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Blue Sky State University EPSY 350: Instructional Design

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Title: Blue Sky State University EPSY 350: Instructional Design


1
Blue Sky State UniversityEPSY 350 Instructional
Design
Motivational Considerations in the Design of
Instruction
Applying Theories of Motivation to Improve
Learning Performance
Anthony R. Artino, Jr. Department of Educational
Psychology
2
Are You Motivated?
Retrieved February 2, 2007, from
www.cartoonbank.com
3
Where Weve Been
and Where Were Going
Systematic Design of Instruction
Theories of Learning
AnalyzeTask
Goals/Objectives
ConstructivistPerspectives
AnalyzeContext
Design Instructional Strategies
Theories of Motivation
ConsiderMotivationin the Designof Strategies
AnalyzeLearners
For VariousLearningOutcomes
  • Expectancy-Value Models
  • Social Cognitive Theory
  • Attribution Theory
  • Goal Orientation Theory
  • Self-Determination Intrinsic Motivation
  • Interest Affect

KellersARCS Modellinks motivationtheory to ID
4
Overview
  • What is Motivation?
  • Why Should We Care?
  • Motivational Influences on Learning
    Performance
  • Theories of Motivation
  • Review of Contemporary Theories
  • Instructional Implications
  • Systematic Motivational Design
  • Kellers ARCS Model

5
Motivation Defined
  • How would you define motivation? What is it?
  • Derived from Latin verb movere (to move)
  • There are many definitions (product process)
  • what moved a resting organism to a state of
    activity (Weiner, 1990, p. 617)
  • a willingness, desire, or condition of arousal
    or activation (Anderman Wolters, 2006, p. 369)
  • the process whereby goal-directed activity is
    instigated and sustained (Pintrich Schunk,
    2002, p. 5)
  • an internal state that arouses, directs, and
    maintains behavior (Woofolk, 2007, p. 372)

6
But There is Disagreement
  • It depends on your theoretical perspective
  • Drive Theory
  • Internal forces act to maintain homeostasis
  • Behavioral Theories
  • Reinforcements sustain or increase behaviors
  • Humanistic Theories
  • Individuals have choices and seek control over
    their lives
  • Cognitive Social Cognitive Theories
  • Students cognition (mental structures and
    processing of information) guide their motivation
  • Emphasis on students thoughts, beliefs, and
    emotions
  • (Pintrich Schunk, 2002)

7
How Do We Know When Someone Is Motivated?
  • We infer it from behavioral indicators
  • Choice of Tasks
  • Latency
  • How long it takes before an individual initiates
    activity
  • Effort
  • How hard a person works at the activity
  • Persistence
  • How long the individual is willing to work at the
    activity
  • Achievement
  • Students who engage in a task, expend effort, and
    persist are likely to achieve at a higher level
  • (Graham Weiner, 1996 Pintrich Schunk, 2002)

Image retrieved February 3, 2007, from
http//www.bibliotheques.uqam.ca/InfoSphere/images
/motivation.jpg
8
Why Should We Care?How is Motivation Related to
Learning?
  • Motivation can influence what, when, and how we
    learn (Pintrich Schunk, 2002, p. 6)
  • Students who are motivated
  • Attend more carefully to instruction
  • Mentally organize, rehearse, elaborate info to
    be learned
  • Check their level of understanding
  • Ask for help when they dont understand
  • Taken together, these activities improve learning
    and performance!

Mediating Cognitive Behavioral Activities
and the relationship is reciprocal
9
Contemporary Theories of Motivation
TheirImplications for Instruction
Our Focus Today
  • Expectancy-Value Models
  • Social Cognitive Theory
  • Attribution Theory
  • Goal Orientation Theory
  • Self-Determination Intrinsic Motivation
  • Interest Affect

Retrieved February 2, 2007, from
www.cartoonbank.com
10
Instructional Vignette
  • Mary Im really enjoying this course. Its very
    interesting, and I think it will be very useful
    for me in my future career. I hope to be a
    doctor someday!
  • Jim Really? I think its extremely boring.
    Besides, Im not really getting all the
    concepts, and I dont think Im going to do very
    well on the test. I prefer history class to this
    stuff.
  • Mary Well, Im not very good in history. Its
    just not that important to me. Ill stick with
    math and science.
  • (Adapted from Pintrich Schunk, 2002)
  • What kinds of things are these students
    discussing?
  • How do they relate to motivation?

11
Expectancy-Value ModelsTheory Overview
InterestIm interestedin this topic
CostIf I do this Icannot do that
-

Achievement Behaviors Students choice
behaviors, cognitive engagement, persistence,
and performance
ExpectancyAm I able to do well in this task?
Task ValueWhy should I do this task?
X



Utility ValueThis topic isuseful for me
ImportanceThis topic isimportant to me
(Eccles Wigfield, 2002)
12
Expectancy-Value ModelsInstructional Implications
  • Expectancy
  • Help students maintain accurate but high
    expectations for success
  • Use examples of students past success
  • Use peer models
  • Build students confidence
  • Provide opportunities for success (mastery
    experiences)
  • Give accurate feedback
  • Emphasize that competence is changeable and
    controllable
  • Task Value
  • Make value explicit
  • Embed tasks in real-world (maybe even
    controversial) issues
  • Discuss importance and utility value as it
    relates to these issues
  • Model personal interest and value
  • Activate interest
  • Provide opportunities for choice and control w/in
    instruction

(Bransford et al., 2000 Pintrich Schunk, 2002)
13
Social Cognitive TheoryOverview
  • Key Theoretical Components
  • Self-Efficacy
  • beliefs in ones capability to organize and
    execute the courses of action required to produce
    given attainments (Bandura, 1997, p. 3)
  • Developed through
  • Mastery experiences
  • Vicarious experiences
  • Verbal persuasion
  • Physiological states
  • Social Modeling
  • Self-Regulated Learning

Person(cognition, affect, motivational beliefs,
biological events)
reciprocal causation
Environment (physical socio-cultural)
Behavior
Behavior is a product of both self-generated and
external sources of influence (Bandura, 1986,
p. 454)
14
Social Cognitive TheoryInstructional Implications
  • Build self-efficacy
  • Provide opportunities for enactive mastery
    experiences
  • Employ successful models (see next slide)
  • Give positive, yet realistic feedback
  • Overly optimistic feedback tends to be
    ineffective
  • Embed realistic, challenging, proximal goals into
    instruction

15
Social Cognitive TheoryInstructional
Implications cont
  • Use social modeling
  • Competent, credible, enthusiastic, and similar
    models
  • Model personal interest and value (instructor
    enthusiasm)
  • Develop self-regulated learning skills
  • Explicit instructional prompts for
  • Rehearsal, organization, and elaboration
  • Provide chances for self-appraisal and reflection
  • Model metacognition
  • Make visible the instructors thinking processes
  • (Driscoll, 2005)

16
Instructional Vignette
  • Roy is an average student, but algebra isnt his
    best subject. Sam is one of the best students and
    usually gets As and occasionally Bs on his
    algebra assignments.
  • The teacher returns a recent assignment to both
    students. Roy didnt do too well, and as he looks
    it over it he thinks, What did I do wrong here?
    I just dont get this stuff. It seems so abstract
    and its hard to see how it relates to anything
    meaningful. I just cant do this, its too hard
    for me. I think Im just not cut out for math.
  • Sam also had problems on the homework. As he
    reviews it, he thinks, I dont understand this,
    so Ill have to ask the teacher about this
    problem. Maybe Im just not studying hard enough.
    Ill have to go back to my notes and review this
    again. He increases the amount of time he spends
    studying for algebra.
  • (Adapted from Pintrich Schunk, 2002)
  • What kinds of things are these students
    discussing?
  • How do they relate to motivation?

17
Attribution TheoryOverview
Locus
Internal
External
Controllable
Uncontrollable
Controllable
Uncontrollable
Stable
  • Aptitude
  • Long-term effort
  • Instructor bias/favoritism
  • Ease/difficulty of school or course
    requirements

Stability
  • Health onday of exam
  • Mood

Unstable
  • Skills/knowledge
  • Temporary orsituational efforton exam
  • Help from friends/instructor
  • Chance

(Adapted from Weiner, 1986, as cited in Pintrich
Schunk, 2002)
  • Achievement attributions classified by
  • Locus (internal/external to the person)
  • Stability (relatively stable/unstable over time)
  • Controllability (controllable/uncontrollable by
    the person)

18
Attribution TheoryInstructional Implications
  • Provide accurate feedback
  • Deemphasize ability
  • The Im just not smart attitude
  • An emphasis on effort after student failures
    usually leads to more adaptive attributes
  • Effort is unstable, internal, and controllable
    (Schunk Zimmerman, 2006)
  • If effort was high, emphasize lack of skills/
    knowledge
  • Unstable factors
  • Can be learned with effort

19
Goal OrientationTheory Overview
  • Explicitly developed to explain achievement
    behavior
  • Why do students engage in achievement behaviors
    and how they approach academic tasks?

Avoid
Approach
  • Focus on mastering task,learning, understanding
  • Use of standards of self-improvement, progress,
    deep understanding
  • Focus on avoiding misunderstanding
  • Use of standards of not being wrong, not doing
    itincorrectly

Mastery Orientation
  • Focus on avoiding inferiority, not looking
    stupid or dumb in comparison to others
  • Use of normative standardsof not being lowest
    performer
  • Focus on being superior,besting others, being
    the smartest
  • Use of normative standardssuch as getting the
    highest grade, being top performer

Performance Orientation
(Adapted from Pintrich Schunk, 2002)
20
Goal OrientationInstructional Implications
  • Create positive goal structures
  • Emphasize mastery (learning and understanding),
    not performance
  • Students apt to adopt mastery-orientation
    (Anderman Wolters, 2006)
  • Ensure assessment is private, not public
  • Minimizes social comparisons

Image retrieved February 3, 2007, from
http//www.corporate-star.com/images/classroom.jpg
21
Self-Determination Intrinsic MotivationTheory
Overview
  • Integrates needs with social-cognitive
    constructs (Pintrich, 2003)
  • Self-determination is
  • using ones capability to choose how to satisfy
    ones needs (Schunk Zimmerman, 2006, p. 359)
  • Intrinsic motivation increases when learners are
    self-determined

22
Self-Determination Intrinsic MotivationTheory
Overview
Learning Performance


Intrinsic Motivation
Extrinsic Motivation
Unmotivated
motivationcontinuum
motivationcontinuum

Self-Determined Learner
Three Basic Innate Psychological Needs
CompetenceThe need to feel competentin
interactions with others,tasks and activities,
andlarger contexts
AutonomyThe need to feel a sense of control,
agency, orautonomy in interactionswith
environment
RelatednessThe need to belong to agroup
(affiliation)
23
Self-Determination Intrinsic
MotivationInstructional Implications
  • Avoid external rewards for intrinsically
    motivated students
  • Can undermined intrinsic motivation
  • Enhance intrinsic motivation
  • Challenge students
  • Intermediate difficulty activities
  • Prompt curiosity
  • Present slightly discrepant ideas
  • Provide learner control and choice
  • Engage students in fantasy, games, simulations

Image retrieved February 3, 2007, from
http//academic.reed.edu/motivation/images/pics/ki
ds1.jpg
24
Instructional Vignette
  • John Im really fed up. None of my students
    have any interest in the training. They just
    dont care. Some of them even seem angry that
    they have to be here. I overheard one student
    yesterday talking about his frustration with the
    whole training program.
  • Teri Well, I dont know. I do have some students
    who at least are interested in the training.
    When I hear them talk in class, some of them
    seem to like it.
  • Tony Yeah, my guys seem relatively interested
    too, but the problem I have is that some of them
    just get so wound up about the exams that they
    bomb the test. You can just see them getting
    nervous before the test, and during it you can
    seem them wriggling around. Im just not sure
    what to do.
  • (Adapted from Pintrich Schunk, 2002)
  • What kinds of things are these instructors
    discussing?
  • How do they relate to motivation?

25
Interest AffectOverview
  • Interest
  • Three Types
  • Characteristic of Person
  • Personal
  • Characteristic of Context
  • Situational
  • Psychological State
  • Personal x Situational
  • Positively Influences
  • Choice, persistence, effort
  • Attention
  • Use of deep processing
  • Performance
  • Affect
  • Moods Emotions
  • Academic Emotions
  • Positive
  • Enjoyment, hope, pride
  • Negative
  • Test anxiety, frustration, boredom
  • Positively/Negatively Influence
  • All the same processes

(Pekrun, Goetz, Titz, Perry, 2002)
(Krapp, Hidi, Renninger, 1992)
26
Interest AffectInstructional Implications
  • Interest
  • Use original source material with authentic
    content
  • Model enthusiasm and interest
  • Use variety, novelty, surprise
  • Provide some choice based on personal interest
  • Build/integrate students personal interests into
    lessons

Image retrieved February 3, 2007, from
http//www.themindeye.com/images/themindeye-main-i
mage.jpg
27
Interest AffectInstructional Implications
  • Affect
  • Provide plenty of time for assessments
  • Order test items from easy to difficult
  • Minimize social comparisons
  • Emphasize mastery (learning and understanding),
    not performance
  • Make course value/relevance explicit

Image retrieved February 3, 2007, from
http//pbskids.org/itsmylife/images/cheating6.jpg
28
Recurring Themes Instructional Implications
Note Research in multimedia and hypermedia
learning environments has revealed that too much
learner control can hinder learning and
performance, particularly for low ability
learners and/or novices who lack domain knowledge
(Clark Feldon, 2005 Lawless Brown, 1997).
29
Systematic Motivational DesignKellers ARCS Model
  • A systematic, step-by-step approach to designing
    motivational tactics into instruction
  • Integrates well with traditional ID/ISD processes
  • ARCS steps include
  • Analyze the Audience
  • Define Motivational Objectives
  • Design a Motivational Strategy
  • Implement and Revise

Traditional ID/ISD Processes(ADDIE Model)
Image retrieved February 3, 2007, from
http//edweb.sdsu.edu/Courses/EDTEC700/ETP/images/
addie.jpg
30
Systematic Motivational DesignKellers ARCS Model
  • Based on four dimensions of motivation (Keller,
    1999)

A
  • Attention
  • Capturing the interest of learners
  • Stimulating the curiosity of learners
  • Sound familiar?

R
  • Relevance
  • Meeting the personal needs/goals of learners to
    effect a positive attitude
  • Sound familiar?

C
  • Confidence
  • Helping learners believe/feel that they will
    succeed and they control their success
  • Sound familiar?

S
  • Satisfaction
  • Reinforcing accomplishments with rewards
    (internal and external)

31
Systematic Motivational DesignIn-Class Activity
Using Kellers ARCS Model
  • Case 1 A course in educational psychology is
    required of all persons seeking teacher
    certification in the state. Most of the students
    are juniors and seniors in the Universitys
    teacher preparation program. A few come from
    programs outside of education, and a few have
    already taken and failed the teacher
    certification test. The course will be delivered
    as a traditional, face-to-face class and will
    also use WebCT for online discussions and
    debates.
  • Case 2 A literacy course is offered to farmers
    in an underdeveloped nation. The course is run
    in the evening and is populated by both men and
    women from the ages of 15 to 61. None of the
    students can read.
  • (Adapted from Driscoll, 2005)

Using the table on the next slide, conduct an
abbreviated motivational analysis. Determine the
motivational issues and design some tactics to
address them.
32
Systematic Motivational DesignMotivational
Analysis Matrix
(Adapted from Keller, 1999, p. 41)
33
Systematic Motivational DesignMotivational
Analysis Matrix
Example of How Cells Are Filled Using ARCS Model
(unrelated scenario)
(Adapted from Keller, 1999, p. 41)
34
Summary
  • What is Motivation?
  • Why Should We Care?
  • Motivational Influences on Learning
    Performance
  • Theories of Motivation
  • Review of Contemporary Theories
  • Instructional Implications
  • Systematic Motivational Design
  • Kellers ARCS Model

35
References
  • Anderman, E. M., Wolters, C. A. (2006). Goals,
    values, and affect Influences on student
    motivation. In P. A. Alexander P. H. Winne
    (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (2nd
    Ed., pp. 369-389). Mahwah, NJ Lawrence Erlbaum
    Associates.
  • Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought
    and action A social cognitive theory. Englewood
    Cliffs, NJ Prentice Hall.
  • Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy The exercise
    of control. New York W. H. Freeman and Company.
  • Bransford, J. D, Brown, A. L., Cocking, R. R.
    (2000). How people learn Brain, mind,
    experience, and school. Washington, DC National
    Academy Press.
  • Clark, R. E., Feldon, D. F. (2005). Five common
    but questionable principles of multimedia
    learning. In Mayer, R. (Ed.), Cambridge handbook
    of multimedia learning. Cambridge Cambridge
    University Press.
  • Driscoll, M. P. (2005). Psychology of learning
    for instruction (3rd ed.). Boston Pearson
    Education, Inc.
  • Eccles, J. S., Wigfield, A. (2002) Motivational
    beliefs, values, and goals. Annual Review of
    Psychology, 53, 109-132.
  • Graham, S., Weiner, B. (1996). Theories and
    principles of motivation. In D. C. Berliner R.
    C. Calfee (Eds.). Handbook of educational
    psychology (pp. 63-84). New York Simon
    Schuster Macmillan.

36
References
  • Keller, J. M. (1999). Using the ARCS motivational
    process in computer-based instruction and
    distance education. New Directions in Teaching
    and Learning, 78, 39-47.
  • Krapp, A., Hidi, S., Renninger, K. A. (1992).
    Interest, learning, and development. In K. A.
    Renninger, S. Hidi, A. Krapp (Eds.), The role
    of interest in learning and development (pp.
    3-25). Hillsdale, NH Erlbaum.
  • Lawless, K. A., Brown, S. W. (1997). Multimedia
    learning environments Issues of learner control
    and navigation. Instructional Science, 25,
    117-131.
  • Pintrich, P. R. (2003). A motivational science
    perspective on the role of student motivation in
    learning and teaching contexts. Journal of
    Educational Psychology, 95, 667-686.
  • Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., Titz, W., Perry, R. P.
    (2002). Academic emotions in students
    self-regulated learning and achievement A
    program of qualitative and quantitative research.
    Educational Psychologist, 37, 99-105.
  • Pintrich, P. R., Schunk, D. H. (2002).
    Motivation in education (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle
    River, NJ Pearson Education.
  • Schunk, D. H., Zimmerman, B. J. (2006).
    Competence and control beliefs Distinguishing
    the means and ends. In P. A. Alexander P. H.
    Winne (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology
    (2nd Ed., pp. 349-367). Mahwah, NJ Lawrence
    Erlbaum Associates.
  • Weiner, H. (1990). History of motivational
    research in education. Journal of Educational
    Psychology, 82, 616-622.
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