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5. Community Building, Facilitation, Mentoring, and Role Play Online


Patricia Wallace, USA Today, Feb 21st, 2000 (The Psychology of the Internet, ... Marilyn Elias, USA Today, Monday July 23rd, 2001, Section D. p. 1. Online Depression ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 5. Community Building, Facilitation, Mentoring, and Role Play Online

5. Community Building, Facilitation, Mentoring,
and Role Play Online
Dr. Curtis J. Bonk Indiana University CourseShare
.com http//php.indiana.edu/cjbonk cjbonk_at_indiana
So You want to Be A Flexible Learning Consultant
or an E-Moderator???
  • Berge Collins Associates
  • Mauri Collins and Zane L. Berge
  • http//www.emoderators.com/moderators.shtmlmod

You Must Understand how to Build Online
The Good Net
  • Theres an astonishing amount of warmth and
    human kindness from total strangers on the Net.
  • Psychologist Patricia Wallace, Univ of Maryland
  • E-mail has led me to correspond fairly regularly
    with cousins Id otherwise only see at
    funerals...E-mail has knit me more tightly into
    the fabric of my circle, not torn me out of it.
  • Elizabeth Weise, USA Today, Feb 22nd, 2000

The Bad Net...
  • Greater Internet use
  • lowered participation in family
  • Lower communication
  • Greater feelings of loneliness and depression
  • (Kraut, Patterson, Lundmark, Kiesler,
    Mukopadhyay, Scherlis, 1998, American

  • The Internet is unlike anything weve seen
    before. Its a socially connecting device thats
    socially isolating at the same time.
  • David Greenfield, Founder of the Center for
    Internet Studies (www.virtual-addiction.com),
    April 2000, The APA Monitor

The Ugly Net
  • Now we have Net abuse treatment centers
    springing up around the country
  • Kimberly Young, USA Today, Feb., 21, 2000
  • Web is heavily spiced with role-plays,
    deceptions, half-truths exaggerations.
  • Patricia Wallace, USA Today, Feb 21st, 2000 (The
    Psychology of the Internet, Cambridge Univ Press,
  • The more people use the Internet, the less time
    they spend with real people. And that situation
    has its problems.
  • Marilyn Elias, USA Today, 5D, Feb. 21st, 2000

Time ForTwo Quiz Questions
If Stranded on a Island, Would you want the Net,
Phone, or Tube?
Stranded--Need Net, Phone, or Tube?
  • What adults would choose if stranded on an island
    and could only have one of the following? (USA
    Today, March 6th, 2000) Source Roper Starch
    Worldwide for America Online

Computer connected to the Web
When unable to access the Internet or forbidden
to go online, do you feel
  • A. Anxiety
  • B. Depression
  • C. Mood swings
  • D. Irritability
  • E. Insomnia
  • F. Panic attacks
  • G. Restlessness

How many hours per week do you currently spend
online(for nonessential purposes)?
  1. Do you feel preoccupied with the Internet?
  2. Have you ever used the Internet to escape
    situational difficulties?
  3. Does Internet use disrupt your work or
    job-related performance?

Contact the Center for On-Line AddictionsNetaddi
ction.comDr. Kimberly Young, Univ of
PittsburghCaught in the Net (1998), John Wiley
and Sons
Online Depression
  • Either the Internet has changed, or people have
    learned to use it more constructively, or both.
    (per Robert Kraut, Psychologist, Carnegie Mellon)
  • Web Use Not Always a Downer A Study Disputes
    the Link to Depression Marilyn Elias, USA Today,
    Monday July 23rd, 2001, Section D. p. 1.

Im mad as hell and Im not going to take this
anymore!!! Network, 1976, shouted by Howard
Beale (Peter Finch)
  • Howard Beale We'll tell you anything you want to
    hear, we lie like hec.
  • Howard Beale You're beginning to believe the
    illusions we're spinning here, you're beginning
    to believe that the Web is reality and your own
    lives are unreal! You do! Why, whatever the Web
    tells you you dress like the Web, you eat like
    the Web, you raise your children like the Web,
    you even think like the Web! This is mass
    madness, you maniacs! ..., you people are the
    real thing, WE are the illusion!

  • Howard Beale Right now, there is a whole, an
    entire generation that never knew anything that
    didn't come out of this Web! This Web is the
    gospel, the ultimate revelation this Web can
    make or break presidents, popes, prime ministers
    this Web is the most awesome darn propaganda
    force in the whole godless world, and woe is us
    if it ever falls into the hands of the wrong
    people...And when the 12th largest company in the
    world controls the most awesome darn propaganda
    force in the whole godless world, who knows what
    stuff will be peddled for truth on this

Who am I Mad At???
  • Administrators
  • Colleagues
  • The Registrars Office
  • Students
  • Textbook Companies
  • Bookstores
  • Courseware Companies
  • The Media

How form a community???
  • A learning community is a group of individuals
    interested in a common topic or area, who engage
    in knowledge related transactions as well as
    transformations within it. They take advantage
    of the opportunity to exchange ideas and learn
  • (Bonk Wisher, 2000
  • Fulton Riel, 1999)

Factors in Creating any Community
  • (1) membership/identity
  • (2) influence
  • (3) fulfill of indiv needs/rewards
  • (4) shared events emotional connections
  • (McMillan Chavis, 1986).
  • History, stories, expression, identity,
    participation, respect, autonomy, celebration,
    team building, shape group, Schwier, 1999)

Help Categorize the Degree of Online Community
(Chao, 1999)
  • (1) self-disclosures, time, energy
  • (2) refer to norms, rules, others
  • (3) give and receive info, express need, thank,
    criticize, suggest
  • (4) special stories, symbols, events, identify
    spiritual bonds

How Facilitate Online Community?
  • Safety Establish safe environment
  • Tone Flexible, inviting, positive, respect
  • Personal Self-disclosures, open, stories telling
  • Sharing Share frustrations, celebrations, etc
  • Collaboration Camaraderie/empathy
  • Common language conversational chat space
  • Task completion set milestones grp goals
  • Other Meaningful, choice, simple, purpose...

Web Facilitation???
More on How to Facilitate...
  • Find common ref pt--mission, purpose, need
  • Guide to negotiate/co-construct meaning
  • Establish some common practices or rituals
  • Hold regularly scheduled events--chats, tours
  • Create opportunities to contribute/develop
  • Apply course to lived experiences
  • Keep simple, give choice, build respect tension

Facilitation (Dennen, 2001)
  • High instructor presence
  • 11 student-instructor message ratio created low
    peer interaction
  • Participant-like IP facilitated peer interaction
  • Instructor modeling increased student messages
    meeting quality and content expectations
  • Modeling was more effective than guidelines
  • Deadlines motivated participation
  • Deadlines inhibited dialogue

Facilitation (Dennen, 2001)
  • Participation was higher when students had a
    clear goal extrinsic motivation to participate
  • Relevance has a positive effect on participation
  • Greater dialogue when shared perspectives
  • Fact-based qing strategies did not work well
  • Consistent, regular fdbk motivates students
  • Quantitative and qualitative guidelines

Facilitating Electronic Discussion
  • Have Students Initiate, Sign up for Roles
  • Provide Guidelines and Structure
  • Weave and Summarize Weekly
  • Be patient, prompt, and clear
  • Foster Role Play, Debate, and Interaction
  • Assign Due Dates, Times, and Points
  • Constantly Monitor, Converse not Dictate
  • Assign Buddies/Pals or Include Mentoring
  • Extend Beyond Class with Peers/Practitioners

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Online Mentoring and Assistance Online
Twelve forms of electronic learning mentoring and
assistance(Bonk Kim, 1998 Tharp, 1993 Bonk
et al., 2001)
1. Social (and cognitive) Acknowledgement
"Hello...," "I agree with everything said so
far...," "Wow, what a case," "This case certainly
has provoked a lot of discussion...," "Glad you
could join us..."
2. Questioning "What is the name of this
concept...?," "Another reason for this might
be...?," "An example of this is...," "In contrast
to this might be...,""What else might be
important here...?," "Who can tell me....?," "How
might the teacher..?." "What is the real problem
here...?," "How is this related to...?,, "Can
you justify this?"
3. Direct Instruction "I think in class we
mentioned that...," Chapter X talks about...,"
"Remember back to the first week of the semester
when we went over X which indicated that..."
4. Modeling/Examples "I think I solved this sort
of problem once when I...," "Remember that video
we saw on X wherein Y decided to...,"
"Doesn't X give insight into this problem in
case Z when he/she said..."
5. Feedback/Praise "Wow, I'm impressed...,"
"That shows real insight into...," "Are you sure
you have considered...," "Thanks for responding
to X...," "I have yet to see you or anyone
6. Cognitive Task Structuring "You know, the
task asks you to do...," "Ok, as was required,
you should now summarize the peer responses that
you have received...," "How might the textbook
authors have solved this case."
7. Cognitive Elaborations/Explanations "Provide
more information here that explains your
rationale," "Please clarify what you mean by...,"
"I'm just not sure what you mean by...," "Please
evaluate this solution a little more carefully."
8. Push to Explore "You might want to write to
Dr. XYZ for...," "You might want to do an ERIC
search on this topic...," "Perhaps there is a URL
on the Web that addresses this topic..."
9. Fostering Reflection/Self Awareness "Restate
again what the teacher did here," "How have you
seen this before?," "When you took over this
class, what was the first thing you did?,"
"Describe how your teaching philosophy will vary
from this...," "How might an expert teacher
handle this situation?"
10. Encouraging Articulation/Dialogue Prompting
"What was the problem solving process the teacher
faced here?," "Does anyone have a counterpoint or
alternative to this situation?," "Can someone
give me three good reasons why...," "It still
seems like something is missing here, I just
can't put my finger on it."
11. General Advice/Scaffolding/Suggestions "If I
were in her shoes, I would...," "Perhaps I would
think twice about putting these people into...,"
"I know that I would first...," "How totally
ridiculous this all is certainly the person
should be able to provide some..."
12. Management (via private e-mail or
discussion) "Don't just criticize....please be
sincere when you respond to your peers," "If you
had put your case in on time, you would have
gotten more feedback." "If you do this again, we
will have to take away your privileges."
Which of these 12 do you think are the most
prevalent on the Web?___________________________
TICKIT Staff Mentoring (IU Study) (direct
instruction and explanations 0)
(Bonk, Ehman, Hixon, 2000)
The Internet is a Gigantic Writing Tool!!!
Why Write Online???
  • For current reflection
  • For later reflection
  • Foster depthto think!!!
  • Integrate information
  • Nurture interaction on ideas
  • Communicate or problem solve
  • Share ideas

The Starter-Wrapper Activity
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Surface vs. Deep Posts
  • Surface Processing
  • making judgments without justification,
  • stating that one shares ideas or opinions already
  • repeating what has been said
  • asking irrelevant questions
  • i.e., fragmented, narrow, and somewhat trite.
  • In-depth Processing
  • linked facts and ideas,
  • offered new elements of information,
  • discussed advantages and disadvantages of a
  • made judgments that were supported by examples
    and/or justification.
  • i.e., more integrated, weighty, and refreshing.

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What Writing Tasks Will You Use?
Sample Online Writing Tasks
  • Minute Papers, Pros and Cons
  • Starter-Wrapper
  • Coffee Shops and Cafes8 nouns
  • Electronic Seances
  • Critical Friend Reflections
  • Structured Controversy or Role Play
  • Case-Based Discussions
  • Other Debates, Discussions Reading Reactions

What About Student Roles???
Participant Categories
  • Web Resource Finder
  • Starter-Wrapper
  • Researcher
  • Online Journal Editor
  • Expert Resource Gatherer
  • Technology Reviewer
  • Mentor/Expert
  • Instructor
  • Seeker/Questioner

Role 1 Starter/MediatorReporter/Commentator
  • Summarizes the key terms, ideas, and issues in
    the chapters, supplemental instructor notes,
    journal articles, and other assigned readings and
    asks thought provoking questions typically before
    ones peers read or discuss the concepts and
    ideas. In effect, the starter is a reporter or
    commentator or teacher of what to expect in the
    upcoming readings or activities. Once the
    start is posted, this student acts as a
    mediator or facilitator of discussion for the

Role 2 Wrapper/SummarizerSynthesizer/Connector/R
  • Connects ideas, synthesizes discussion,
    interrelates comments, and links both explicit
    and implicit ideas posed in online discussion or
    other activities. Here, the student looks for
    patterns and themes in online coursework while
    weaving information together. The wrapping or
    summarizing is done at least at the end of the
    week or unit, but preferably two or more times
    depending on the length of the activity.

Role 3 Conqueror or Debater/Arguer/Bloodletter
  • Takes ideas into action, debates with others,
    persists in arguments and never surrenders or
    compromises nomatter what the casualties are when
    addressing any problem or issue.

Role 4 Devil's Advocate or Critic/Censor/Confeder
  • Takes opposite points of view for the sake of an
    argument and is an antagonist when addressing any
    problem posed. This might be a weekly role that
    is secretly assigned.

Role 5 Idea Squelcher/Biased/Preconceiver
  • Squelches good and bad ideas of others and
    submits your own prejudiced or biased ideas
    during online discussions and other situations.
    Forces others to think. Is that person you
    really hate to work with.

Role 6 Optimist/Open-minded/Idealist
  • In this role, the student notes what appears to
    be feasible, profitable, ideal, and "sunny" ideas
    when addressing this problem. Always sees the
    bright or positive side of the situation.

Role 7 Emotional/Sensitive/Intuitive
  • Comments with the fire and warmth of emotions,
    feelings, hunches, and intuitions when
    interacting with others, posting comments, or
    addressing problems.

Role 8 Idea Generator Creative Energy/Inventor
  • Brings endless energy to online conversations
    and generates lots of fresh ideas and new
    perspectives to the conference when addressing
    issues and problems.

Role 9 Questioner/Ponderer/Protester
  • Role is to question, ponder, and protest the
    ideas of others and the problem presented itself.
    Might assume a radical or ultra-liberal tone.

Role 10 Coach Facilitator/Inspirer/Trainer
  • Offers hints, clues, supports, and highly
    motivational speeches to get everyone fired-up or
    at least one lost individual back on track when
    addressing a problem or situation.

Role 11 Controller/Executive Director/CEO/Leader
  • In this role, the student oversees the process,
    reports overall findings and opinions, and
    attempts to control the flow of information,
    findings, suggestions, and general problem

Role 12 Slacker/Slough/Slug/Surfer Dude
  • In this role, the student does little or nothing
    to help him/herself or his/her peers learn.
    Here, one can only sit back quietly and listen,
    make others do all the work for you, and
    generally have a laid back attitude (i.e., go to
    the beach) when addressing this problem.

Activity Pick a Role Or Role Taking TaskName a
role missing from this sheet and discuss how you
might use it(see Bonks 28 roles)
Many Other Roles
  • Questioner
  • Mediator
  • Sage
  • Planner
  • Comic
  • Pessimist
  • Commentator
  • Optimist
  • Devils Advocate
  • Slacker
  • Judge
  • Summarizer
  • Advisor
  • Mentor
  • Coach
  • Organizer
  • Debater/Bloodletter

Activity Pick a Role Or Role Taking TaskName a
role missing from this sheet and discuss how you
might use it(see Bonks 28 roles)
So What Happens to Instructors and Students in
the Future???
  • We are evolving out of the era of the Lone
    Rangersfaculty members can choose to be involved
    in the design, development, content expertise,
    delivery, or distribution of course (Richard T.
  • Sarah Carr, (Dec 15, 2000, A47), A Day in the
    Life of a New Type of Professor, The Chronicle of
    Higher Education

Faculty Member in 2020
  • Track 1 Technical Specialist
  • Track 2 Personal Guide
  • Track 3 Online Facilitator
  • Track 4 Course Developer
  • Track 5 Course or Program Manager
  • Track 6 Work for Hire Online Lecturer
  • Track 7 High School Teacher
  • Track 8 Unemployed

Track 1 Technical Specialist
  • Help critique technical aspects of media and
    materials built into online courses. Here one
    would be part of a course development team or
    instructional design unit. Freelance learning
    object evaluator. Here one would likely operate
    alone or as part of a consulting company.

Track 2 Personal Guide
  • Provide program or course guidance to students on
    demand or preplanned. Becomes more of a
    generalist across university offerings. For
    example, one might help students see how
    different learning objects or modules fit
    together into a degree.

Track 3 Online Facilitator
  • Offers timely and informed support to students
    struggling to complete an online course or
    inserting questions and nudging development of
    students who are successfully completing
    different modules. This is the most similar to
    college teaching positions today.

Track 4 Course Developer
  • Help develop specific courses or topic areas for
    one or more universities. In many institutions,
    this will move beyond a course royalty system to
    a paid position.

Track 5 Course or Program Manager
  • Supervisor or manager of an entire new program or
    courses, most often leading to certificates or
    masters degrees. Similar in stature to a
    development head or chairperson.

Track 6 Work for Hire Online Lecturer
  • Is a freelance instructor for one course or a
    range of course. May work on just one campus or
    on a range of campuses around the world. While
    this will be highly popular and rejuvenate
    careers, institutional policies are yet to be
    sorted out.

Track 7 High School Teacher
  • As universities begin to offer secondary degrees,
    some college faculty with online teaching
    experience and teaching degrees will find
    positions in those classes. Some may view such
    positions as being demoted to the minor leagues.

Track 8 Unemployed
  • If one does not find a niche in one or more of
    the above tracks or roles, he or she will likely
    be unemployed or highly unsuccessful.

Student Differences in 2020
  • Live Longer
  • More Educated
  • Multiple Degrees
  • Accustomed to Multiple Learning Formats
  • Design own programs and courses
  • Specialists AND Generalists
  • Courses/Degrees for unknown occupations
  • Expect to Take Courses Where Live
  • Cyber-students (various digital aids attached to

So Where is Nebraska Headed?
So, what to do now?
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