they are used
37
Papaya ringspot virus in Hawaii
Aerial view of transgenic field trial in Puna
that was started in October 1995. The solid block
of green papaya trees are 'UH-Rainbow' while the
surrounding papaya trees that are nearly dead are
nontransgenic papaya trees severely infected by
PRSV.
Field trial of transgenic 'UH Rainbow' and 'UH
SunUp' was established in Puna in October 1995.
Slides show the progress of the disease caused by
PRSV in rows of nontransgenic papaya (left in
picure) as compared to the resistance in rows of
'UH Rainbow' (right in picture).
38
Papaya ringspot virus in Hawaii
39
Papaya ringspot virus in Hawaii
40
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41
Xylella fastidiosa
Biotech may have an answer for Pierces Disease
42
Natural Disease Resistance Genes Have Been Cloned
43
Natural Resistance Genes
A gene conferring resistance to nematodes in
tomato (Mi) has been cloned. Surprisingly, it
also confers resistance to an insect (aphids). It
may be possible to enhance natural pathways of
pest resistance to improve broad spectrum
tolerance. Valerie Williamson, Nematology, UC
Davis
44
STRIGA
Striga (Scrophulariaceae) is a genus of obligate
root-parasitic flowering plants. All of the
cultivated food-crop cereals in Africa are
parasitized by one or more Striga spp. Striga
spp. in the savanna regions alone account for
7 billion and are detrimental to the lives of
over 100 million African people.
Host plants release factors required by parasitic
plants Striga causes massive losses to crops in
Africacontrol strategy to inactivate host
recognition factors - John Yoder, UC Davis,
45
Host plants release factors required by parasitic
plants control strategy to inactivate host
recognition factors
Host plants
Parasitic plants
maize cowpea Arabidopsis
Striga Orobanche Triphysaria
Seed germination
46
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47
  • Crop production is limited by salinity on 40
    world's irrigated land and on 25 USA about 1/5
    California.
  • Blumwald and Zhang genetically engineered tomato
    plants that produce higher levels of a "transport
    protein.
  • Plants grow and produce fruit even in irrigation
    water that is gt 50X saltier than normal. gt 1/3
    salty as seawater.
  • Nature Biotech, July 31, 2001

48
Modify Fruit Ripening To Improve Quality and
Reduce Postharvest Losses
Fruit ripening has been modified by altering the
activity of cell wall enzymes, such as
polygalacturonase, that are involved in tissue
softening and deterioration. The biosynthesis
of ethylene, the fruit-ripening hormone, has also
been blocked in several ways to delay fruit
ripening. Ethylene can then be applied to induce
ripening when desired, as is currently done with
tomatoes and bananas.
49
Improved Nutritional Content
  • Many of our common food crops are not perfect
    with respect to the nutritional requirements of
    humans or animals.
  • Macro Protein, Carbohydrates, Fats,
    fibre,composition
  • Micro vitamins, minerals, antioxidants,
    carotenoids, isoflavonoids, glucosinolates,
    fibre lignins, condensed tannins
  • Anti-nutrients Phytase, Allergen and Toxin
    reduction
  • Novel Crop Products
  • Oils
  • Proteins nutraceuticals, therapeutics, vaccines
  • Probiotics

Nutritional Genomics
50
Modification of Fatty Acid Biosynthesis
High-CLA Antioxidative effects -- free radicals
heart disease/cancer
Reduce Saturates Vegetable Oil Salad/cooking
Increase Stearate Margarines, Shortenings, Cocoa
Butter Replacer
Metabolic Pathway Engineer Fatty Acids
Increase Oleic Acid Frying, Biodiesel, Lub
Longer-shelflife oil Los sat fat milk/meat
Engineer Long Chains (221, 241) Feedstock for
Polymer Industry/lub
Low-Linolenic /palmetic Resistant to oxidation
degradation (Mayo)
Engineer 120 (Laurate) Soaps, Cocoa Butter
Replacer
Omega -3 Fish Oil D6D Cardiovascular/thrombosis
Cancer/ Arthritis/Cognitive /mental illness/
Infant nut/premie
Engineer 100 (MCFA) Medical Applications, High
Energy Diets
Lox Null (Lipoxygenase 0,0,0) Reduced Off-flavors

51
Plant Metabolic Engineering (beware of flux!)
High- Lysine Methionine Better Amino Acid
Ratio Feed Rations/low pollution
(Amaranthus/potato)
Yield Nitrogen metab GDH Starch ADPGP/ Rubisco
Oligofructans GI Tract health Competition/SC
Fatty acid
Metabolic Pathway Engineer Proteins Transcript Fac
tors
Vitamins E a-tocopherol g-TMT A b-carotene
Low-Stachyose galatose, and raffinose Higher
energy-lower indigestible carbo - sweeter
Phyto chemical Glucosinolates Phenolics - flavonol
Low-Phytate (High) Availability of
Phosph Divalent ions
High-Isoflavone Weak estrogenic
activity Antioxidative effects-- free radicals --
heart disease /cancer /osteoporosis IS-PP
Toxins (lower) Glycoalkaloids Cyanogenic
glycosides Phytohaemaglutinin
Allergens (remove) Removal p35 in soy Gluten
digestion

Plant Physiol, January (2001) 125, pp. 160-163.
Plant Metabolic Engineering, Dean DellaPenna
52
OTHER IMPORTANT MICRONUTRIENTS
53
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54
Increased b-Carotene in Rice Grains
Over 120 million children worldwide are deficient
in vitamin A. Rice has been engineered to
accumulate b-carotene, Incorporation of this
trait into rice cultivars and widespread
distribution could prevent 1 to 2 million deaths
each year.
Normal rice
(bacteria)
Ferritin, an iron-rich bean storage
protein, Phytase, an enzyme that breaks down
phytate making Fe available, reabsorption of
iron, a gene for a cystein-rich
metallothionein-like protein has been engineered
into rice
(daffodil)
Ye et al. (2000) Science 287 303-305.
55
Transient expression systems in tobacco using TMV
cassette
56
Genomics tools Genotype selected largest
possible number of genes for traits of economic
importance disease and pest resistance, improved
yield, shelflife, more nutritive better quality.

Nutritional Genomics
Genome
Gene map
Gene sequence
Gene expression
Ag traits
c
Yield
t
Drought
a
t
t
Disease
Protein Met
t
t
t
a
t
a
t
Stress
Oil quality
a
a
t
Phytochemicals
t
a
t
t
a
Disease
Yield
Maturity
t
t
a
Herbicide tolerance
Microarrays representing thousands of individual
genes allow very high throughput analysis of
genes and gene expression patterns.
Advances in sequencing and genome analysis and in
the associated information technology will
accelerate the discovery and characterization of
genes having potential utility for crop
improvement.
57
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58
PUBLIC CONCERNS ABOUT BIOTECHNOLOGY
  • Ethics of genetic modification (interfering with
    nature)
  • Safety of food and of introducing genetically
    engineered organisms into the environment
  • The alleged radical novelty, unpredictability, or
    irreversibility of biotechnology
  • Possible negative impacts on employment or small
    farms
  • Trust or lack of trust of government regulatory
    agencies
  • Enhancement of corporate power and ownership of
    intellectual property
  • Negative Globalization - Possible exploitation of
    developing countries
  • Possible mistreatment of animals

59
MAJOR OBSTACLES TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
  • The level of scientific literacy among the public
  • The lack of clear and tangible benefits of
    agricultural biotechnology from the perspective
    of the consumer
  • The lack of concern among the public for the
    integrity of agriculture
  • Regulatory complexities
  • Slowly developed databases
  • Opposition by groups philosophically opposed
  • Public uncertainties which arise from normal
    scientific debate
  • Cultural and historical diversity

60
SCIENTIFIC CONCERNS ABOUT BIOTECHNOLOGY
  • Food Safety
  • Novel Allergens
  • Novel Toxins
  • Instability
  • Lack of specificity pleiotropic effects
  • Antibiotic Resistance
  • Diminished Nutrition Value
  • Lack of knowledge of components
  • Gene Flow- Active Therapeutics
  • Environmental Impact
  • Gene Flow genetic pollution novel pests
  • Novel Pathogens
  • Effect on non-target species
  • Loss of effectiveness resistance management
  • Reduced diversity - Monocultures
  • Novel animals - fish

61
Risk Management
  • Antibiotic Resistance
  • Transposon tagging
  • Positive selection exclusive energy source
  • Gene Flow-
  • Space
  • Male sterility
  • Terminator technology
  • Chloroplast transformation
  • Lack of specificity pleiotropic effects
  • Site-specific recombination
  • Cre-Lox
  • Effect on non-target species
  • Tissue specific expression
  • Chloroplast transformation
  • Loss of effectiveness resistance management
  • Refugia
  • Gene Pyramiding
  • Gene shuffling
  • Reduced diversity

62
What Other Have to Say
American Medical Association, December 2000 The
AMA recognizes the many potential benefits
offered by genetically modified crops and foods,
does not support a moratorium on planting
genetically modified crops, and encourages
ongoing research in food biotechnology." EU
Commission Report Results from 400 teams over
15 years Research on GM plants and derived
products so far developed and marketed, following
usual risk assessment procedures, has not shown
any new risks to human health or the environment,
beyond the usual uncertainties of conventional
plant breeding. Indeed, the use of more precise
technology and the greater regulatory scrutiny
probably make them even safer than conventional
plants and foods. If there are unforeseen
environmental effects - none have appeared as yet
- these should be rapidly detected by existing
monitoring systems.
63
The Society of Toxicology (SOT) Position Paper
  • There is no reason to suppose that the process of
    food production through biotechnology leads to
    risks of a different nature than those already
    familiar to toxicologists or that cannot also be
    created by conventional breeding practices for
    plant, animal or microbial improvement.
  • It is therefore important to recognize that it is
    the food product itself, rather than the process
    through which it is made, that should be the
    focus of attention in assessing safety.
  • Apr. 15, 2002

64
What top international Scientists have to say
  • The National Academy of Sciences, joined by six
    other academies from around the world (Royal
    Society of London, Third World Academy of
    Sciences and national academies of Brazil, China,
    India and Mexico) issued a report in 2000
    declaring that biotechnology
  • should be used to increase the production of main
    food staples,
  • improve the efficiency of production,
  • reduce the environmental impact of agriculture
    and provide access to food for small-scale
    farmers.
  • The Food and Agriculture Organization of the
    United Nations and the World Health Organization
    also issued a joint report approving the method
    we use to assess the safety of biotech crops.
  • Declaration signed by over 3,500 scientists
    including 13 Nobel Laureates states that biotech
    methods are not only safe but have tremendous
    potential to improve the quality and quantity of
    sustainable food production word wide

65
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66
Journal
  • Define Genetic Engineering.
  • Is the concept of Genetic Engineering new?
  • What are some of the dangers of genetically
    modified organisms?
  • To people…
  • To our natural world…
  • To agriculture…
  • Other issues…
  • What are some of the potential benefits of GMOs?
  • To people from a medical perspective…
  • To our natural world from a pesticide
    perspective…
  • To agriculture from an economics standpoint…
  • Other issues…
  • Considering risk/benefits of GMOs, do you feel
    that the risk of the negative aspects of GMO
    Technology outweigh the benefits or do you feel
    that the risks are acceptable considering the
    potential benefits of GMOs? Why?
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