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Fiinovation webinar on Poverty,Climate Change & Affirmative Action

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Title: Fiinovation webinar on Poverty,Climate Change & Affirmative Action


1
Poverty, Climate Change Affirmative Action
2
Mentor of the Webinar
Mr. Soumitro Chakraborty CEO, Fiinovation
3
About Fiinovation
  • A CSR based research organization working in
    areas of education, livelihood, environment and
    health since last seven years
  • Assists businesses to support requirements of
    communities by designing and implementation of
    sustainable projects
  • Through practices such as CSR-CSO Partnership,
    Initiative Design, Initiative Management,
    Monitoring and Evaluation, Impact Assessment
    Fiinovation supports corporations for
    implementation of CSR and Sustainability
    initiatives

4
Agenda of the Webinar
  • Providing insights on climate change, poverty and
    affirmative action
  • Understanding the alignment between poverty and
    climate change
  • Highlighting the role of affirmative action to
    address concerns of the marginalized
  • Exploring options of engagement for the private
    sector
  • Information on CSR and sustainability initiatives
  • Government plans to counter climate change
  • Way forward

5
Climate Change
  • Long-term shift in weather patterns in a specific
    region or at global level.
  • Nowadays, climate change can be observed in the
    form of global warming.
  • Global warming is the sudden rise in atmospheric
    temperatures due to increased emissions of
    greenhouse gases which are generated through
    unsustainable human activities.
  • The consequences of global warming can be
    observed in the form of
  • Climate change adds to the existing burden of the
    people living below the poverty line.
  • Melting of glaciers
  • Rise in sea-levels
  • Flash floods
  • Increase in intensity of extreme weather events
    such as heat waves, tornadoes, hurricanes and
    heavy rainfall
  • Severe droughts
  • Endangerment of species
  • Loss of biodiversity
  • Decrease in agricultural yields,
  • Widespread vector-borne diseases
  • Acidification of oceans
  • Death of coral reefs.

6
Impact of Climate Change Global Context
  • The impact of climate change can be observed
    globally through melting of glaciers, ocean
    acidification, unseasonal rains, heat waves etc
  • Climate change poses threat to food security
    across the globe
  • Increase in the number of cases of health
    concerns such as Asthama, Malaria, Dengue,
    Diarrhea etc
  • Unbalanced ecosystems and extinction of species
  • Negative impact on the local economy of a
    particular region

7
Impact of Climate Change Indian Context
  • Rise in temperatures and heat waves during summer
  • Major states Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra
    Pradesh, U.P., Rajasthan, Gujarat are drought hit
  • Marginalized sections are being pushed towards
    extreme poverty
  • Unseasonal rains leading to loss of crops
  • Increased scarcity of water, drying up of rivers,
    barrages, reservoirs, ground water etc.
  • Reduction in crop yields, lower productivity and
    income
  • Increased risk to human health, especially among
    women and children
  • Threat to endangered species, bio-diversity
  • Climate Change negatively impacts poverty through
    prices, assets, productivity and opportunities

8
Alignment of Climate Change Poverty
  • Climate change aggravates causes of poverty and
    inequality. Both can obstruct achievement of
    sustainable global development.
  • Climate change has direct and immediate impact on
    people below the poverty line. This makes poverty
    reduction more difficult.
  • It pulls away resources that allow proper
    functionality of livelihood, health, environment,
    etc.
  • Ignoring the impacts of climate change leads to a
    lack of direction to address the socio-economic
    and environmental concerns.

9
Challenges to the Alignment of Climate Change and
Poverty
  • Shortage of funds
  • Climate change and poverty policies run parallel
    and not in convergence with each other
  • Not much engagement is observed in broader
    environmental issues
  • Limited discussions and negotiations with all
    stakeholders
  • Lack of synergy among relevant thematic working
    group
  • Inadequate strategies and planning among
    government and corporations to address the
    climate change and poverty issues

10
Why We Should Act?
  • Climate change can push 45 million Indians into
    poverty in the next 15 years.
  • Drop in crop yields lead to rise in cost of food.
    Globally, rise in food prices affected 100
    million people in 2008 and 44 million people in
    2010-11.
  • Global warming of 2 degrees could increase the
    number of people at risk from malaria by 5 and
    diarrhea by 10.
  • Loss of labour productivity by 1-3.
  • Increased occurrence and intensity of natural
    hazards such as droughts, river flooding and heat
    waves.
  • Over the last two decades the sea levels has
    risen to over 8 inches

11
Poverty Scenario in India
  • The World Bank estimates that in the absence of
    climate change, 189 million Indians will be
    living below the poverty line (i.e. on less than
    1.9 or INR 127 a day) by 2030. Climate change
    could push this number to as high as 234 million.
  • In 2012, India accounted to have the largest
    number of people below the poverty line in any
    country.
  • India's poverty rate is one of the lowest among
    countries with largest number of people below the
    poverty line.
  • Despite the rising inequality and acceleration
    post 1991 a downward trend in poverty measures
    has been observed since 1970.
  • Majority of the population below the poverty line
    belong to the discriminated sections of society.

12
Population Classification
Indicator Absolute Absolute Percentage Percentage Growth rate (2001-11)
Indicator 2001 2011 2001 2011 Growth rate (2001-11)
Total Population Total Population Total Population Total Population Total Population Total Population
Total 1,02,86,10,328 1,21,05,69,573 100.0 100.0 17.7
Rural 74,23,02,537 83,34,63,448 100.0 100.0 12.3
Urban 28,63,07,791 37,71,06,125 100.0 100.0 31.7
Scheduled Castes Scheduled Castes Scheduled Castes Scheduled Castes Scheduled Castes Scheduled Castes
Total 16,66,35,700 20,13,78,086 16.2 16.6 20.8
Rural 13,30,10,878 15,38,50,562 17.9 18.5 15.7
Urban 3,36,24,822 4,75,27,524 11.7 12.6 41.3
Scheduled Tribes Scheduled Tribes Scheduled Tribes Scheduled Tribes Scheduled Tribes Scheduled Tribes
Total 8,43,26,240 10,42,81,034 8.2 8.6 23.7
Rural 7,73,38,597 9,38,19,162 10.4 11.3 21.3
Urban 69,87,643 1,04,61,872 2.4 2.8 49.7
Source Primary Census Abstract for Total
population, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled
Tribes, 2011 Office of the
Registrar General Census Commissioner, India
13
Concentration - SCs STs
14
Poverty Ratio for Social Groups
  • In rural areas, STs exhibit highest level of
    poverty (47.4), followed by SCs (42.3) and OBCs
    (31.9), against 33.8 for all classes.
  • In urban areas, SCs have HCR of 34.1 followed by
    STs (30.4) and OBCs (24.3) against 20.9 for
    all classes.
  • In rural Bihar and Chhattisgarh, nearly two-third
    of SCs and STs are poor whereas, in states such
    as Manipur, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh the poverty
    ratio for these groups is more than half.

Source Press Note on Poverty Estimates, 2009-10
- GOI, Planning Commission, March 2012
15
Poverty Percentage Among Social Groups
16
Poverty Percentage Among Social Groups
Rural
--- Data not available in the official estimates
for 1993-94 Source Planning Commission
17
Percentage to Total Population 2011
State/Union Territory Percentage State/Union Territory Percentage
Top 5 Top 5 Bottom 5 Bottom 5
Scheduled Castes Scheduled Castes Scheduled Castes Scheduled Castes
Punjab 31.9 Mizoram 0.1
Himachal Pradesh 25.2 Meghalaya 0.6
West Bengal 23.5 Goa 1.7
Uttar Pradesh 20.7 D N Haveli 1.8
Haryana 20.2 Daman Diu 2.5
Scheduled Tribes Scheduled Tribes Scheduled Tribes Scheduled Tribes
Lakshadweep 94.8 Uttar Pradesh 0.6
Mizoram 94.4 Tamil Nadu 1.1
Nagaland 86.5 Bihar 1.3
Meghalaya 86.1 Kerala 1.5
Arunachal Pradesh 68.8 Uttarakhand 2.9
Source Primary Census Abstract for Total
population, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled
Tribes, 2011 Office of the
Registrar General Census Commissioner, India
18
Percentage to Total Population 2011 (Major States)
State/Union Territory Percentage State/Union Territory Percentage
Top 5 Top 5 Bottom 5 Bottom 5
Scheduled Castes Scheduled Castes Scheduled Castes Scheduled Castes
Punjab 31.9 Gujarat 6.7
West Bengal 23.5 Assam 7.2
Uttar Pradesh 20.7 Jammu Kashmir 7.4
Haryana 20.2 Kerala 9.1
Tamil Nadu 20.0 Maharashtra 11.8
Scheduled Tribes Scheduled Tribes Scheduled Tribes Scheduled Tribes
Chhattisgarh 30.6 Uttar Pradesh 0.6
Jharkhand 26.2 Tamil Nadu 1.1
Odisha 22.8 Bihar 1.3
Madhya Pradesh 21.1 Kerala 1.5
Gujarat 14.8 Uttarakhand 2.9
Source Primary Census Abstract for Total
population, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled
Tribes, 2011 Office of the
Registrar General Census Commissioner, India
19
Why Affirmative Action?
  • Reverse discrimination
  • Positive action for historically discriminated
    sections
  • Address poverty and climate change issues
  • Promote inclusive and holistic development by
    reducing rising disparity
  • Directly benefit those who are most vulnerable
  • It can be utilized as a tool to fight poverty and
    global warming by focusing on methods of
    environment conservation and risk mitigation of
    climate change
  • It was noted that majority of the farmers
    committing suicides in drought-hit Maharashtra
    belong to SC community

20
How can AA address Climate Change Poverty?
21
Climate Change Policies of Government of India
  • The National Action Plan on Climate Change
    identifies measures that promote development
    objectives
  • Focusing on promotion of understanding of climate
    change, adaption and mitigation, energy
    efficiency and natural resource conservation.
    This includes eight national missions, namely
  • National Solar Mission
  • National Mission on Sustainable Habitat
  • National Water Mission
  • National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan
    Ecosystem
  • National Mission for Green India
  • National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for
    Climate Change
  • National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture
  • National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency

22
Contd...
Mission Targets Responsible Entity Allocation of funds for 12th plan (in billion)
Mission focused on mitigation
National Solar Mission 20,000 MW of solar power by 2020 Ministry of new renewable energy INR 87.95
National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency 10,000 MW of EE savings by 2020 Ministry of power INR 1.90
National Mission For Sustainable Habitat EE in residential and commercial buildings, public transport, solid waste management Ministry of urban development INR 9.50
Source Ministry of Environment, Forests
Climate Change, GOI
23
Contd...
Targets Responsible Entity Allocation of funds for 12th plan (in billion)
Mission focused on Adaptation
National Water Mission Water conservation, river basin management Ministry of Water resources INR 891
National Mission for Sustaining Himalayan Ecosystem Conservation and adaptation practices, glacial monitoring Ministry of Science and Technology INR 16.95
National Mission for a Green India 6 million hectares of afforestation over degraded forest lands Ministry of Environment Forests INR 460
National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture Drought proofing, risk management, agriculture research Ministry of Agriculture INR 1080
National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change Vulnerability assessment, research and observation, data management Ministry of Science and Technology INR 9.5
Source Ministry of Environment, Forests
Climate Change, GOI
24
Contd...
  • India announced its National Action Plan on
    Climate Change on June 30, 2008. While launching
    the Plan, former Prime Minister, Dr. Manmohan
    Singh had said
  • India with its Energy Conservation Act has
    identified nine energy intensive sectors, namely,
    Iron Steel, Cement, Power, Paper and Pulp,
    Chlor-Alkalis, Aluminium, Textiles and Railways.
    Government and Industry are working together to
    work towards raising efficiency levels
    significantly.
  • The Government is implementing an Economy Lamp
    Project by making available CFLs to households,
    where penetration is still low, at 30 US cents as
    against the market price of US 2. The price
    differential is sought to be recovered through
    the sale of carbon credits. It is likely to touch
    the 100 million bulbs mark by the end of April.

"Our people have a right to economic and social
development and to discard the ignominy of
widespread poverty. For this we need rapid
economic growth. But I also believe that
ecologically sustainable development need not be
in contradiction to achieving our growth
objectives.
25
2015 - Landmark Year for India in Climate Change
Initiatives
  • Adoption of the climate change agreement in Paris
    after negotiations.
  • Launched International Solar Alliance for mutual
    cooperation among 121 countries.
  • India announced its Intended Nationally
    Determined Contributions i.e. reducing its
    emission intensity of its GDP by 33-35 by 2030.
  • Target of achieving 40 energy generation from
    renewable energy.
  • National Adaptation Fund for Climate Change with
    budgetary provision of INR 350 crore and National
    Clean Energy Fund which is supported by cess on
    coal.

26
Climate Change Initiatives By Industry
  • Tata group incorporated climate change in the
    Tata Code of Conduct by focusing on low carbon
    footprint, sustainability projects, etc. Tata
    Power has invested INR 240 crore in solar power
    installations while TCS spent INR 35.97 crore in
    incorporating green building concepts.
  • Companies like Nestle, Philips, Unilever and
    Infosys have committed to use 100 renewable
    energy for all their operations.
  • Yes Bank is the first bank to issue green bonds
    which would be exclusively used to finance
    climate-friendly business initiatives.
  • Major Indian auto makers such as Tata Motors,
    Mahindra and Maruti Suzuki have come together to
    invest in and develop components and systems for
    electric and hybrid vehicles.
  • Franchise India in collaboration with Singapore
    based investment company, SingEx held a 'Clean
    Green India' conclave to chalk out avenues to
    manage Indian waste.

27
Contd...
  • Tata group has acquired Welspun India and will be
    working towards enhancing their capacities
    through renewables.
  • Over 100 Indian companies including DMRC, ITC
    Limited, Mahindra and Mahindra and Tata Group
    launched a Corporate Vision on Climate Change
    that includes the best sustainable practices at
    the Paris COP 21 Climate Summit.
  • Leading Indian companies are focusing on
    implementation of initiatives/operations based on
    renewable energy generation, energy efficiency
    improvements (like waste heat recovery in steel
    plants), resource conservation (water recycling
    and use) and waste minimization.
  • Ambuja Cement, Tata Power and Wipro are
    increasingly deploying renewables.
  • In 2009, PepsiCo India announced 15 global goals
    and commitments to guide our work to protect the
    Earth's natural resources through innovation and
    more efficient use of land, energy, water and
    packaging in their operations.

28
What Can Be Done?
  • Climate change provides a safety net for the
    people below the poverty line while ensuring a
    conducive environment
  • Holistic plan to target climate change and
    poverty through affirmative action and CSR.
    Corporations can fund green initiatives targeting
    SC/ST communities.
  • Focus not only on people below poverty line but
    also on the one who are vulnerable to fall into
    the category.
  • Develop solutions to become a low carbon economy
    without undermining rapid development of the
    discriminated sections.
  • Create awareness and share information of
    processes and systems that address the problems
    of the local communities.

29
Contd...
  • Create wealth from waste, replenish water,
    responsible use of natural resources, green
    innovations, etc.
  • Promote sustainable agriculture among farmers and
    integrate policies on human health, agriculture
    and environment to ensure they complement each
    other.
  • Investments in research for climate friendly
    solutions which will help the industry thereby
    creating jobs for the discriminated sections that
    will help address both poverty and climate change

30
The Way Forward
  • Ensuring lower per capita emissions in comparison
    with other developed and developing countries.
  • Primary focus on adaptation with specific niches
    for mitigation
  • Collaborative research in future low-carbon
    technologies
  • Facilitating forestry, drought proofing, crop
    improvement, crop insurance etc
  • All the policies related to climate change must
    be communicated to the people living below the
    poverty line for them to take advantage
  • Climate-informed development needs to be
    complemented with targeted adaptation
    interventions and a more robust safety net system
    for the poor
  • Develop models to understand and determine the
    number of people being pushed in poverty due to
    climate change
  • Emphasis on continuous technological improvements
    through up gradation of their systems and
    processes, regular monitoring of various
    performance parameters as well as capacity
    building of the local communities

31
How Can Corporations Help?
  • Incorporate sustainability initiatives within the
    business operations
  • Promote low-carbon practices down the supply
    chain
  • Direct CSR funds through discriminated sections
    towards green initiatives such as Climate Smart
    Agriculture, Solar powered irrigation projects,
    water conservation etc
  • Partner with government for planning and
    implementation of environment-friendly
    initiatives
  • Create employment opportunities and provide
    social safety nets for the discriminated sections
    of society
  • Develop products and services with social
    benefits involving green technologies
  • Conduct research, provide financial support to
    develop green and advanced technologies
  • Help India earn more carbon credits

32
The Way Forward
Contributors to the PPT
Soumitro Chakraborty CEO, Fiinovation
Rohit Srivastava Graphics Designer, Fiinovation
Rahul Choudhury Dy. Manager, Fiinovation
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