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19th Century


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Title: 19th Century

19th Century
  • Nationalism/Reaction/Revolt/Reaction

Age of -isms
  • Many of the ideas and ideologies that shape our
    world originated or were modified in the 19th
  • Most of these isms deal with economics however,
    many also describe or impact the social systems
    of class and hierarchy and imply political
    action. Other isms deal with politics and imply
    economic action. All are interrelated.

Economic Concepts of the 19thC
  • Class Consciousness
  • Owners capitalists
  • Non-landed middle class and white collar workers
  • Factory and trade workersproletariat

Economicssystems and theorists
  • Capitalism (free market economy, free enterprise
    system) an economic system in which the
  • means of production and distribution are
    privately owned and operated for profit
  • decisions regarding investment of capital are
    made by investors
  • production, distribution, and the prices of
    goods, services, and labor are determined largely
    by the forces of supply and demand in a free

Classical Economics (capitalism)
  • Adam Smith Wealth of Nations (1776) described and
    advocated, postulating that when free market is
    allowed to work, ALL benefit, not just merchants
    and landowners
  • Laissez faire economics is based on these
  • Though government must perform many important
    functions, economic growth is best when
    unregulated (free enterprise) because benefits
    all classes and groups
  • Societymany individuals who compete out of self
    interest to meet demand of consumers in the
  • Distrust government regulation because
    government, composed of individuals acting out of
    self interest, is corrupt and/or biased toward
    one area or another
  • Government roles maintain sound currency,
    enforce laws and contracts, protect property,
    impose low tariffs and taxes, maintain army and
    navy to protect foreign trade.

Malthus (British)
  • The Principle of Population (1798) responding to
    Romantic ideals of continuing progress of man
    (Adam Smith, Rousseau, Godwin) hisbleak
  • Basic thesis population will outrun food supply
  • Population grows geometrically food supply
    arithmetically 1,2,4,8,16,32 vs 1,2,3,4,5,6
  • Cannot control two basic drives for food, sex.
  • Eventually, resources will be gone life will
  • Life for working class inevitably continues to
  • If wages raised, workers will have more children,
    who will consume extra wages PLUS more food
  • Social programs, charity negative, because will
    still keep low alive, in misery, consuming scarce
  • Two solutions
  • Marriage/chastity/contraception (but he
    considered contraception a vice)
  • Convince the working class to work for a higher
    standard of living, spending on consumer goods
    instead of having children

  • Through the animal and vegetable kingdoms,
    nature has scattered the seeds of life abroad
    with the most profuse and liberal hand. She has
    been comparatively sparing in the room, and the
    nourishment necessary to rear them... The race of
    plants, and race of animals shrink under this
    great restrictive law. And the race of man
    cannot, by any efforts of reason, escape from it.
    Among plants and animals its effects are waste of
    seed, sickness, and premature death. Among
    mankind, misery and vice. ...

Ricardo (British)
  • Principles of Political Economy (1817)
  • Iron Law of Wagesspiral downward
  • Raise wages more children in working class
  • Increased numbers enter labor market wages go
  • Low wages fewer children in working class
  • Decreased numbers enter labor market wages go
  • Raise wages more children, etc.
  • Only one who benefits is landowner as more
    population, more land in cultivation, rents
    upward and price for ag commodities upward cause
    more demand therefore, wages also upward cutting
    into merchants/ manufacturers profits, but wages
    still do not buy more than subsistence.
  • Conclusion Wages will always tend toward
    minimum level rents/cost of food will always
    tend upward
  • Supported employers in desire for low wages and
    against labor unions

  • The market price of labour is the price which is
    really paid for it, from the natural operation of
    the proportion of the supply to the demand
    labour is dear when it is scarce, and cheap when
    it is plentiful. However much the market price of
    labour may deviate from its natural price, it
    has, like commodities, a tendency to conform to

  • Malthus, trained as a pastor, became a college
    professor, but most interested in facts/realities
    of economics
  • Ricardo, Jewish converted to Quakerism, an
    entrepreneur who made a fortune early, elected to
    Parliament, but in economics, most interested in
  • Though they disagreed violently, they were very
    good friends.
  • Malthus favored landowners over trade
  • Ricardo often voted vs own commercial interests

Influence of Classical Economics
  • France Louis Philippe and Guizot told French to
    go forth and enrich themselves anyone who
    worked with enough energy need not be poor
  • Capital intensive projects of roads, canals, rrs
  • Poor stayed poor
  • Germany stayed aristocratic
  • Zollverein free trade union 1834 beginning with
    HohenzollernPrussia, etc. domains(not Austria
    because of protected industry)
  • State domination of economy
  • Working classes hated these ideas landowners,
    merchants loved them British struggled, fought
    for reform 1800-1880
  • Continental system meant markets less, so less
    wealth for merchants and workers
  • Corn laws to protect prices of grain, high
    because no imports

Repeal of Corn Laws
  • Corn Laws 1815
  • During French Revolution/Napoleon and continental
    system, no importing of grains, so prices up,
    landlords profits soared
  • After Waterloo, grain imports drove prices and
    profits down
  • Corn laws tariffs on imported grain to bring
    prices back up
  • Consequence workers demanded higher wages to
    pay for breadsocial unrest
  • Anti Corn Law League
  • Organized by manufacturers to call for imported
    grain, lower prices, no need for higher wages
  • Then British manufactured goods prices could
    stay low, strengthen competitive position in
    foreign markets
  • 1846 Repeal of Corn Laws
  • Sir Robert Peel 1846
  • as result of Irish Potato famine had to import
    grain to feed starving Irish
  • Accompanied with government aid to make British
    agriculture more efficient and keep profits high

Utilitarianism (Britain)
  • Jeremy Bentham popularized the basic premise,
    principle of utility Must evaluate actions on
    basis of their consequences. Best actions the
    greatest happiness for the greatest number
  • Principle of utility would overcome special
    interests of privileged groupsrational govt
  • Apply reason/utility to strip traditional abuses
    from legal system justice
  • New Poor Law of 1834 (by followers of B)
  • Poor Law Commissions
  • Government relief only in workhouses
  • Workhouse life to be more unpleasant than life
    outside (awful work, husband and wife separated,
    social stigma)
  • Assumption didnt work only because lazy

  • To right the wrongs of capitalism
  • Free market CANNOT adequately produce and
    distribute goods
  • Mismanagement, low wages, unequal distribution of
    resources cause much suffering
  • Human society SHOULD NOT operate only for
    individual, but an unselfish community for all
  • means of production and distribution are
    government owned and operated
  • decisions regarding investment of capital are
    made by the government
  • production, distribution, and the prices of
    goods, services, and labor are determined largely
    by the government

Utopian Socialism
  • Definition early 19th Century thinkers and
    writers labeled as
  • utopian because ideals visionary and advocated
    creation of ideal communities and labeled
  • socialist because they wanted change of the
    structures of government and economics that
    supported capitalism government management of
    production and distribution
  • Often had radical ideas about sexual morality
    (free love) and family
  • As a consequence, people who may have shared
    their economic concerns rejected their social

Saint Simonianism
  • Count Claude Henri de Saint Simon (1760-1825),
    liberal French aristocrat
  • Fought in Am Rev, welcomed Fr Rev
  • Writer and social critic
  • Advocated sexuality outside marriage
  • Reasoning if nation lost merchants, artisans and
    workershurt if lost aristocracy, no one would
  • Ideal government board of directors organizing
    producing groups for economic justice and social
  • No leisure class no work, no support
  • (kind of technocracy)
  • Not redistribution of wealth, but management by
    technocrat experts to provide economic/social
  • Only a few followed him Saint Simonian
    societies/Churches where discussed feminism,
    other social ideas

  • Robert Owen, British cotton manufacturer
  • Self made partner in factory at New Lanark,Scot
  • Believed in environmentalism of Enlightenment
  • People in positive surroundingsgood character
  • New Lanark put ideals in practice
  • Provided good living conditions for his workers
  • Recreation for all education for children,
    several churches (though he didnt believe),
    advocated free love vs harsh rules, laws,
  • Rewards for good work in factories
  • Made a good profit
  • Pleaded for reorganization of industry based on
    his model
  • US sold New Lanark to establish New Harmony,
  • Quarrels, fraud among members failed
  • Back to Britain, Grand National Union
  • Attempt to gather all union members in one
  • Collapsed with other trade organizations in1830s

  • Charles Fourier, French intellectual commercial
    salesman, but not as known as Owens
  • Writer who hoped for someone to apply his ideas
  • They didnt
  • Believed industrial order ignored emotional man
    social discipline ignored pleasure seeking
  • Advocated phalanxes communal agrarian
    communities with liberated living avoid
  • Free love, with marriage for later life
  • No one required to work at same thing for whole
    day, move from one task to another to avoid

Influence of utopian socialists
  • Expected government to apply their ideas
    government, society too much vested interest,
    especially in aristocracy, to change
  • Louis Blanc, 1830 The Organization of Labor
    demanded end to competition, but recognized
    difficulties, didnt seek whole new society, just
    give vote to working class. Working class with
    voting power would finance jobs for poor, social
    justice to replace existing order.

  • Basic idea overthrow and abolish existing
    social/economic/political order then rebuild a
    new order with equality and freedom so that all
    develop to potential
  • Anarchists believe that the classless, stateless
    society should be established right away, as soon
    as possible.
  • Some wanted peaceful abolition of traditional
    society others felt that if assassinated
    political or economic leaders, upper class,
    existing order would fall, classless society
    would be built to replace existing order.

Auguste Blanqui (1805-81) France
  • Major spokesman for terrorism
  • Société républicaine centrale vs government
  • in and out of prison for involvement in movements
    to overthrow the government
  • 1870 two unsuccessful armed demonstrations 12th
    of January at funeral of Victor Noir, journalist
    shot by Pierre Bonaparte 14th of August, led an
    attempt to seize some guns at a barracks.
  • Part of Commune imprisoned through much of it
    condemned to death, then out of prison died of
    apoplexy (stroke)
  • He wanted to develop a professional revolutionary
    vanguard (trained terrorists and assassins) to
    attack capitalistic society
  • Vague ideas of what would develop after

  • it is my duty as a proletarian, deprived of all
    the rights of the city, to reject the competence
    of a court where only the privileged classes who
    are not my peers sit in judgment over me
    defense speech

Bakunin (1814-76)
  • Russian anarchist
  • Life of struggle
  • Peasant, sought education in Moscow
  • Imprisoned and condemned to death for part in
    uprising vs government
  • Escaped to W. Europe set up international
    anarchist organization Social Democratic Alliance
  • Participated in 1st International, opponent to
    Lenin and Marxists, broke away
  • Differed from Marxism didnt believe in
    intermediate dictatorship of proletariat before
    dissolved government altogether
  • Rejected governing systems in every name and
    shape, from the idea of God downwards, and every
    other form of external authority
  • The revolutionist should be a devoted man, who
    allowed no private interests or feelings, and no
    scruples of religion, patriotism or morality, to
    turn him aside from his mission by all
    available means to overturn the existing society.

Proudhon (1809-65) France
  • Much tamer anarchismafter 1848 rebellions,
    called self federalist
  • The Confessions of a Revolutionary, Proudhon
    wrote, anarchy is order.
  • What is Property attacked banking system
  • "Property is theft!".
  • Do away with money, trappings of wealth
  • Criticized banks for only lending to already
    rich, cronies, large businesses
  • Tried to establish banks that loaned only to
    small businessmen
  • Envisioned society organized on basis of
    mutualismNOT government ownership
  • Like small businesses
  • Peaceful cooperation, exchange of good instead of
  • Basis of economic cooperatives
  • No need for state
  • Influenced French labor
  • Karl Marx directed some of his writings against
    Proudhons ideas friends before then

Influence of Anarchism
  • STILL AROUND Actual fomenting of riots and
    other social disturbances from its inception into
    the 20th C
  • Assassination of world political and business
    leaders, royalty to disrupt society
  • Most successful anarchist party allied with
    liberal left and socialists in Spain in early
    1930s after king overthrown
  • Anarchist government in Barcelona was actually
    successful in redistributing means of production,
    organizing factories, etc until revolution
  • Communists and rightists made sure, during the
    chaos of the revolution, that successful leaders
    were killed or exiled.

  • Another kind of socialism
  • Difference from others
  • Abolition of private property with extensive,
    radical rearrangement of society
  • Claims to scientific accuracy in describing the
    march of history
  • Rejected reform of present society
  • Call for immediate revolution
  • Defined by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in
    Communist Manifesto (1848)

Friedrich Engels (1820-95)
  • Middle class German father owned textile
    factory in Manchester, England
  • Partnership with Marx, who became his great
    friend because ideas were similar
  • Wrote Communist Manifesto
  • Supported Marx and family for many years

Karl Marx (1818-1883)
  • Early life
  • Rhineland German Jewish (family converted to
    Lutheranism) he atheistic, anti religion and
  • Edited radical journal, so driven from Germany to
  • Partnership with Engels
  • Asked to write pamphlet for Communist League
  • Communist Manifesto (German, 1848), which defined
    Communism, differentiated vs socialism
  • Pamphlet regarded as just one more no influence

Das Kapital (Capital)
  • Influences
  • German Hegelianism
  • (thought from thesis vs antithesissynthesis)
  • Marx dominant vs subordinate social groups
    conditions leading to new dominant social group
    new discontent, conflict, etc
  • Marx adapted Hegel to explain history as a
    (dialectic) series of class struggle between
    owners and workers, 18th C on-- bourgeoisie vs
  • French socialism
  • Portrayal of problems of capitalistic society
    with all its inequalities
  • Idea of forced redistribution of property
  • Development of society/social conditions in
    historical stages
  • British classical economics
  • Vocabulary for analyzing industrial/capital
    economy and society empirically and scientifically

Major Ideas
  • Marxs words
  • What I did that was new was to prove
  • (1) that the existence of classes is bound up
    with particular historical phases in the
    development of production
  • (2) that the class struggle necessarily leads to
    the dictatorship of the proletariat
  • (3) that this dictatorship itself only
    constitutes the transition to the abolition of
    all classes and to a classless society

History falls into an inevitable pattern
  • History is merely the record of humankinds
    struggle with physical nature to produce what man
    must have to survive
  • The particular productive process of a human
    group at a given time in history determines
    structure, ideas, values of society
  • Inevitable class conflict results from this
    interaction traditionally conflict between
    class that owns and controls and the classes who
    work for them to actually produce
  • Piecemeal reforms cannot eliminate resulting
    inevitable inequalities and evils inherent in
    structures of productionmust be total
    transformation of society
  • Capitalism makes such revolution inevitable

Specifically in the 19th C.
  • Early 19th C (industrial revolution) produced
    struggle between bourgeoisie (middle class) and
    proletariat (workers)
  • Capitalism sharpens struggle by increasing
    struggle and size of proletariat class
  • Production/competition drives out smaller and
    traditional industry for giant factories and
  • Production/competition forces ex-middle class
    owners and artisans driven out of business
    increasing number of workers needed for factories
    down into proletariat class
  • Few giants can force workers to work for less
    increased suffering social unrest increases to
    explosion point and
  • Eventually proletariat class will revolt,
    overthrow few remaining magnates, organize means
    of production through dictatorship of the
    proletariattemporary control of society to
    establish classless society with economic/social
  • Culminates in class society free of class
  • Victorious proletariat, by nature, could not turn
    into oppressors
  • From each according to his ability to each
    according to his need
  • Marx/Engels The proletarian movement is the
    self conscious, independent movement of the
    immense majority, in the interest of the immense

Political isms Nationalism
  • Single most powerful European political ideology
    of 19-20th C Europe (now in Central/E Europe and
    old USSR)
  • Based on concept that a nation is composed of
    people with common language, customs, culture and
    history. This nation, then should be
    administered by the same government national
    and ethnic boundaries should coincide
  • Also related popular sovereignty particular
    ethnic group should be able to decide own form of
    government, determine own leaders BUT usually
    significant minorities (sometimes ruling
    minorities) within each ethnic grouping (Slavs
    in German areas of Austria, etc)

Influence in the 19th C
  • Contraries Congress of Vienna
  • Settlement on basis that legitimate monarchies
    rather than dynasties should be basis of
    political units
  • Nationalists protested reestablishment of
    multinational Austrian and Russian empires
  • Also protested when peoples of same ethnic group
    ( Germans and Italians) put in political units
    smaller than ethnic nation
  • Creating Nations
  • Elite writers/journalists spread idea of
  • Language official or dominant sometimes
    imposed by government over local dialects
    during 19th c resurrect dead languages (in 1850
    less than half inhabitants of France spoke
    official FrenchProvence, etc. local languages)
  • Problems of nation
  • How big is big enough? Viable economy?
    Significant cultural association? Cultural elite
    to nourish and spread? Ability to conquer
    others? Argument in reality lead to unrest and
  • Problem spots in the 1800s
  • Ireland
  • Italy
  • Germany
  • Poland
  • E. Europe (Hungarians, Czechs, Slavs)
  • Balkans Serbs, Greeks, Albanians, Romanians,

  • Often used by conservatives to mean anyone who
    challenges traditional political, social,
    religious values
  • 19th C political goals
  • Based on Enlightenment principles (Dec. Rights
    of Man and Citizen) Often from educated, middle
    class (who wanted careers open to talent, not
  • Wanted legal equality, religious toleration,
    freedom of the press
  • Government limited in power, recognizing
    legitimacy only when freely given consent of
  • Republican or Parliamentary government
  • State or crown ministers responsible to
    Representatives of people, not just to monarch or
  • Constitutional government, but not necessarily
    democracy wanted representation of propertied,
    middle classes
  • Ironically, contemptuous of both aristocracy and
    lower classes
  • Privilege based on wealth and property, not birth
  • BUT NOT voices of common peopleseparated from
    rural and urban working classes

Economic goals of 19th C liberals
  • Followed Adam Smith
  • Laissez faire freedom from mercantilistic,
    regulated economies
  • Ability to manufacture and sell goods freely
  • Remove tariffs and internal barriers to trade
  • Vs guilds labor to be bought and sold as any
    other commodity
  • Wanted freedom for talented and propertied to
    enrich selves
  • Then more goods and services for all at lower
  • Progress material progress for all
  • Programs
  • Britain protect civil liberties with reform
    limit monarch and parliament expand electorate
    to middle class
  • France Napoleonic Code already guaranteed legal
    system called for greater rights principles of
  • Germany little middle class participation in
    government and military, no idea of individual
    liberty therefore, wanted united Germany so that
    they could achieve a freer social and political
    order (didnt happen)

  • Conservatism in general seeks to preserve the
    traditional institutions of government and
    economy to keep power in hands of traditional
    aristocracies, church hierarchies and monarchies
  • Associated with Romantic thinkers such as Edmund
    Burke (Irish born, British protested Fr Rev) and
    Friedrich Hegel
  • Threatened by waves of Revolution, beginning with
    the French Revolution
  • Feared and hated Enlightenment rationalism and
    reformist writings
  • Saw selves surrounded by enemies permanently
    defending selves vs liberalism, nationalism and
    popular sovereignty

Rousseau Basis of Romanticism
  • State of nature opposite to Hobbes
  • Noble savage
  • Man good, civilization bad
  • Test of true valuesfeelings
  • education to free a person
  • Godbeyond reason
  • Social contract sum of wills of individuals
  • Come together to discuss, then all vote
  • general will

Kant Critique of Pure Reason
  • World of phenomenawhat we can perceive
  • Categories of understanding mind sets up to
    impose on sensory experience from mindreasoning
  • God and most of nature really not in this
  • Noumenal worldobjective reality we cannot
    perceive totally
  • Can only be known through practical reason,
    feelings/conscience (innate sense/moral duty)
  • Categorical imperative act by rules you will to
    be universal law

  • German born philosopher educated, worked as
    editor, but didnt like journalism, so became
    teacher, university professor
  • Absolute (reality) pure Thought, or Spirit, or
    Mind, incapable of definition because process of
    development self recognition
  • Geist between spirit and reality (world Spirit)
    The Absolute (Christian/others atheistic)

  • developmental process dialectic thesis vs
    antithesis produces synthesis.
  • The thesis might be an idea or a historical
  • The idea or movement contains within itself
    incompleteness that gives rise to opposition, an
    antithesis, a conflicting idea or movement.
  • As a result of the conflict, a third point of
    view arises, synthesis, which overcomes the
    conflict by reconciling at a higher level the
    truth contained in both the thesis and
    antithesis. This synthesis becomes a new thesis
    that generates another antithesis, giving rise to
    a new synthesis,
  • Dialectic
  • Synthesis
  • Antithesis
  • Synthesis which becomes Thesis
  • Antithesis
  • Thesis

Implicationswhy basis of conservatism
  • Reality is the Absolute unfolding dialectically
    in this process of self-development toward the
    goal of total self consciousness
  • God is God, Hegel argued, only in so far as he
    knows himself.
  • Expressed in Nature and in history
  • Its increasing self consciousness manifests in
  • Artmaterial beauty
  • Religionin symbols
  • Philosophy--rationally
  • Hegel considered membership in the state one of
    the individual's highest duties. Ideally, the
    state is the manifestation of the general will,
    which is the highest expression of the ethical
    spirit. Obedience to this general will is the act
    of a free and rational individual.

Schopenhauer Anti Romantic Freedom of the Will
Freedom Reality
  • Divided reality into what is capable of being
    experienced and what isnt
  • Experience depends on the senses therefore,
    cannot conceive of reality outside of sensory
  • Independent reality is a closed book all is
    one (noumenal only describes what happens
    inside you, not objective reality)
  • No God, free will, etc. Universeenergy/go/impers
    onal force you cannot define nature red in tooth
    and claw
  • Relief from horror of existence only through

  • German philosopher, composer, poet, philologist
  • Nietzsche's influence substantial
    existentialism, nihilism, postmodernism
  • radical questioning of the value and objectivity
    of truth.
  • Own life tragic
  • Military thwarted with physical collapse
  • During conflict with Austria, served as medic
  • Total mental collapse 1878

Basic doctrines
  • Death of God vs institutionalized religion,
    universal morality BUT NOT anti Semitic
  • Perspectivism morality/right vs wrong all up to
    individual perspective
  • Basic doctrine can be basis for nihilism (nothing
    has any meaning)
  • He would substitute life affirmationquestion
    any societal imposed belief, anything that
    crushes individual creativity
  • Superman/ubermenschen supermen are people who
    are superior in physique, intellect, talent are
    above any morality, judgmentshould make own
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