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Leadership, Motivation, and Decision-Making In Sport Management


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Title: Leadership, Motivation, and Decision-Making In Sport Management

Leadership, Motivation, and Decision-Making In
Sport Management
  • Steir Chapter 5
  • (27 February 2007)

Class Reminders
  • Article Analysis 3 due Thursday
  • Look for volunteer/paid experiences
  • WebCT Quiz/Discussions for Chaps 4 5 due by
    Sunday evening at 1155 pm
  • Todays topic Leadership in Sport

Leadership in Sport
  • Define leader?
  • Identify characteristics and traits of a leader
  • Who do you consider to be a leader? Why?
  • Identify leadership traits of this person
  • How can you develop into a leader?

Leadership in Sport
  • Leadership is the main factor in enhancing human
    performance and is the all-important key to
    unlocking the potential of individuals, both in
    business and in sport.
  • Are people born as leaders? Or are leaders
  • People are not born leadersindividuals can be
    trained, can be educated, to become leaders
    (Imundo, 1991 as cited in Steir, chapter 5).

Leadership Tactics (Steir, p. 105-106)
  • (1) Project the image of a leader act the
  • to be perceived as a leader, one must act and
    look the part
  • (2) Lead by being involved dont hide or avoid
  • (3) Lead by example be dedicated - produce
  • (4) Empower others help others reach potential
  • (5) Be reasonable in expectations dont become
    the stress inducer or micromanager
  • (6) Dont take short-cuts be complete w/tasks

Leadership Quotes
  • Leadership is the art of getting someone else to
    do something you want done Dwight Eisenhower
  • The ultimate measure of a man is not where he
    stands in moments of comfort and convenience, but
    where he stands at times of challenge and
    controversy - Martin Luther King, Jr.
  • Character is what you really are, while your
    reputation is merely what others think you are
    John Wooden
  • Leaders aren't born they are made. And they are
    made just like anything else, through hard work.
  • Vince Lombardi
  • It is a terrible thing to look over your
    shoulder when you are trying to lead -- and find
    no one there Franklin D. Roosevelt

Leaders in Sport Fitness
  • Who do you consider to be a leader in the sport
    industry? Why?
  • Coaches John Wooden, Pat Summit
  • Teachers
  • Advocates/Administrators Donna Lopiano
  • Inventors-Innovators
  • Commissioners Paul Tagliabue
  • Pioneers Jackie Robinson
  • Managers
  • Parents
  • Others?

Leader vs. Manager
  • Leader vs. Manager is there a difference?
  • Managers are usually appointed but they still
    must earn the respect of team members in order
    to be perceived as leaders
  • They will gain power once they are perceived as
  • All leaders must accomplish goals and objectives
    through managing and motivating human

Types of Leadership Power (Steir, p. 104)
  • Individuals with power/authority promote change
  • How does an individual acquire power?
  • Managers acquire power based on a position or
    title. Leaders acquire power based on their
    ability (power) to motivate others to do and
  • Reputation Power image perception, intimidation
  • Knowledge Power - knowledge/skills/abilities
  • Experience Power - wisdom gained through exper.
  • Charismatic Power personality, social,
  • Coercive Power - persuasive/convincing abilities
  • Title or Office Power holding a title or

Desirable Leadership Qualities?
  • What leadership qualities are most desirable?
  • Influential (through actions and example)
  • Persuasive
  • Motivating
  • Coordinating
  • Delegating
  • Directing
  • Guiding
  • Communicating
  • Visionary - intuitive/anticipate future trends

Leadership Essentials- Stephen R. Covey
  • Path-finding create a blueprint of action and
    ensure that your plans have integrity - before
    you act
  • Aligning change your systems, processes, and
    structure to align them with the desired results
    you identified through path-finding
  • Empowering release the talent, energy, and
    contributions of people - True empowerment yields
    productive communication and innovative results
    between individuals and teams
  • Modeling build trust with others - the heart
    of effective leadership - an individual of high
    abilities will never be a true leader if his or
    her character is questionable

How Can You Develop Leadership Skills?
  • What steps can you take?
  • Get involved on campus
  • Join professional associations
  • Acquire experience (paid or volunteer)
  • Attend/participate in leadership institutes
  • If you see a need start an initiative lead
    the cause for positive community or social change

NCAA Leadership Programs
  • The NCAA is committed to developing leadership
    abilities in student-athletes.
  • Leadership Institute for Ethnic Minority Females
  • Leadership Institute for Ethnic Minority Males
  • NCAA Leadership Conference
  • Division I Regional Leadership Conference
  • Fellows Leadership Development Program

UNC Athletics Leadership Initiative
  • Teach freshmen how to lead themselves
  • Ease the transition of freshmen
  • Create social connections between freshmen
  • Provide freshmen with upper-class peer mentors
  • Teach freshmen the importance of respecting
  • Develop upper-class student-athlete leaders to
    mentor the freshmen

Leadership Academies - Camps
  • Julie Foudy Sports Leadership Academy
  • A curriculum that incorporates sports and
  • Focus to teach students the ingredients it
    takes to be a leader on the field AND a leader in
  • Students get the best of both worlds they learn
    soccer from some of the best women's players in
    the world
  • AND
  • they are exposed to a multitude of leadership
    concepts they can cultivate for life.

Sports Leadership Institutes
  • Adephi University (NY)
  • SLI programs inspire leadership through sport,
    while addressing social issues, including life
    skills, sportsmanship and civility, positive life
    choices, violence prevention, and physical
    fitness.Delivered as classroom workshops,
    outreach and mentoring programs, and summer
    camps, these programs are designed for schools,
    youth leagues, communities, camps, coaches and

  • Leaders can motivate others to achieve goals
  • Define Motivation?
  • the force that moves people to act, to perform
    their jobs, to produce
  • May involve an external stimulus that influences,
    persuades, or directs behavior of human beings
  • Successful leaders must be able to motivate
    others (staff, coworkers, players, students) to
    work towards and achieve program goals and
  • Difference between intrinsic and extrinsic
    motivation? examples of each

Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation
  • Intrinsic motivation that comes from within the
    person or individual (self-motivation)
  • Extrinsic motivation emanating from outside
    influences (boss, work, friend, )
  • Positive vs. Negative forms of motivation?
  • Positive reward or pleasurable circumstance
  • Negative unpleasant consequence-punishment

A Motivation Formula?
  • Druckers Motivation Formula
  • (M P times V)
  • M Motivation
  • P Perceived probability of task completion
  • V Value (benefits) derived from task completion
  • See Figure 5.1 (Steir, p. 111)

Job Motivators
  • What job elements or factors motivate you?
  • Meaningful Responsibilities
  • Decision-Making Authority
  • Potential for Recognition and Praise
  • Potential for Advancement
  • Compensation for Superior Performance
  • Challenging Work that Promotes Professional
  • Positive reinforcement from managers

Motivational Strategies - Tactics
  • Strategies you could use to motivate others?
  • Praise others Make the praise public knowledge
  • Office-wide memo, email, posted statement
  • Offer perks, gift certificates, bonuses for
    superior performance/productivity
  • Award unexpected time off, vacation, bonuses
  • Honoring outstanding personnel and performance
  • Integrate a recognition/award system
  • Promotion Professional Advancement New

  • Effective decision-makers Made or Born?
  • Effective leaders learn how to make sound, timely
    decisions through lessons learned through
    accumulated experience (wisdom) and doing their
  • Effective leaders grant a level of
    decision-making authority to others
  • Typical purposes of Decision-Making
  • Prevent a problem
  • Solve a problem
  • Avoid an emerging problematic situation

Evaluating Decisions by Leaders in Sport
  • Bill Webers handling of Jamar Smith
  • David Sterns handling of Tim Hardaway
  • NCAA committee on Chief Illiniwek
  • 76ers GM Billie King and Allen Iverson

  • Sport Managers must make decisions on a regular,
    daily basis significant insignificant
  • Sport managers, supervisors, and leaders must
    possess the ability to make good and wise
    decisions relative to the sport organization
    itself, the programs and activities sponsored by
    the entity, and the personnel associated with the
  • Decisions are not always popular and may arouse
    public emotion and media attention
  • Cutting a sport in your program

  • A successful sport manager must develop
    leadership and motivational skills, along with
    decision-making abilities to be successful
  • These skills and abilities can be developed as
    the sport manager acquires experience, wisdom and
    knowledge in the Sport Fitness industry

Article Analysis 3
  • Leadership in Sport
  • Due Today
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