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Coral Reef Monitoring for Climate Change Impacts

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Title: Coral Reef Monitoring for Climate Change Impacts


1
Adaptation to Climate Change in the Caribbean -
Preparing national and Regional Institutions to
respond effectively to the impacts of climate
change.
Antigua Barbuda
Grenada
Guyana
The Bahamas
by Leslie Walling Deputy Manager
St. Lucia
Barbados
St. Kitts Nevis
Belize
St. Vincent the Grenadines
Dominica
Trinidad Tobago
Jamaica
2
  • Area of Caribbean Sea
  • 1.94 x 106 km2
  • Astronomical Tidal Range
  • 20 to 30 cm.
  • East to west flowing Caribbean Current
    traverses the Caribbean (part of the general
    Atlantic Circulation).

3
Regional Response
  • 1992 - UNCED Agenda 21
  • 1994 May - UNGC SD/SIDS Barbados Program of
    Action (BPOA), 15 priorities
  • 1994 Sept - Regional Tech Consultation Draft
    project document
  • 1995 May GEF Council approval to Work Program.

4
Regional Response
  • 1995 Sept 1st (Regional) Technical Consultation
  • 1994 Q4 National Consultations NICUs and NFPs
    formed.
  • 1996 Jan 2nd Regional Consolation develop work
    plan and pilot project selection
  • 1996 May 3rd Regional Consultation
    pre-appraisal review structure, finance,
    operations activities.

5
The Caribbean Planning for Adaptation to Global
Climate Change Project
  • The GEF-funded Project (1997-2001) is executed by
    the Organization of American States in
    partnership with the University of the West
    Indies Center for Environment and Development,
    (UWICED) for the World Bank as the GEF
    Implementing Agency.

6
CPACC OBJECIVES
Overall Objective of CPACC To support Caribbean
countries in preparing to cope with the adverse
effects of global climate change, particularly
sea level rise in coastal areas.
Identify assess policy options instruments
Strengthen monitoring analysis of climate and
sea level
Enhance Regional national capabilities
Develop an integrated Management planning
framework
Identify vulnerable areas
7
CPACC COMPONENTS (1) Regional Components
C2 Database information systems
C3 Inventory of coastal resources
C4 Formulation of policy framework
C1 Monitoring Network
(2) National Pilot Components
C5 Coral reef monitoring
C6 Coastal vulnerability risk assessment
C7 Economic Valuation of coastal resources
C8 Formulation of econ/regulatory proposals
C9 National communications GHGI inventory
8
Specific Achievements
  • Establishment of a sea level and climate
    monitoring system
  • Improved access and availability of data
  • Increased appreciation of climate change issues
    at the policy-making level
  • Meeting country needs for expanded vulnerability
    assessment
  • Establishment of coral reef monitoring protocols
  • Created a network for regional harmonization

9
C1 Design and Establish SL Monitoring Network -
Objective
  • Install a sea-level/climate-observation network
    in the participating countries, to enable the
    region to start compiling data relevant for the
    long-term monitoring of climate change

10
C1 Design and Establish SL Monitoring Network -
Achievements
  • 18 monitoring stations installed
  • - Water level, barometric pressure, air temp,
    R-humidity, rainfall, SST, wind direction, gust
    speed.
  • CIMH responsible for coordination, quality
    control, calibration and special maintenance
  • Trust fund set up for maintenance
  • Data download, QA/QC archiving RAC
    established in yr. 3 on UWI campus in Trinidad
  • www.cpaccrac.org data presentation products

11
C1 Design Installation of SL Monitoring System
- Lessons Learned
  • Varying levels of starting capacity in-house
    expertise.
  • Subsequent development of capacity was uneven.
  • Need for additional training in
  • digital monitoring systems
  • the use of tidal data develop applications (CZM
    E)
  • modern SL data collection GPS surveying (NLS
    CZMUs)
  • for GPS OCRES capacity development in Barbados.

12
C1 Design Installation of SL Monitoring System
- The Way Forward
  • Stronger local interest participation in the
    daily use of the data.
  • Consider more immediate localized data delivery.
  • Review objectives needs in light of improved
    technology.
  • Training to all technicians (digital data
    systems, tidal GPS surveying).
  • Address outstanding technical institutional
    deficiencies to ensure optimal network
    performance.
  • Strengthen Regional Network Coordination
    function.

13
C2 Establishment of Databases Information
Systems- Objective
  • An enabling activity to facilitate access to
    information for the wide range of project
    stakeholders and general users and to meet the
    needs of the project management team.

14
C2 Establishment of Databases Information
Systems-Achievements
  • Information Access, Management and Communication
    through the internet
  • Establishment of CPACC Website www.cpacc.org
  • Basic information on project objectives
    activities
  • Progress reports, workshop reports, methodologies
    etc
  • Calendar of CPACC and related activities
  • Access to data from 18 monitoring stations

15
C2 Establishment of Databases Information
Systems- Lessons Learned
  • Pace with which info technology changes demands
    flexibility (opportunity/obsolescence).
  • Web development required stronger , coordinated,
    PEO support.
  • Technical emphasis of website met info needs of
    project and stakeholders.

16
C2 Establishment of Databases Information
Systems- The Way Forward
  • Ensure strong PEO component in future projects.
  • Incorporate strong PEO elopement into future web
    designs and information strategies.
  • Place emphasis on the use of the website as a
    strategic tool for PEO.
  • In the future the website will project the image
    of the project/organization.
  • Support network and related systems through
    training for staff and participants.

17
C3 Inventory of Coastal Resources and Uses
Objectives
  • The objective was to developing an application
    that would allow greater access data and
    information for decision-making, including the
    adaptation to climate change.
  • Emphasis was placed on the capacity-building
    elements.

18
C3 Inventory of Coastal Resources and Uses -
Achievements
  • CRIS delivered to 12 countries.
  • Provided and installed in 6 countries
  • Sent to remaining countries
  • Ikonos Satellite imagery acquired for a
    countries
  • Complete technical proficiency in at least one
    national institution
  • Facilitate storage, retrieval, updating, analysis
    and manipulation of coastal resource data

19
C3 Inventory of Coastal Resources and Uses -
Lessons Learned
  • Flexibility in approach to project design and
    implementation helps to optimize counterpart
    participation.
  • Appropriate financial support necessary to
    alleviate counterpart overload.
  • Regular reviews among key, knowledgeable
    practitioners was valuable.
  • Utilization of national and Regional expertise
    proved advantageous.

20
C3 Inventory of Coastal Resources and Uses
The Way Forward
  • Commitment by all concerned parties to
  • flexibility in implementation to optimize the
    quality of country participation.
  • Budgetary support for counterparts to alleviate
    counterpart overload.
  • Utilization of national Regional expertise
  • Regular technical review among key, knowledgeable
    practitioners.
  • Provide technical support follow-up to address
    technical issues and those associated with
    delivery.

21
C4 Formulation of Policy Framework for
Integrated Adaptation Planning Management
Objectives
  • Strengthen national capacity for analyzing
    climate and sea-level dynamics and trends,
    seeking to determine the immediate and potential
    impacts of global climate change
  • Identify areas particularly vulnerable to the
    adverse effects of climate change and sea-level
    rise
  • Develop an integrated management and planning
    framework for cost-effective response and
    adaptation to the impacts of global climate
    change and
  • Identify and assist in the development of policy
    options and instruments that could help to
    initiate a long-term programme of adaptation to
    global climate change in vulnerable coastal
    areas.

22
C4 Formulation of Policy Framework for
Integrated Adaptation Planning Management
Achievements
  • This was the final component to be implemented
  • Outputs (1) National Climate Change Issues
    Papers, (2) National Climate Change
    Adaptation Policies and Implementation Plans
  • 10 policies in draft final stage M.O for
    mainstreaming
  • St.Lucias (2001) and Dominicas (2002) approved
    by Cabinet
  • All policies expected to be submitted to local
    Cabinets by third quarter of 2002

23
C4 Formulation of Policy Framework for
Integrated Adaptation Planning Management -
Lessons Learned
  • A staggered start to the implementation of this
    project component allowed it to benefit from
    lessons learned earlier in the implementation
    process.
  • Flexibility The component addressed issues of
    concern to policy makers to insure Buy in .
  • Immediate adaptation response measures were
    justifiable on the basis that response measures
    that reduced vulnerability to climate variability
    would contribute to adaptation to longer-term
    climate change.

24
C4 Formulation of Policy Framework for
Integrated Adaptation Planning Management-
The Way Forward
  • Support the formulation of specific adaptation
    policy responses by developing capacity within
    the Region to
  • conduct in-depth impact/vulnerability studies,
  • develop and use down-scaled global climate
    models,
  • develop and use site-specific climate scenarios.
  • Employ more precise scientific data as it becomes
    available to better define feasible
    coast-effective adaptation options.

25
C5 Coral Reef Monitoring for Climate Change
Impacts Objectives
  • Establish a long-term monitoring programme, which
    over time will show the effects of global warming
    factors on coral reefs.
  • Identify methodologies to adjust and extend
    current efforts to monitor the impacts of global
    warming on reefs
  • Undertake specific activities dedicated to
    raising public awareness of coral reefs and
    climate change and
  • Disseminate information and methodology to
  • all the participating countries.

26
C5 Coral Reef Monitoring for Climate Change
Impacts - Achievements
  • Monitoring systems in place and data analysis
    implemented in 3 countries
  • Data centre established at CMS, UWI, Jamaica
  • Synergies developed with other monitoring
    programmes allowing comparison and assessment of
    methodologies
  • Methodologies adapted, tested and made available
    through the CPACC website

27
C5 Coral Reef Monitoring for Climate Change
Impacts - Lessons Learned
  • Government commitment to project activities
    should embody acknowledgement and agreement by
    prospective lead agencies of their respective
    roles and responsibilities.
  • Provide lead agencies with sufficient lead time
    to adjust annual work plans and budgets.
  • PEO is an essential complimentary activity.
  • Technical review workshops are invaluable
    management planning tools for building and
    sustaining commitment to project objectives.
  • Sustainability Mentoring the centralized
    coordination technical-support functions must
    be
  • institutionalized .

28
C5 Coral Reef Monitoring for Climate Change
Impacts - The Way Forward
  • Maintain the momentum of the programme through
  • capacity building,
  • Institutionalization of coral reef monitoring,
    coordination and technical support,
  • Expand programme to Eastern Caribbean
  • Data contributions to global information networks
  • Support for coral reef monitoring and capacity
    building should be continued under the MACC
    Project.

29
C6 Coastal Vulnerability Risk Assessment -
Objectives
  • To develop vulnerability and risk assessments for
    the coastal areas of the pilot countries
  • To build capacity in coastal-vulnerability and
    risk assessments at the national and regional
    levels and
  • To inform and educate the general public about
    coastal vulnerability and the need to plan for
    climate change.

30
C6 Coastal Vulnerability Risk Assessment -
Achievements
  • Methodology developed and applied
  • Coastal vulnerability studies in 3 pilot
    countries completed
  • Conducted by country teams
  • Need for vulnerability studies on other sectors
    (agriculture, water, tourism, health) identified
  • Long-term capacity building needs to be addressed

31
C6 Coastal Vulnerability Risk Assessment
-Lessons Learned
  • This is a requirement that countries must
    undertake to support the development of GCC
    adaptation policy/strategies.
  • National capacity in VA is deficient.
  • Lack of data has hampered in-depth analysis
    necessary for VA studies.
  • There is a need for extensive base-line data
    (bathymetry, contour maps w/ 1 m. resolution
    below 25ft, geo-referenced cadastral information,
    ecosystem status, sea-level…
  • The necessary regional climate scenarios are not
    available to support planning and decision-making.

32
C6 Coastal Vulnerability Risk Assessment
-The Way Forward
  • Expand the VA programme to the 9 remaining CPACC
    countries as originally planned.
  • Further development of national capacity in VA
    assessment .
  • The development of more robust VA assessments in
    the Region by enhancing data availability
    through
  • Substantial coordinated support for data
    collection monitoring,
  • Further development of the CRIS,
  • Development of Regional climate scenarios.

33
C7 Economic Valuation of Coastal Marine
Resources Objectives
  • The overall objective was to help the
    participating countries to apply the tools of
    resource valuation, environmental accounting, and
    environmental decision-making in the development
    of policy frameworks and economic and regulatory
    approaches for coastal and marine resources.

34
C7 Economic Valuation of Coastal Marine
Resources Achievements
  • Studies conducted in 3 pilot countries by local
    team
  • Country teams trained in the design and
    development of data collection instruments and
    surveys
  • Primary and Secondary data collected and analysed
  • Data collection took into account the need to
    ensure that outputs are compatible with the CRIS
    under C3.
  • C3 assessed for useful data
  • Joint workshop with pilot countries involved in
    the development of Economic Instruments (C8)

35
C7 Economic Valuation of Coastal Marine
Resources - Lessons Learned (1)
  • Significant emphasis needs to be placed on the
    development of any methodology and on the
    capacity to effectively implement it
  • More resources need to be made available in
    support of regional team building and
    cooperation, and the sharing of material
  • The original timeline for the project was too
    short and severely underestimated the time needed
    to implement a project such as this and also
    ensure capacity transfer

36
C7 Economic Valuation of Coastal Marine
Resources - Lessons Learned (2)
  • The need for software and specific training by
    experts must be clearly recognized and be
    integrated into projects as part of the
    capacity-building and transfer process
  • The broadest possible cross-section of technical
    expertise and backgrounds makes for the most
    effective country team in performing economic
    valuation
  • Although more time-consuming, data collection by
    the country teams pays off better in the long
    term

37
C8 Formulation of Economic Regulatory Tools
Objectives
  • Assess the design and utility of economic and
    regulatory approaches in coastal and marine
    resources management in response to threats of
    sea-level rise
  • Demonstrate how the use of economic incentives)
    can provide flexible, cost-effective alternatives
    to traditional, regulatory policies in promoting
    adaptation to climate change.

38
C8 Formulation of Economic Regulatory Tools -
Achievements
  • Antigua and Barbuda (i) Sand management
    framework (ii) restructuring of commercial sand
    sales, (iii) retail sand market -To meet the
    demand for sand without undermining the
    environmental integrity of coastal ecosystems.
  • St. Kitts and Nevis Implemented strategy of
    market based instruments to influence the
    quantity and pattern of hotel development within
    a coastal area.
  • Design of instrument and implementation plan
    underway
  • Need to interface with political directorate for
    implementation

39
C8 Formulation of Economic Regulatory Tools
Lessons Learned
  • A consensus-based approach to market-based
    instruments is critical
  • These instruments should be developed with
    political feasibility in mind
  • Education and outreach must be an integral
    component of any regulatory and policy strategy
  • The design of market-based instruments should be
    based on a review of economic analysis and human
    health
  • Regional compacts are important for advancing
    selected environmental goals of individual
    countries and
  • An integrated approach to environmental planning
    and management is essential

40
C8 Formulation of Economic Regulatory Tools
The Way Forward
  • The integration of economic valuation and
    economic instruments remains an essential but
    challenging process. These two concepts should be
    fundamental aspects of any development and
    implementation of policy, particularly one
    addressing climate change.

41
C9 GHG Inventory in St. Vincent and the
Grenadines Objectives
  • Preparation of the St. Vincent and the Grenadines
    Initial National Communications to the UNFCCC

42
C9 GHG Inventory in St. Vincent and the
Grenadines - Achievements
  • First National Communications of St. Vincent
    the Grenadines complete presented at COP 6
    along with others completed under the UNDP/GEF
    Enabling Activities project
  • GHG Inventory 95.1 Gg C, - 133.7 Gg C

43
C9 GHG Inventory in St. Vincent and the
Grenadines Lessons Learned
  • Lack many of the prerequisites for dealing
    effectively with climate change, although some
    progress is being made
  • Need for effective land-use planning with the
    enforcement of existing laws and the expansion of
    authority
  • Programmes outside the formal education sector
    can make significant contributions to awareness
    of climate change

44
C9 GHG Inventory in St. Vincent and the
Grenadines The Way Forward
  • Immediate development of a broad-based National
    Environmental Policy Reform Project
  • updating and strengthening the National
    Environmental Action Plan
  • establish the legal authority of the National
    Environmental Advisory Board
  • integrate climate-change issues into national
    economic policies and plans, land-use plans, and
    sectoral policies
  • accompanied by educational programs
  • Build on CRIS to develop a spatially based
    natural-resource inventory system
  • vulnerability assessment and mapping system to
  • support CC adaptation

45
Overall Project Accomplishments
  • Nationally, all countries have NFPs and NICUs.
  • In some countries, National committees have been
    established to address climate change.
  • Establishment of a sea level and climate
    monitoring system that contributes to regional
    and global assessment of the issues
  • Improved access and availability of data
  • Increased appreciation of climate change issues
    at the policy-making level and technical support
    to better define the regional position at the
    conventions

46
Overall Project Accomplishments
  • Meeting country needs for expanded vulnerability
    assessment, economic evaluation techniques,
    developing economic instruments and methodology
    for coral reef monitoring
  • Created a network for regional harmonization
  • Development of National Climate Change Adaptation
    policies and action plans

47
Post CPACC Critical Path
ACCC (Jul. 01- Mar .04)
CPACC (1997-2001)
MACC (2003-2008)
CPACC Closure Jan May.02
PDF-B (Oct. 01- Aug.02)
CCCC (Oct.02)
48
Post CPACC
  • CARICOM Governments mandated that there was a
    need to continue the work of adaptation planning
    and capacity building after CPACC.
  • Long-term institutionalizing CC adaptation
    process in a Regional Climate Change Centre
  • Short-termestablish a successor project (MACC)

49
Mainstreaming Adaptation to Climate Change in
the Caribbean (MACC) Objectives
  • Mainstreaming adaptation to climate change in
    national development planning and private sector
  • Formulation of specific adaptation measures
    (demonstration pilots) and of a regional position
    on adaptation
  • Expanding and strengthening the existing
    monitoring network and the capacity to develop
    impact scenarios based on Regional Climate Models
  • Cross-regional dissemination and replication of
    MACC results

50
(No Transcript)
51
The Objectives of the Centre
  • Promoting protection of the earths climate
    system
  • Enhancing regional institutional capabilities for
    the co-ordination of national responses to the
    adverse effects of climate change
  • Providing comprehensive policy and technical
    support in the area of climate change and related
    issues and spearheading regional initiatives in
    those areas
  • Performing the role of executing agency for
    regional environmental projects relating to
    climate change
  • Promoting education and public awareness on
    climate change issues
  • Facilitating regional consensus for negotiations
    related to the UNFCCC

52
Climate Change Centre
  • Collect, analyze and disseminate climate change
    observation data
  • Facilitate Caribbean position to UNFCCC
  • Realize regional and national equitable benefits
    under Kyoto Protocol financial mechanisms
  • Assist in public awareness and education
    campaigns
  • Develop special programmes
  • Promote information exchange with SIDS and Latin
    America
  • Develop regional research programmes
  • Execute MACC

53
Supporting Transition - PDF Block B
  • Objective
  • Establish Caribbean Climate Change Centre
  • Support national and regional consultations
  • Continue CPACC work on public education and
    awareness
  • Prepare full project proposal MACC

54
Supporting Transition - Adapting to Climate
Change in the Caribbean (ACCC)
  • Funded under the Canadian Climate Change
    Development Fund (CCCDF) of the Canadian
    International Development Agency (CIDA)
  • Total project costs - Cdn3.14 million
  • Canadian Executing Agency serve as consultants
    to the project
  • Project duration - Sept. 2001 to Feb. 2004.

55
Adapting to Climate Change in the Caribbean
(ACCC) - Components
  • Project 1 Detailed Project Design and Business
    Plan for Regional Climate Change Centre
  • Project 2 Public Education and Outreach (PEO)
  • Project 3 Integrating GCC into Physical Planning
    Process using a Risk Management Approach
  • Project 4 Strengthening Technical Capacity
  • CIMH and National institutes,
  • Masters level course at UWI,
  • region-specific climate change scenarios and
  • liaison with other SIDS in Caribbean and Pacific

56
Adapting to Climate Change in the Caribbean
(ACCC) - Components
  • Project 5 Integrating Adaptation Planning in
    Environmental Impact Assessments for National and
    Regional Development Projects
  • Project 6 Implementation Strategies for
    Adaptation in the Water Sector
  • Project 7 Formulation of Adaptation Strategies
    to Protect Human Health
  • Project 8 Adaptation Strategies for Agriculture
    and Food
  • Project 9 Fostering collaboration with
    non-CARICOM Countries
  •  

57
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