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Developing Online Communities: New Roles for Instructors, New Roles for Students

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Developing Online Communities: New Roles for Instructors, New Roles for Students Dr. Curtis J. Bonk Indiana University CourseShare.com http://php.indiana.edu/~cjbonk – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Developing Online Communities: New Roles for Instructors, New Roles for Students


1
Developing Online Communities New Roles for
Instructors, New Roles for Students
Dr. Curtis J. Bonk Indiana University CourseShare
.com http//php.indiana.edu/cjbonk cjbonk_at_indiana
.edu
2
Are You Ready???
3
  • Administrators and faculty members at the
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology are
    debating what could become a 100-million effort
    to create extensive World Wide Web pages for
    nearly every course the university offers.
  • Jeffrey R. Young, March 1, 2001, The Chronicle of
    Higher Ed

4
Faculty Entrepreneurship
  • Douglas Rowlett has turned his English-department
    office into a virtual radio station that
    broadcasts continuously on the Internet, offering
    a mix of poetry readings, lectures, and popular
    music. He plans to deliver entire courses over
    the Internet radio station.
  • Jeffrey R. Young (Jan 8., 2001). Chronicle of
    Higher Ed.

5
What if you are on too much?
6
When unable to access the Internet or forbidden
to go online, do you feel
  • A. Anxiety
  • B. Depression
  • C. Mood swings
  • D. Irritability
  • E. Insomnia
  • F. Panic attacks
  • G. Restlessness

7
How many hours per week do you currently spend
online(for nonessential purposes)?
  • Do you feel preoccupied with the Internet?
  • Have you ever used the Internet to escape
    situational difficulties?
  • Does Internet use disrupt your work or
    job-related performance?

8
Contact the Center for On-Line AddictionsNetaddi
ction.comDr. Kimberly Young, Univ of
PittsburghCaught in the Net (1998), John Wiley
and Sons
9
What Other Supports Do You Need? David
Greenfield, Founder of the Center for Internet
Studies (www.virtual-addiction.com)
10
To Cope with the Explosion, We Need Instructor
E-Learning Support!!!
11
Problems Faced
  • Administrative
  • Lack of admin vision.
  • Lack of incentive from admin and the fact that
    they do not understand the time needed.
  • Lack of system support.
  • Little recognition that this is valuable.
  • Rapacious U intellectual property policy.
  • Unclear univ. policies concerning int property.
  • Pedagogical
  • Difficulty in performing lab experiments
    online.
  • Lack of appropriate models for pedagogy.
  • Time-related
  • More ideas than time to implement.
  • Not enough time to correct online assign.
  • People need sleep Web spins forever.

12
TrainingOutside Support
  • Training (FacultyTraining.net)
  • Courses Certificates (JIU, e-education)
  • Reports, Newsletters, Pubs
  • Aggregators of Info (CourseShare, Merlot)
  • Global Forums (FacultyOnline.com GEN)
  • Resources, Guides/Tips, Link Collections, Online
    Journals, Library Resources

13
Certified Online Instructor Program
  • Walden Institute12 Week Online Certification
    (Cost 995)
  • 2 tracks one for higher ed and one for online
    corporate trainer
  • Online tools and purpose
  • Instructional design theory techniques
  • Distance ed evaluation
  • Quality assurance
  • Collab learning communities

14
Inside Support
  • Instructional Consulting
  • Mentoring (strategic planning )
  • Small Pots of Funding
  • Help desks, institutes, 11, tutorials
  • Summer and Year Round Workshops
  • Office of Distributed Learning
  • Colloquiums, Tech Showcases, Guest Speakers
  • Newsletters, guides, active learning grants,
    annual reports, faculty development, brown bags,
    other professional development

15
Technology Professional Development workshop
participants practice their new skills.
16
Four Key Hats of Instructors
  • Technicaldo students have basics? Does their
    equipment work? Passwords work?
  • ManagerialDo students understand the assignments
    and course structure?
  • PedagogicalHow are students interacting,
    summarizing, debating, thinking?
  • SocialWhat is the general tone? Is there a
    human side to this course? Joking allowed?

17
Study of Four Classes(Bonk, Kirkley, Hara,
Dennen, 2001)
  • TechnicalTrain, early tasks, be flexible,
    orientation task
  • ManagerialInitial meeting, FAQs, detailed
    syllabus, calendar, post administrivia, assign
    e-mail pals, gradebooks, email updates
  • PedagogicalPeer feedback, debates, PBL, cases,
    structured controversy, field reflections,
    portfolios, teams, inquiry, portfolios
  • SocialCafé, humor, interactivity, profiles,
    foreign guests, digital pics, conversations,
    guests

18
How to Combine these Roles?
19
E-Moderator
  • Refers to online teaching and facilitation role.
    Moderating used to mean to preside over a meeting
    or a discussion, but in the electronic world, it
    means more than that. It is all roles
    combinedto hold meetings, to encourage, to
    provide information, to question, to summarize,
    etc. (Collins Berge, 1997 Gilly Salmon, 2000)
    see http//www.emoderators.com/moderators.shtml.

20
Other Hats
21
Online Concierge
  • To provide support and information on request
    (perhaps a map of the area) (Gilly Salmon, 2000).

22
Personal Learning Trainer
  • Learners need a personal trainer to lead them
    through materials and networks, identify relevant
    materials and advisors and ways to move forward
    (Mason, 1998 Salmon, 2000).

23
E-Police
  • While one hopes you will not call yourself this
    nor find the need to make laws and enforce them,
    you will need some Code of Practice or set
    procedures, and protocols for e-moderators (Gilly
    Salmon, 2000).

24
Other Hats
  • Weaverlinking comments/threads
  • Tutorindividualized attention
  • Participantjoint learner
  • Provocateurstir the pot ( calm flames)
  • Observerwatch ideas and events unfold
  • Mentorpersonally apprentice students
  • Community Organizerkeep system going

25
Still More Hats
  • Assistant
  • Devils advocate
  • Editor
  • Expert
  • Filter
  • Firefighter
  • Facilitator
  • Gardener
  • Helper
  • Lecturer
  • Marketer
  • Mediator
  • Priest
  • Promoter

26
Surebut Cat Herder???
27
Activity Pick a Online Instruction Metaphor from
40 Options
  • Reality
  • ___________
  • ___________
  • ___________
  • ___________
  • ___________
  • Ideal World
  • ___________
  • ___________
  • ___________
  • ___________
  • ___________

28
So You want to Be A Flexible Learning Consultant
or an E-Moderator???
  • Berge Collins Associates
  • Mauri Collins and Zane L. Berge
  • http//www.emoderators.com/moderators.shtmlmod

29
You Must Understand How to Build Online
Communities
30
Survey Finds Concern on Administrative
ComputingChronicle of Higher Ed, June 22, 2001,
A33, Jeffrey R. Young
  • Campus-technology leaders say they worry more
    about administrative-computing systems than about
    anything else related to their jobs.
  • (survey by Educausean academic-technology
    consortium)

31
Who else am I Mad At???
  • Administrators
  • Colleagues
  • The Registrars Office
  • Students
  • Textbook Companies
  • Bookstores
  • Courseware Companies
  • The Media

32
  • Colleges and universities ought to be concerned
    not with how fast they can put their courses up
    on the Web, but with finding out how this
    technology can be used to build and sustain
    learning communities Hiltz (1998, p. 7)

33
How form a community???
34
  • A learning community is a group of individuals
    interested in a common topic or area, who engage
    in knowledge related transactions as well as
    transformations within it. They take advantage
    of the opportunity to exchange ideas and learn
    collectively.
  • (Bonk Wisher, 2000
  • Fulton Riel, 1999)

35
  • A learning community as defined by Kowch
    Schwier (1997 pp.1) is a group of individuals
    engaged intentionally and collectively in the
    transaction, or transformation of knowledge.
    Communities are not built they grow through
    personalisation, member participation,
    contribution and most importantly ownership (van
    der Kuyl, 2001).
  • (Stuckey, Hedberg, Lockyer, in press)

36
Factors in Creating any Community (Stuckey,
Hedberg, Lockyer, in press)
  • A community of practice is a refinement of the
    concept of community defined by Amy Jo Kim as a
    group of people with shared interest, purpose, or
    goal, who get to know each other better over
    time. (Kim, 2000 p.28).

37
Building Community in Schools(Thomas J.
Sergiovanni, 1994)
  • Communities are socially organized around
    relationships and the felt interdependence that
    nurture themIn communities we create our social
    lives with others who have intentions similar to
    ours. (p. 4)

38
Building Community in Schools(Thomas J.
Sergiovanni, 1994)
  • But instead of relying on external control
    measures, communities rely more on norms,
    purposes, values, professional socialization
    collegiality, and natural interdependence. (p.
    4)

39
Building Community in Schools(Thomas J.
Sergiovanni, 1994)
  • There is no recipe for community buildingno
    correlates, no workshop agenda, no training
    package. Community cannot be borrowed or
    bought. (p. 5)

40
Rena Palloff of The Fielding Institute and Keith
Pratt of Ottawa University in Kansas
Palloff, Rena M., Pratt, Keith (1999). Building
Learning Communities in Cyberpsace Effective
Strategies for the Online Classroom. San
Francisco, CA Jossey-Bass Inc.
41
Building Learning Communities in Cyberspace
(Palloff Pratt, 1999)
  • In some respects these educational communities
    may be more stimulating and interesting for those
    involved with education because they bring
    together people with similar interests and
    objectives, not just people who casually connect,
    as we find in other areas of cyberspace. (p. 23)

42
Steps in Building an Electronic Community
(Palloff Pratt, 1999)
  • Clearly define the purpose of the group.
  • Create a distinctive gathering place for the
    group.
  • Promote effective leadership from within.
  • Define norms and a clear code of conduct.
  • Allow for a range of member roles.
  • Allow for and facilitate subgroups.
  • Allow members to resolve their own disputes.

43
Indicators Online Community is Forming(Palloff
Pratt, 1999)
  • Active interaction involving both course content
    and personal communication.
  • Collaborative learning evidenced by comments
    directed primarily student to student rather than
    student to instructor.
  • Socially constructed meaning evidenced by
    agreement or questioning, with the intent to
    achieve agreement on issues of meaning.
  • Sharing of resources among students.
  • Expressions of support and encouragement
    exchanged between students, as well as
    willingness to critically evaluate the work of
    others.

44
Building Learning Communities in Cyberspace
(Palloff Pratt, 1999)
  • In the online learning community, conflict not
    only contributes to group cohesion but to the
    quality of the learning outcome. Therefore,
    instructors in the online environment need to
    feel comfortable with conflict... (p. 28)

45
Factors in Creating a Community
  • Goals and Milestones for the Group
  • (Kulp, 1999)
  • Synchronous provides conversational space
  • (Colomb Simutis (1996)
  • Collab tasks/sharing build camaraderie empathy
  • Rice-Lively (1994)
  • Groups need shared frustrations and celebrations,
    implicit rules for communication, courteous and
    helpful behaviors, self-disclosures, openness,
    less isolation, simple tasks, general collab
    spirit.

46
Interaction Research Findings
  • High level of mutual support
  • including acknowledgments, encouragement,
  • personal information and feelings,
  • metainteraction. In effect, these online
    conferences blended both cognitive and
    interactive acts,
  • Avoid peer controversy critical attitudes
  • Need intersubjectivity online wherein
    participants agree, disagree, challenge,
    negotiate. Bakardjieva and Harasim (1999)

47
Interactivity Defined
  • The extent to which messages in a sequence
    relate to each other, and especially the extent
    to which later messages recount the relatedness
    of earlier messages.
  • Rafaeli and Sudweeks (1997)

48
(Herring, 1997)
49
Collaborative Behaviors(Curtis and Lawson, 1999)
  • Most common were (1) Planning, (2) Contributing,
    and (3) Seeking Input.
  • Other common events were
  • (4) Initiating activities,
  • (5) Providing feedback,
  • (6) Sharing knowledge
  • Few students challenge others or attempt to
    explain or elaborate
  • Recommend using debates and modeling appropriate
    ways to challenge others

50
Linda Harasim(June 4, 2002, Global Educators
Network)
  • Findings indicate that collaboration facilitates
    higher developmental levels in learners than
    accomplished by the same individuals working
    alone (Stodolski Webb, 1986 Johnson, Maryuma,
    1983). Conversation, argument, and multiple
    perspectives that arise in groups contribute to
    such cognitive processes as verbalization,
    cognitive restructuring, and conflict
    resolution.

51
Linda Harasim(June 4, 2002, Global Educators
Network)
  • There are also critical social or motivational
    factors involved in  collaborative learning, such
    as the reduction of uncertainty as learners find
    their way through complex activities (Webb, 1983,
    1986) and increased engagement with the learning
    process as a result of peer interaction (Cohen,
    1984).

52
Linda Harasim(June 4, 2002, Global Educators
Network)
  • Bruffee (1999) argues that knowledge is a
    construct of the communitys form of discourse,
    maintained by local consensus and subject to
    endless conversation. Learning is a social,
    negotiated, consensual process.  Discourse is
    keystudents collaborate in small groups, then in
    larger or plenary groups to  increasingly come to
    intellectual convergence.

53
Linda Harasims Model of Online Collaborative
Learning
  • Idea Generating implies divergent thinking,
    brainstorming, verbalization and thus sharing of
    ideas and positions.
  • Idea Linking involves evidence of conceptual
    change, intellectual progress and the beginning
    of convergence as new or different ideas become
    clarified and identified and clustered into
    various positions.
  • Intellectual Convergence is typically reflected
    in shared understanding (including agreeing to
    disagree) and is especially evident in
    co-production, whether a theory, a publication,
    an assignment, a work of art, or some similar
    output.

54
Linda Harasims Model of Online Collaborative
Learning
  • Idea Generating
  • Both quantity and quality of messages should be
    considered indicators of success i.e.,
    participants who post at least three messages and
    log in at least five times a week.
  • Introducing ideas and understandings new ideas,
    beginnings of threads, new topics
  • Personal examples are used to illustrate their
    position, a particular point, start a debate.

55
Linda Harasims Model of Online Collaborative
Learning
  • Idea Linking
  • Increased number of reply messages
  • Increased number of references to previous
    messages
  • Increased number of name referencing
  • Our research is demonstrating that name
    referencing is an excellent strategy for
    identifying dialogue.
  • Qualitative changes in the nature of the
    discourse For example, Agree/Disagreements
    often accompanied by the use of a name, example
    "Michelle, I have to respectfully disagree with
    such and such".

56
Harasims Model Continued
  • Idea Linking continued
  • Enhanced individual understanding Exemplified by
    such comments as  "now I understand",an
    elaboration of an existing idea, with an example.
  • Shared understandings Exemplified by comments
    such as "the main themes addressed so far.."?
  • Elaboration on the ideas of others or own ideas
    (see Enhanced individual understanding)
  • Quoting, then commenting Provide a small short
    quote, then elaborate. I.e. "Bill, you said that
    "such and such"? "but I think that such and
    such"?
  • Directed questioning "James, what did you mean
    when you said..?"

57
Harasims Model Continued
  • Intellectual Convergence
  • Phase 3 communication is indicated by an
    increased level of density of the first two.  For
    example, this includes an increased number of
    substantive contributions, e.g., messages that
    compare, structure, extend, and synthesize
    ideas. 
  • There are also an increased number of conclusive
    supported position statements.
  • Most typically, Phase 3 communication is
    characterized by some joint initiatives team
    projects, joint writing, panel presentations,
    co-production of an active or artifact.

58
Social Construction of Knowledge (Gunawardena,
Lowe, Anderson, 1997)
  • Five Stage Model
  • 1. Share ideas,
  • 2. Discovery of Idea Inconsistencies,
  • 3. Negotiate Meaning/Areas Agree,
  • 4. Test and Modify,
  • 5. Phrase Agreements
  • In global debate, students very task driven.
  • Dialogue remained at Phase I with the sharing of
    info, not negotiating, constructing, of knowledge
  • Replicated in follow-up study of 25 managers
  • (Kanuka Anderson, 1998).

59
Social Constructivism and Learning Communities
Online (SCALCO) Scale. (Bonk Wisher, 2000)
  • ___ 1. The topics discussed online had real world
    relevance.
  • ___ 2. The online environment encouraged me to
    question ideas and perspectives.
  • ___ 3. I received useful feedback and mentoring
    from others.
  • ___ 4. There was a sense of membership in the
    learning here.
  • ___ 5. Instructors provided useful advice and
    feedback online.
  • ___ 6. I had some personal control over course
    activities and discussion.

60
  • Portal/Hub
  • (Stuckey, Hedberg, Lockyer, in press)
  • 1. Users are passive consumers
  • 2. Varied membership
  • 3. May not need to register
  • 4. No ties between members
  • 5. No access to other members
  • 6. Links to resources and indexed sites
  • 7. Database driven
  • 8. Users as consumers.
  • 9. Success of hits

61
  • Community
  • (Stuckey, Hedberg, Lockyer, in press)
  • 1. Users are producers, consumers, and builders
  • 2. Multi-dimensional communication
  • 3. Strong reciprocal ties real names used
  •  4. Shared or team projects/activities Develop
    joint artefacts
  • 5. Access to experts and mentoring
  • 6. Level of sustained commitment from developers
    and members
  • 7. Varied roles for members
  • 8. Moderation from members (Facilitators,
    mentors, etc.)
  • 9. Success engagement, ideas, development,
    trends
  • 10. Members seek or establish f2f contact

62
How Facilitate Online Community?
  • Safety Establish safe environment
  • Tone Flexible, inviting, positive, respect
  • Personal Self-disclosures, open, stories telling
  • Sharing Share frustrations, celebrations, etc
  • Collaboration Camaraderie/empathy
  • Common language conversational chat space
  • Task completion set milestones grp goals
  • Other Meaningful, choice, simple, purpose...

63
Factors in Creating any Community
  • (1) membership/identity
  • (2) influence
  • (3) fulfill of indiv needs/rewards
  • (4) shared events emotional connections
  • (McMillan Chavis, 1986).
  • (History, stories, expression, identity,
    participation, respect, autonomy, celebration,
    team building, shape group, Schwier, 1999)

64
Why Community? (Chin-chi Chao, 2002)
  • the forging of social bonds has important
    socio-affective and cognitive benefits for the
    learning activities.
  • (Harasim, et al., 1995, p. 137)

65
Social Hat
  • Create community, set tone, motivate
  • Welcome, thank, invite, reinforce positives
  • Foster shared knowledge
  • Support humor and conversational tone
  • Use tools such as cafes, profiles, pictures
  • Invite to be candid

66
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67
Factors in Creating any Community (Stuckey,
Hedberg, Lockyer, in press)
  • Communities require member participation and
    contribution, ownership, quality support and
    facilitation, shared direction, goals and
    projects (Wellman Gulia, 1997 Palloff Pratt,
    1999 Kim, 2000).

68
I know it may sound weird, but in the online
class, I felt like I knew the people better than
I did in a real class. We felt like we knew
everyone just because we had to interact so
often. It was very cool. I still feel like when
I see these people in the hall, I know who they
are. I feel like I know them ten times better
than anyone else I had classes with.
Student Social Interaction Comment
69
The Problem (Chin-chi Chao, 2002)
  • The prevailing assumption that
  • A sense of community would have been helpful to
    those who dropped out of online courses (Wegerif,
    1998 Eastmond, 1995)
  • An online course is more desirable with a
    community atmosphere (McDonald, 1998 Harasim, et
    al., 1995)

70
Some Reasons to Question (Chin-chi Chao, 2002)
  • Teachers were found de-emphasize learning when
    community building was the focus (Schaps, 1998
    Shouse, 1996)
  • Value conflicts in the community could cause
    counter effects on learning (Fingeret, 1982 1983)

71
Community-Level Analysis (Chin-chi Chao, 2002)
  • Frequency of interaction Number of postings
  • Patterns of interaction Message maps and
    Clustered conversations
  • Content Analysis Giving and Taking ratio
    (Inter-rater agreement .85)
  • Interpreting community episodes

72
Keiko (Chin-chi Chao, 2002)
  • Most active member
  • Experienced cold responses at first
  • Adjusted personal goals for the community
  • Missed personal goals
  • Theme Adjusting to the community

73
How are Sense of Community (SoC) Meaningful
Learning (ML) related? (Chin-chi Chao, 2002)
  • Learning community involvement can expand and
    deepen meaningful learning
  • Some limited meaningful learning can occur
    without learning community involvement at all
  • Community bonding events are not necessarily a
    reliable indicator for learning

74
Ten Sample Communities?
75
Four Projects at the Center for Research on
Learning and Technology, Indiana University
76
Quest Atlantis
  • Atlantis is facing impending disaster
  • Disaster is a result of lost values and corrupt
    leadership
  • A Council of Elders opened a portal to find help
  • Children of the Earth can use this portal to save
    Atlantis
  • Centers have been created to access the portal
  • Children must save Atlantis and avoid our common
    fate

77
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78
2. Inquiry Learning Forum
79
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80
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81
3. The TICKIT Project
82
TICKIT Teacher Institute for Curriculum
Knowledge about the Integration of Technology
(http//www.indiana.edu/tickit)
  • TICKIT Training and Projects
  • Web Web quests, Web search, Web
    editing/publishing.
  • Write Electronic newsletters.
  • Tools Photoshop, Inspiration, PPt.
  • Telecom e-mail with Key pals.
  • Computer conferencing Nicenet.
  • Web Course HighWired, MyClass, Lightspan, eBoard
  • Digitizing using camera, scanning.

83
Technology Integration Ideas
  • Collab with students in other countries
  • Make Web resources accessible
  • Experts via computer conferencing (or interview
    using e-mail)
  • Reflect Discuss on ideas on the Web.
  • Put lesson plans on Web.
  • Peer mentoring, role play, etc.
  • Scavenger hunts.

84
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85
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86
4. Learning to Teach with Technology Studio
87
Plus Six other ProjectsIs this an online
learning community?
88
5. BobWeb Videoconferencing Support Tool
(optional use)
89
6. The TITLE Project International Cases on Web
90
7. TAPPED IN (www.tappedin.sri.com growing
community of over 6,000 K-16 teachers,
researchers, and staff)
  • Hold real-time meetings and discussions
  • Conduct Inquiries
  • Meet colleagues
  • Browse Web sites together,
  • Explore professional development options,
  • Find useful materials and resources
  • Post items, share and create documents

91
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92
8. MERLOT.org and the World Lecture Hall
http//merlot.org http//www.utexas.edu/world/lect
ure/
93
9. The Global Educators Network (GEN)
94
10. TrainingSuperSite
95
So, what should instructors and students do in
these communities???
96
Online Mentoring and Assistance Online
Twelve forms of electronic learning mentoring and
assistance(Bonk Kim, 1998 Tharp, 1993 Bonk
et al., 2001)
97
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98
1. Social (and cognitive) Acknowledgement
"Hello...," "I agree with everything said so
far...," "Wow, what a case," "This case certainly
has provoked a lot of discussion...," "Glad you
could join us..."
99
2. Questioning "What is the name of this
concept...?," "Another reason for this might
be...?," "An example of this is...," "In contrast
to this might be...,""What else might be
important here...?," "Who can tell me....?," "How
might the teacher..?." "What is the real problem
here...?," "How is this related to...?,, "Can
you justify this?"
100
3. Direct Instruction "I think in class we
mentioned that...," Chapter X talks about...,"
"Remember back to the first week of the semester
when we went over X which indicated that..."
101
4. Modeling/Examples "I think I solved this sort
of problem once when I...," "Remember that video
we saw on X wherein Y decided to...,"
"Doesn't X give insight into this problem in
case Z when he/she said..."
102
5. Feedback/Praise "Wow, I'm impressed...,"
"That shows real insight into...," "Are you sure
you have considered...," "Thanks for responding
to X...," "I have yet to see you or anyone
mention..."
103
6. Cognitive Task Structuring "You know, the
task asks you to do...," "Ok, as was required,
you should now summarize the peer responses that
you have received...," "How might the textbook
authors have solved this case."
104
7. Cognitive Elaborations/Explanations "Provide
more information here that explains your
rationale," "Please clarify what you mean by...,"
"I'm just not sure what you mean by...," "Please
evaluate this solution a little more carefully."
105
8. Push to Explore "You might want to write to
Dr. XYZ for...," "You might want to do an ERIC
search on this topic...," "Perhaps there is a URL
on the Web that addresses this topic..."
106
9. Fostering Reflection/Self Awareness "Restate
again what the teacher did here," "How have you
seen this before?," "When you took over this
class, what was the first thing you did?,"
"Describe how your teaching philosophy will vary
from this...," "How might an expert teacher
handle this situation?"
107
10. Encouraging Articulation/Dialogue Prompting
"What was the problem solving process the teacher
faced here?," "Does anyone have a counterpoint or
alternative to this situation?," "Can someone
give me three good reasons why...," "It still
seems like something is missing here, I just
can't put my finger on it."
108
11. General Advice/Scaffolding/Suggestions "If I
were in her shoes, I would...," "Perhaps I would
think twice about putting these people into...,"
"I know that I would first...," "How totally
ridiculous this all is certainly the person
should be able to provide some..."
109
12. Management (via private e-mail or
discussion) "Don't just criticize....please be
sincere when you respond to your peers," "If you
had put your case in on time, you would have
gotten more feedback." "If you do this again, we
will have to take away your privileges."
110
What About Student Roles???
111
Participant Categories
  • Web Resource Finder
  • Starter-Wrapper
  • Researcher
  • Online Journal Editor
  • Expert Resource Gatherer
  • Technology Reviewer
  • Mentor/Expert
  • Instructor
  • Seeker/Questioner

112
Role 1 Starter/MediatorReporter/Commentator
  • Summarizes the key terms, ideas, and issues in
    the chapters, supplemental instructor notes,
    journal articles, and other assigned readings and
    asks thought provoking questions typically before
    ones peers read or discuss the concepts and
    ideas. In effect, he/she points out what to
    expect in the upcoming readings or activities.
    Once the start is posted, this student acts as
    a mediator or facilitator of discussion for the
    week.

113
Role 2 Wrapper/SummarizerSynthesizer/Connector/R
eviewer
  • Connects ideas, synthesizes discussion,
    interrelates comments, and links both explicit
    and implicit ideas posed in online discussion or
    other activities. The learner looks for themes
    in online coursework while weaving information
    together. The wrapping or summarizing is done at
    least at the end of the week or unit, but
    preferably two or more times depending on the
    length of activity.

114
Role 3 Conqueror or Debater/Arguer/Bloodletter
  • Takes ideas into action, debates with others,
    persists in arguments and never surrenders or
    compromises nomatter what the casualties are when
    addressing any problem or issue.

115
Role 4 Devil's Advocate or Critic/Censor/Confeder
ate
  • Takes opposite points of view for the sake of an
    argument and is an antagonist when addressing any
    problem posed. This might be a weekly role that
    is secretly assigned.

116
Role 5 Idea Squelcher/Biased/Preconceiver
  • Squelches good and bad ideas of others and
    submits your own prejudiced or biased ideas
    during online discussions and other situations.
    Forces others to think. Is that person you
    really hate to work with.

117
Role 6 Optimist/Open-minded/Idealist
  • In this role, the student notes what appears to
    be feasible, profitable, ideal, and "sunny" ideas
    when addressing this problem. Always sees the
    bright or positive side of the situation.

118
Role 7 Emotional/Sensitive/Intuitive
  • Comments with the fire and warmth of emotions,
    feelings, hunches, and intuitions when
    interacting with others, posting comments, or
    addressing problems.

119
Role 8 Idea Generator Creative Energy/Inventor
  • Brings endless energy to online conversations
    and generates lots of fresh ideas and new
    perspectives to the conference when addressing
    issues and problems.

120
Who do you think invented the Internet???
Alt Role Connector/Relator/Linker/Synthesizer
121
Funny thing is that Al thinks he invented
e-learning as well!!!
122
(No Transcript)
123
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY(June 26, 2002) AL GORE
IS TEACHING a distance-education course on the
role of families in discussions about community
development.    Videotapes of the two-semester
course, made this past year, are available for
other institutions to use.   SEE
http//chronicle.com/free/2002/06/2002062601t.htm
124
Role 9 Questioner/Ponderer/Protester
  • Role is to question, ponder, and protest the
    ideas of others and the problem presented itself.
    Might assume a radical or ultra-liberal tone.

125
Role 10 Coach Facilitator/Inspirer/Trainer
  • Offers hints, clues, supports, and highly
    motivational speeches to get everyone fired-up or
    at least one lost individual back on track when
    addressing a problem or situation.

126
Role 11 Controller/Executive Director/CEO/Leader
  • In this role, the student oversees the process,
    reports overall findings and opinions, and
    attempts to control the flow of information,
    findings, suggestions, and general problem
    solving.

127
Role 12 Slacker/Slough/Slug/Surfer Dude
  • In this role, the student does little or nothing
    to help him/herself or his/her peers learn.
    Here, one can only sit back quietly and listen,
    make others do all the work for you, and
    generally have a laid back attitude (i.e., go to
    the beach) when addressing this problem.

128
Role 12 Slacker/Slough/Slug/Surfer Dude
  • In this role, the student does little or nothing
    to help him/herself or his/her peers learn.
    Here, one can only sit back quietly and listen,
    make others do all the work for you, and
    generally have a laid back attitude (i.e., go to
    the beach) when addressing this problem.

129
How about political roles in Australia?
130
So, who is the prime minister?
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