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Using Rewards within School-wide PBIS

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Title: Using Rewards within School-wide PBIS


1
Using Rewards withinSchool-wide PBIS
  • Rob Horner Steve Goodman
  • University of Oregon Michigan
    Department of Education

2
Purposes
  • Define the challenge faced in many schools as
    they consider the use of rewards.
  • Share research foundation
  • Provide examples of reward use at all grade
    levels
  • Handout Rewards

3
Start where we all agree
  • Our goal is to create a learning environment
    where students are engaged and successful.
  • Schools should teach, support, and encourage
    students to be self-managers
  • Student should not depend on rewards to behave
    well.
  • We want students to sustain and expand the skills
    they learn in school to life experiences beyond
    school.

4
Rewards defined
  • A presumed positive event/activity/object
  • Contrast with reinforcer which is change in
    behavior as a result of contingent delivery of a
    consequence.
  • For positive reinforcement the event is
    positive
  • For reward the event is presumed to be positive.

5
Main Messages
  • Rewards are a core feature of building a positive
    school culture.
  • Rewards make a difference
  • Initial behavior change
  • Sustained behavior change (Doolittle, 2006)
  • Rewards can be used badly
  • But they do NOT inhibit intrinsic motivation
  • Rewards can be used effectively in all school
    contexts.

6
The Challenge
  • In our school the use of rewards is seen by
    several faculty members as
  • Expensive
  • Time consuming/ effortful
  • Unnecessary
  • they should know how to behave by now
  • Inappropriate
  • Rewards are fine for elementary school but are
    ineffective and inappropriate in middle or high
    school.

7
The Challenge
  • The use of rewards will damage intrinsic
    motivation and actually result in reduction of
    desired behaviors.
  • although rewards can control peoples behavior
    the primary negative effect of rewards is that
    they tend to forestall self-regulation.
  • Deci et al., 1999 p. 659

8
National Education Association, 1991
  • The expectation of reward can actually undermine
    intrinsic motivation and creativity of
    performanceA wide variety of rewards have now
    been tested, and everything from good-player
    awards to marshmallows produces the expected
    decrements in intrinsic motivation and creative
    performance
  • Tegano et al., 1991 p. 119

9
Examples
  • Concerns you have encountered,
  • Personally, or
  • With Colleagues

10
What is the empirical foundation?
  • Harlow, Harlow Meyer (1950)
  • Rhesus monkeys
  • Would solve problems (puzzles) without obtaining
    rewards (no food, water, etc).
  • Presumption was that problem solving was
    intrinsically motivated

11
Deci et al., 1971 (three studies)
  • College Students (doing puzzles, writing
    newspaper headlines)
  • Phase 1 Observe time spent on task
  • Phase 2 Reward half the group for working
  • Phase 3 Observe time on task (no rewards)

12
Research Simulation
13
Since 1970
  • Conceptual Debate
  • Definitions of intrinsic motivation
  • Behavior controlled by unprogrammed
    consequences (Mawhinney et al., 1989)
  • Four different conceptual models
  • Overjustification
  • Cognitive Evaluation
  • Mind-body dualism
  • Hedonistic definition
  • Over 100 Empirical Studies
  • Reiss Sushinsky (1975 1976)
  • Cameron Pierce, 1994
  • Deci, Koestner Ryan, 1999
  • Cameron, Banko Pierce, 2001
  • ------------------------------
  • Lepper, Keavney, Drake, 1996
  • Akin-Little, Eckert, Lovett Little, 2004
  • Reiss, 2005

14
What do we know?
  • Be clear about what you define as a reward
  • We can use rewards badly
  • If rewards are delivered ambiguously
  • If what we deliver is not a reward from the
    learners perspective. (Reward as Punisher)
  • If partial rewards are delivered when full reward
    is expected/ promised (Reward as Punisher)
  • Rules for getting a reward create physiological
    pressure (Reward as Punisher)
  • If large rewards are delivered briefly and then
    withdrawn completely

15
What do we know?
  • Rewards are effective when used
  • To build new skills or sustain desired skills,
    with
  • contingent delivery of rewards for specific
    behavior, and
  • gradually faded over time.
  • Akin-Little, Eckert, Lovett, Little, 2004
  • In terms of the overall effects of reward, our
    meta-analysis indicates no evidence for
    detrimental effects of reward on measures of
    intrinsic motivation.
  • Cameron, Banko Pierce, 2001 p.21

16
What do we know?
  • For high-interest tasks, verbal rewards are
    found to increase free choice and task interest.
    This finding replicates
  • Cameron and Pierce, 1994 Deci et al., 1999).
  • When tasks are of low initial interest,
    rewards increase free-choice, and intrinsic
    motivation
  • Cameron, Banko Pierce, 2001 p.21

17
What do we know?
  • programs that show increased intrinsic
    motivation are those programs that incorporate
    the elements of good, comprehensive behavioral
    intervention
  • Relatively immediate reinforcement
  • Generalization strategies
  • Individualized Intervention
  • The implication is that any blanket rejection of
    programmed reinforcement is entirely
    unwarranted.
  • Akin-Little, Eckert, Lovett, Little, 2004 p.
    358

18
What do we know?
  • Negative effects of rewards are produced when
    rewards signify failure or are loosely tied to
    behavior. (e.g. Darin, you got half the work
    done so you get half the reward.)
  • Cameron, Banko Pierce, 2001
  • These findings indicate that negative effects of
    reward do not persist over time when task
    performance is rewarded on repeated occasions.
  • Davidson Bucher, 1978
  • Feingold Mahoney, 1975
  • Mawhinney, Dickenson Taylor, 1989
  • Vasta, Andrewss, McLaughlin Stripe, 1978

19
Current Research conducted within Educational
Contexts
  • Vasta, Stirpe1979 Behavior Modification
  • Feingold Mahoney, 1975
  • Roanne, Fisher McDonough 2003 JABA
  • Flora Flora 1999.
  • College students ..rewarded in elementary school
  • Akin-Little Little 2004 JBE

20
Feingold and Mahoney, 1975 Behavior Therapy
Five Second Graders
Baseline 1 Reward Baseline 2 Baseline
3
Follow-up showed rates higher than either BL
Mean Total Responses Exp Group
Rate after reward was higher than in Baseline
21
Experimental Group Ten 3rd and 4th grade students
Baseline Rewards BL2 Follow up
Rate during Follow up was higher than either
Baseline
Mean Number of Pages Completed
22
Baseline Rewards BL2 Follow up
Subject 6
Number of Pages Completed
23
Baseline Reward
Baseline Follow-up
Subject 8
Initial Drop, but rapid recovery as fluency
developed
Number of Pages Completed
24
Flora and Flora Psychological Record, 1999
  • 171 undergraduates at Youngstown State University
  • Did they participate in Book it in elementary
    school (pizza for reading)
  • In 1995-96, 22 million elementary school students
    participated in Book it
  • Also asked if parents rewarded reading with
    money.
  • How much do they read, do they enjoy reading, did
    book it or parent rewards affect reading?
    Measure of intrinsic motivation

25
N 107
26
N 51
27
Flora and Flora Results
  • Women read more, and women had higher intrinsic
    motivation
  • Neither being reinforced with money or pizza
    increased or decreased the amount that college
    students read, nor influenced their intrinsic
    motivation for reading.
  • Answers to direct questions about Book it
    indicate that when a child is extrinsically
    reinforced for reading, the child will increase
    the amount read, enjoyment of reading may
    increase, and if they do not yet know how to read
    fluently, the program may help the child learn to
    read.
  • Flora Flora 1999 p. 3

28
Decrease No Effect Increase
Decrease No Effect Increase
Amount Read
Amount Read
Decrease No Effect Increase
Decrease No Effect Increase
Enjoyment
Enjoyment
Decrease No Effect Increase
Decrease No Effect Increase
Help to Learn to Read
Help to Learn to Read
107 College Students who had been in Book it
51 Parents of Students in Book it Flora
Flora 1999
29
What the Worlds Greatest Managers Do
Differently -- Buckingham Coffman 2002,
Gallup Interviews with 1
million workers, 80,000 managers, in 400
companies.
  • Create working environments where employees
  • 1. Know what is expected
  • 2. Have the materials and equipment to do the job
    correctly
  • 3. Receive recognition each week for good work.
  • 4. Have a supervisor who cares, and pays
    attention
  • 5. Receive encouragement to contribute and
    improve
  • 6. Can identify a person at work who is a best
    friend.
  • 7. Feel the mission of the organization makes
    them feel like their jobs are important
  • 8. See the people around them committed to doing
    a good job
  • 9. Feel like they are learning new things
    (getting better)
  • 10. Have the opportunity to do their job well.

30
What the Worlds Greatest Managers Do
Differently -- Buckingham Coffman 2002,
Gallup Interviews with 1
million workers, 80,000 managers, in 400
companies.
  • Create working environments where employees
  • 1. Know what is expected
  • 2. Have the materials and equipment to do the job
    correctly
  • 3. Receive recognition each week for good work.
  • 4. Have a supervisor who cares, and pays
    attention
  • 5. Receive encouragement to contribute and
    improve
  • 6. Can identify a person at work who is a best
    friend.
  • 7. Feel the mission of the organization makes
    them feel like their jobs are important
  • 8. See the people around them committed to doing
    a good job
  • 9. Feel like they are learning new things
    (getting better)
  • 10. Have the opportunity to do their job well.

31
Summary
  • We place students at great risk by not using
    rewards.
  • The claims that rewards are dangerous are vastly
    over-stated
  • Rewards can create reduction in desired behavior,
    especially when (a) delivered globally, (b)
    delivered in a manner that creates physiological
    pressure, or (c) when a lesser level of reward is
    provided (e.g. punishment).

32
Examples
  • Reward the behavior not the person
  • Not good you are selected as student of the
    week, congratulations?
  • Good You were working hard, on-task and quiet
    during independent seat workthat is respectful
    of others trying to get their work done nice
    job.

33
Examples
  • Use reward systems that have multiple effects
  • Reward for Student A
  • Reward for the students who saw Student A be
    recognized
  • Reward for all students in Student As class

34
Action Rate your school culture1. Use a student
perspective2. Use a staff perspective
Low High
Predictable Consistent 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
Positive 1 2 3 4 5
Safe 1 2 3 4 5
35
Examples
  • School-wide
  • Classroom
  • Individual Student
  • Faculty/staff

36
School-wide formal recognitions
  • Rewards that are more public in presentation
  • More distant in time from demonstration of
    behavior and presentation of reward

37
School-wide Acknowledgement Plan (cont.)
  • Criteria definition
  • Who is eligible, how often award is delivered,
    how many students receive award
  • Should be implemented consistently
  • Strict criteria are needed for more public awards
    (student of month) Looser criteria for awards
    distributed at higher rate (recess tickets)
  • Presentation
  • Location and form in which award is presented
  • School assembly, classroom, privately
  • Dissemination
  • Bulletin boards, newsletters, parent letters

38
School-wide Acknowledgement Plan Example 1
more formal system
  • Title
  • Self-Manager
  • Criteria
  • Satisfactory grades
  • Follow school rules
  • No discipline referrals
  • Class work completed
  • Five staff signatures (for example, teacher,
    teaching assistant)
  • Students listed in office for all staff to review
  • Presentation
  • Monthly award assembly
  • Award
  • Button
  • Privileges
  • In hallways without pass
  • Early lunch
  • Self-manager lunch table
  • Early release (1-2 min. max) from class when
    appropriate
  • Dissemination

39
School-wide Acknowledge Plan Example 2 less
formal system
  • Title
  • Gotcha
  • Criteria
  • Demonstration of school-wide expected behavior
  • Presentation
  • Individual staff member
  • Award
  • Sign in the honor roll log at office
  • Sticker
  • Monthly raffle at awards assembly
  • Dissemination
  • Signed awards log kept at office (name and room
    number)

40
Special Certificates
41
Student of MonthAdd social component to
selection criteria
Posted on Riverton Elementary Website
Jolman Elementary
Woodward Elementary
Portage Community HS
42
Schoolwide Public Feedback on Following Behavior
Expectations
43
Celebrations
Lincoln Park Monthly rewards for students
earning 4 C.R.E.W. tickets in the month.
  • Loftis Elementary
  • December- Snacks, prizes, awards
  • January- Movie and popcorn

M. L. King Elementary Celebration dance
44
Schoolwide quick acknowledgements Rewards that
are quickly presented in the presence of the
behavior
45
Many schools use a ticket system
  • Tied into school
    expectations
  • Specific feedback on students behavior
  • Provides visible acknowledge
    of appropriate behavior for student
  • Helps to remind staff to provide acknowledgements

Jose R.
L.M.
?
Kalamazoo Central High School
46
Tickets used in Raffle System
47
Green Meadow Elementary
Cutting the Principals Tie
  • Students receive tickets for being Respectful,
    Safe, or Responsible.
  • Tickets are placed in container The principal
    draws a ticket and that student gets to cut the
    principal's tie.
  • Students receive picture of cutting the tie, the
    piece of the tie they cut, and a certificate.

Raffle System
48
Bad Axe Intermediate
  • Daily Drawing
  • Special Lunch Seating
  • Invite 3 Friends

Daily Pick of the Pride
Raffle System
49
Classroom Reward Systems
  • Procedures to reward behavior for entire class

50
Classroom Reward Systems
Holland Heights Special Lunch Table for Class
with Enough Tickets
Lincoln Park Ice Cream Treat
51
Classroom Reward Systems
Providing Visual Feedback
52
Bad Axe Intermediate
CLASS PASS
5 - Principal reads story 10 - First class at
lunch 15 - 10 min. of extra gym time 20 - Extra
recess 25 - Movie and treat
 
 
Orchard View Early Elementary
53
Individual Student Reward Systems
  • As a component of Targeted or Intensive
    Individualized Behavior Support System

54
Behavior Education ProgramDaily Progress Reports
55
Staff Reward System
  • Procedures to encourage staff participation and
    improve consistency of implementation

56
Rewarding Staff Behavior
Share Data with Staff
Beach staff recognition lunch
Franklin staff acknowledge each other
Parchment Central staff celebration
Oakland Schools certificate of training
57
Sustainability
  • Keeping it going and Doing it better

58
Make it easy to use rewards
Visual reminders for staff
Computer Printed stickers
Tickets and pen on lanyard
Stacks of tickets glued on edge
59
Parent/Teacher Association provided teacher name
stamps
Reward tickets and criteria on lanyard
Write out class tickets for week, reward when
appropriate, check whose name remains
60
Getting students involved
Make it easy to track rewards
Five student names are selected from mug. These
students then identify others who have followed
the school rules.
61
Acquiring back-up rewards
In one school, 8th grade language arts students
write community organizations for support of
reward program
Community Sponsor
Thank You Note
62
Acquiring back-up rewards
  • Some schools use items that students no longer
    want
  • Students are asked to bring in various items that
    might be discarded but in good shape (e.g., toys
    from fast food kids meals)
  • Other students can they purchase these with the
    tokens earned by following the school rules

63
Institutionalized Memory
  • PBS Handbook Includes reward procedures

Milwood Middle School
Central High School
Lincoln Park Office Scrapbook
64
Criteria 80 on EBS Survey and achieved (reward
system) on TIC
n 31
n 11
n 14
A. Campbell
65
Reward Audit
66
Summary
  • Rewards are effective when
  • Tied to specific behaviors
  • Delivered soon after the behavior
  • Age appropriate (actually valued by student)
  • Delivered frequently
  • Gradually faded away

67
School-wide Acknowledgement Plan (cont.)
  • Criteria definition
  • Who is eligible, how often award is delivered,
    how many students receive award
  • Should be implemented consistently
  • Strict criteria are needed for more public awards
    (student of month) Looser criteria for awards
    distributed at higher rate (recess tickets)
  • Presentation
  • Location and form in which award is presented
  • School assembly, classroom, privately
  • Dissemination
  • Bulletin boards, newsletters, parent letters

68
Reward Audit Name Criterion for Earning How Delivered Consistent with School-wide Imp Status
Formal School-wide
Quick School-wide
Classroom
Individual Student
Staff
Sustaining Strategy How to inform new staff and substitutes Sustaining Strategy How to inform new staff and substitutes Sustaining Strategy How to inform new staff and substitutes Sustaining Strategy How to inform new staff and substitutes Sustaining Strategy How to inform new staff and substitutes Sustaining Strategy How to inform new staff and substitutes
Start Here
69
Selected Bibliography
Schoolwide Formal Recognitions Metzler, C. W.,
Biglan, A., Rusby, J. C., Sprague, J. R.
(2001). Evaluation of a comprehensive behavior
management program to improve school-wide
positive behavior support. Education and
Treatment of Children, 24(4), 448-479. Luiselli,
J. K., Putnam, R. F., Sunderland, M. (2002).
Longitudinal evaluation of behavior support
intervention in a public middle school. Journal
of Positive Behavior Interventions, 4(3),
182-188. Schoowide Quick Acknowledgements Metzle
r, C. W., Biglan, A., Rusby, J. C., Sprague, J.
R. (2001). Evaluation of a comprehensive behavior
management program to improve school-wide
positive behavior support. Education and
Treatment of Children, 24(4), 448-479. Sprague,
J., Walker, H., Golly, A., White, K., Myers, D.
R., Shannon, T. (2001).Translating research
into effective practice The effects of a
universal staff and student intervention on
indicators of discipline and school safety.
Education and Treatment of Children, 24(4),
495-511.
70
Classroom Reward Systems Lewis, T. J., Powers, L.
J., Kelk, M. J., Newcomer, L. L. (2002).
Reducing the problem behaviors on the playground
An investigation of the application of schoolwide
positive behavior supports. Psychology in the
Schools, 39(2), 181-190. Skinner, C. H.,
Williams, R. L., Neddenriep, C. E. (2004).
Using interdependent group-oriented reinforcement
to enhance academic performance in general
education classrooms. School Psychology Review,
33, 384-397. Lohrmann, S. Talerico, J. (2004).
Anchor the boat A classwide intervention to
reduce problem behavior. Journal of Positive
Behavior Interventions, 6(2), 113-120. Individual
Student Reward System Metzler, C. W., Biglan, A.,
Rusby, J. C., Sprague, J. R. (2001). Evaluation
of a comprehensive behavior management program to
improve school-wide positive behavior support.
Education and Treatment of Children, 24(4),
448-479. Crone, D. A., Horner, R. H., Hawken,
L. S. (2004). Responding to Problem Behavior in
Schools The Behavior Education Program. New
York The Guilford Press. Staff Reward
System Sprague, J., Walker, H., Golly, A., White,
K., Myers, D. R., Shannon, T.
(2001).Translating research into effective
practice The effects of a universal staff and
student intervention on indicators of discipline
and school safety. Education and Treatment of
Children, 24(4), 495-511.
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