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Human Computer Interaction


1. Human Computer Interaction. ????? ????. ? ? ?. ?? : 10. Models of the User. 2. Types of users ... Technology is developed as part of a wider organizational ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Human Computer Interaction

Human Computer Interaction
?? 10 Models of the User
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Types of users
  • Requirement models
  • Establish users needs
  • Socio-technical models
  • Soft system models
  • Participatory design models
  • Cognitive models
  • Represent users of interactive systems
  • Hierarchical models
  • Linguistic models
  • Physical device models
  • Cognitive architecture

Socio-technical model
  • Basic assumptions
  • Technology is developed as part of a wider
    organizational environment.
  • Important to consider social and technical issues
    side by side.
  • Different approaches
  • focuses on establishing stakeholder requirements
  • OSTA
  • describe what happens when a technical system is
    introduced into an organizational work
  • address the social and the technical design using
    different design teams

Soft system model
  • Principle
  • The organization as a system of which the
    technology and people are components.
  • Focus on understanding the situation rather than
    on devising a solution.
  • Procedure
  • Develop a rich picture
  • description of the problem situation
  • Generate root definition
  • Clients, Actors, Transformation, Weltanschauung,
    Owner, Environment.
  • Devise a conceptual model
  • what the system has to do to fulfill the root
  • Compare the actual system with the conceptual

Participatory design
  • Principles
  • users are experts in the work context
  • a design can only be effective within that
    context if these experts are allowed to
    contribute actively to the design
  • Features
  • context or work oriented
  • collaboration between the user and designers
  • iterative approach
  • Methods
  • brain-storming
  • storyboarding
  • workshops
  • pencil and paper exercise

Goal and task hierarchy
  • Types
  • GOMS
  • CCT
  • Issue
  • Granularity
  • where do we stop decomposing tasks
  • where do we start our analyses at different
    points in the hierarchy of goals
  • Different design issues demand different levels
    of analysis
  • Error
  • what can it say about difficulties the user may
    have along the way

  • Good for describing how experts perform routine
  • Goals
  • Operators
  • lowest level of analysis
  • There is still a degree of flexibility about the
  • Methods
  • sequence of operators to achieve subgoals.
  • Selections
  • depends on the particular user and the state of
    the system.

  • Goal
  • Measure the complexity of an interface
  • The more production rules, the more difficult the
    interface is to learn
  • Two parallel description
  • users goal as production rules
  • If . Then .
  • systems grammar as generalized transition
  • Both of them can be represented as hierarchies
    and compared to find mismatches and to produce a
    measure of dissonance
  • One can predict the difficulty of the mapping
    between the users goals and the system model
  • Too much work even for a part of an interface

Linguistic models
  • To understand the users behaviour and analyze
    the cognitive difficulty of the interface.
  • BNF
  • It views the dialog at a purely syntactic level.
  • Complexity as the number of rules or the number
    of sequence and choice.
  • Task Action Grammar
  • emphasize consistency using parameterized grammar
  • encode the users world knowledge.

Display based systems
  • Problems of Goal hierarchy
  • They largely ignore system output
  • assume that the users know exactly what they want
    to do and execute the appropriate command
    sequences blindly.
  • More display oriented systems encourage less
    structured methods for goal achievement
  • such recognition based searching is extremely
    difficult to represent as a goal structure.

Keystroke level model
  • Unit tasks within interaction
  • the execution of simple command structure
  • typically taking no more than 20 seconds
  • no high level mental activity
  • can be thought of as a very low level GOMS model
    where the method is given.
  • Five different physical motor operators
  • K(keystroking), B(pressing), P(Pointing),
    H(Homing), D(Drawing).
  • Give accurate quantitative predictions about
  • But the range of applications is very small.

Problem Space Model
  • To model a knowledge level activity
  • A system exhibiting rational behavior.
  • A sequence of environment and agent states as
    they progress in time.
  • A problem space represents a goal by defining the
    desired states as a subset of all possible states
  • Four different activities that can occur within a
    problem space
  • Goal formulation, operation selection, operation
    application, and goal completion.
  • Evolution of problem spaces as a stack-like
  • new spaces being invoked and placed on the
    problem space stack only to be popped off the
    stack once they achieve their goal.

Class projects
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  • Task Model
  • User Model
  • System Model
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