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Enhancing Intrinsic Motivation to Achieve


M BN LS CS/K = Achievement ... P/S, A, C/E Dreams ... may more readily accomplish their personal, academic, and career/educational dreams. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Enhancing Intrinsic Motivation to Achieve

Enhancing Intrinsic Motivation to Achieve
  • Kathy Biles, Ph.D., NCC
  • Oregon State University Cascades
  • EIMA Trainer Consultant
  • kathy.biles_at_osucascades.edu
  • Gene Eakin, Ph.D.
  • West Salem High School
  • Adjunct Lewis Clark College
  • EIMA Trainer Consultant
  • eaking_at_proaxis.com

Educators and Academic Achievement
  • I know that 20-25 of the 9th graders at my
    school failed two or more classes at each grading
    period in spite of
  • a community/school norm for achievement
  • a strong educational program
  • many special support programs in place
  • These students are at risk of -
  • 1. not graduating
  • 2. facing the concomitant educational, economic,
    personal-social-familial consequences.

School Counselors and Academic Achievement
  • With the enactment of federal school reform
    legislation (for example, Goals 2000, No Child
    Left Behind), professional school counselors are
    being called upon to support the academic mission
    of schools and are held accountable for student
    achievement more than ever before.
  • (Erford, Moore-Thomas Mazzuca, 2004)

Educatorsand Academic Achievement
  • Ask school counselors to identify the most
    frustrating students to work with and
    underachievers will be near the top of the list.
  • Motivating students to achieve is no easy task,
    and traditional counseling approaches are often
    ineffective in producing long-term behavior
    change. (Bleuer, 1995)

Motivation to Learn
  • Motivation
  • an internal state or condition that serves to
  • activate or energize learning
  • give the learning direction
  • cause the learning to persist
  • http//chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/motivation

Motivation to Learn
  • Synonyms Inspire, Encourage, Hearten, Uplift,
    Strengthen, Fortify
  • To give somebody a reason or incentive to learn
  • To help someone feel enthusiastic, interested,
    and committed to learning
  • To give somebody hope, confidence, or courage to
  • To help somebody attain a higher level of
  • To increase the strength or force of learning
  • To make more powerful or persuasive the desire to

Motivation Emotional Intelligence

Daniel Goleman
  • Personal Competencies
  • 4. EMPATHY

Motivation and AchievementThe Primacy of
  • M BN LS CS/K
  • (Motivation) (Basic Needs)(Learning Skills)
    (Content Skills/Knowledge) Graduation,
  • Test Scores

  • P/S, A, C/E Dreams
  • Students must first be motivated or they will not
    engage and acquire the LS nor the CS/K requisite
    to achievement.
  • Students may have their basic needs met acquire
    the Learning and Content skills but without
    motivation, they will not achieve.
  • Students with high motivation can still achieve
    even when basic needs are not adequately met
    and/or skill levels are lower.

Enhancing Intrinsic Motivation to AchieveEIMA
Training and Consultation
  • Our Belief
  • 1. Knowing how to motivate yourself to
    accomplish your dreams and then make changes
    when you get off course is the
  • "life skill" most critical to success in life.
  • 2. K-16 education must teach this skill as a
    part of the curriculum.

Enhancing Intrinsic Motivation to Achieve EIMA
Training and Consultation
  • Our Mission
  • To provide students (K-16), educators (K-16),
    and parents (K-12) with a variety of approaches
    to -
  • enhancing students intrinsic motivation to
    achieve -
  • so everyone -
  • may more readily accomplish their personal,
    academic, and career/educational dreams.

Enhancing Intrinsic Motivation to AchieveEIMA
Training and Consultation
  • Our Vision
  • Counselors will provide leadership to assist
    students, parents, educators in understanding
  • 1. how individuals and systems change
  • 2. how individuals motivate themselves to
    achieve their personal, academic, and
    career/educational dreams

Enhancing Intrinsic Motivation to AchieveA
promising Approach
  • Enhancing Intrinsic Motivation to Achieve is
    informed by
  • Psychology of Innate Health, Achievement
    Motivation Theory, Transtheoretical Model of
    Change (TTM), Motivational Interviewing (MI),
    Attribution Theory,
  • Bibiotherapy, Narrative Approaches, Academic
    Resiliency Theory.
  • TTM and MI are evidence-based practices that
  • 1. motivate ATOD clients to become clean
  • 2. motivate clients to lose weight manage

Transtheoretical Model of Change (TTM)
Prochaska, Norcross, DiClemente Changi
ng for Good
  • Seminal study of self-changers 1,000 trying to
  • quit smoking and 800 trying to lose weight.
  • 1. identified six stages of change
  • 2. identified the change processes used by the
  • self-changers
  • 3. established that for interventions to have
  • efficacy the change processes utilized
  • to match the appropriate stage of change.

Stages of Change Academic Behavior
  • 1. Precontemplation Not considering changing.
  • 2. Contemplation Contemplating changing - pros
  • 3. Preparation Making plans to change behavior
    - goals methods.
  • 4. Action Changing behavior.
  • 5. Maintenance Integrating new behavior into
    daily/weekly habits.
  • 6. Termination Maintaining behavior without
    support from others.
  • A. With any change - obstacles ambivalence
    occur the student can recycle back through the
    stages of change.
  • B. Though students may move quickly from stage
    1-4, it may take several weeks to move through
    each of the first four stages.
  • C. Movement from Stage 1- Stage 2 most critical.
  • D. Interventions need to match stage of change.

Motivational InterviewingWilliam R. Miller,
PhDStephen Rollnick, Ph.D.
  • Motivational Interviewing a therapeutic style
    intended to help counselors work with students to
    address the students continuous fluctuation
    between opposing behaviors and thoughts.

Intrinsic Motivation Key Principles
  • Intrinsic motivation to change arises when
  • 1. Student feels accepted for who they are and
  • what they have done
  • 2. Student has Control Choice
  • 3. Student hears herself/himself arguing for
  • 4. Student is making committed decisions to
  • based on her/his goals and values
  • 5. Student understands resolves ambivalence
  • 6. Student feels hopeful about being able to

Enhancing MotivationStyle and
Spirit Steve Berg-Smith
  • 1. Empathy understand from the students
  • 2. Warm, Genuine, Respectful No fixing
  • 3. Collaborative share power and control two
  • 4. Listening with
  • Acceptance
  • Presence a quiet mind
  • Curiosity about/Fascination with - the students
  • Detachment from outcome
  • 5. Eliciting encouraging students to speak
    about THEIR
  • values, goals, concerns, ambivalence, Change
  • 6. Hopeful about the students capacity to change

Externalizing the Problem
  • We live our lives according to the stories we
    tell ourselves and the stories that others tell
    about us.
  • The problem is the problem. The person is not
    the problem.
  • Counselors engage in externalizing conversation,
    separating the problem from the person and giving
    it a name. Externalizing conversations open up
    space for a perspective where blame and shame
    become less significant.
  • Narrative Counseling in the Schools
    John Winslade
    Gerald Monk

Enhancing MotivationPre-contemplators
  • The student is not yet considering change.
  • We want to help them be Willing to change.
  • Establish rapport, ask permission, and build
  • Listen and reflect
  • Use Open-ended questions to develop the
  • Reflect, affirm, summarize change talk
  • Use reflections that forward the momentum for
  • change
  • Roll with any resistance that occurs
  • Support self-efficacy optimism
  • 8. Express your concern and keep the door open

Open-Ended QuestionsElicit Willing to Change Talk
  • Advantages of Change
  • a. How would you like for things to be
  • b. What are the main reasons you see for
    making a change?
  • Disadvantages of status quo - not changing
  • a. What worries you about your situation?
  • b. What do you think will happen if you dont

Four types of Motivational Statements
  • W - Cognitive recognition of the problem
  • (e.g., "I guess this is more serious than I
  • W - Affective expression of concern about the
  • (e.g., "I'm worried about what is happening
    to me.")
  • A - Optimism about one's ability to change
  • (e.g., "I know that if I try, I can really
    do it.")
  • R - A commitment to change behavior
  • (e.g., "I've got to make some changes.")

Eliciting Change Talk
  • The Student should present the arguments for
  • The counselor then
  • Reflects back change talk
  • Affirms and reinforces change talk
  • Offers summaries of change talk.

  • Miller Rollnick

P-C to ContemplationSigns of Willingness to
  • Decreased resistance - more willingness to
    consider the possibility of change
  • Decreased discussion about the problem
  • Increased resolve, commitment, desire
  • More change talk
  • Questions about change
  • Envisioning a new future - way of being
  • Experimenting with the new behaviors

Enhancing Motivation to AchieveContemplators
  • The student is considering change, but is still
  • We want to help them resolve the ambivalence -
    tip the
  • Decisional Balance - and feel Able Ready to
  • 1. Normalize the ambivalence.
  • 2. Use reflections that forward the momentum.
  • 3. O-E Questions target Able Ready to Change
  • 4. Help student "tip the decisional balance
  • 5. Elicit self-motivational statements of
    intent and
  • commitment
  • 6. Elicit change talk about perceived
  • and expectations about the
    possibility of change

Contemplation Questions to Elicit Able Ready
Change Talk
  • Confidence about change - Able
  • a. What makes you think that if you decided to
    change, you could do it?
  • b. What personal strengths do you have that will
    help you?
  • Commitment to change - Ready
  • a. What would you be willing to try?
  • b. Whats the next step for you?

Self-Efficacy Albert
  • Self-efficacy belief you can perform the tasks
  • in making the change.
  • Self-efficacy integral to being staying
  • 1. Support the students belief in the
    possibility of
  • changing and performing the tasks involved
  • 2. Acknowledge the students power for choosing
  • and carrying out personal change
  • 3. Help the student create a range of
  • approaches

Utilize Exceptions
  • An exception refers to a specific circumstance
    or situation in which the problem does not occur,
    or occurs less often or intensely.
  • John
    J. Murphy
  • Solution Focused Counseling

Decisional Balance
  • Forces against CHANGE
  • Benefits - staying the same
  • ____________________
  • ____________________
  • ____________________
  • Negative Consequences - if I change
  • ____________________
  • ____________________
  • ____________________
  • Forces for CHANGE
  • Benefits - if I Change
  • ______________________
  • ______________________
  • ______________________
  • Negative Consequences -
  • if I dont change
  • ______________________
  • ______________________

Evoking Change TalkSummary
  • 1. Ask open-ended questions.
  • 2. Utilize reflections that forward the
  • 3. Use the importance and confidence rulers.
  • 4. Explore the decisional balance. Clarify
  • 5. Elaborate reasons for change
  • Clarify In what ways? How much? When?
  • Ask for a specific example.
  • Ask for a description of the last time they made
    a similar change.

Evoking Change TalkSummary
  • 6. Look back to a time before the problem
  • What were things like before you _____?
  • 7. Consider the extreme consequences that might
  • What could be the best results you could imagine
    if you do make a change?
  • Suppose you continue on without changing. What
    do you imagine are the worst things that might
  • 8. Explore goals and values (including career
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