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19th Century Imperialism

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19th Century Imperialism Africa MODERN IMPERIALISM: INTEREST IN AFRICA (SINCE MID-19TH CENTURY) Work of Explorers. David Livingstone, Scottish missionary and doctor ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 19th Century Imperialism


1
19th Century Imperialism
  • Africa

2
MODERN IMPERIALISM INTEREST IN AFRICA (SINCE
MID-19TH CENTURY)
  • Work of Explorers. David Livingstone, Scottish
    missionary and doctor, spent many years
    (18401873) serving the peoples and exploring the
    lands of central Africa.
  • Henry M. Stanley, American newspaper reporter,
    headed an expedition in 1871 that "found" the
    presumably "lost" Livingstone.
  • Later Stanley undertook additional explorations.
    In well-publicized reports these two men, as well
    as other explorers, described the geography,
    resources, and peoples of Africa.

3
Other Groups Interested in Africa.
  • The glowing reports of explorers reawakened
    Europe's interest in Africa. Business leaders saw
    economic opportunities.
  • Missionaries wanted to convert the blacks to
    Christianity. Nationalists dreamed of empire
    building unopposed by the primitive Africans.

4
Colonial Africa
5
Imperialism in Africa
  • Great Britain
  • To Protect Trade Routes to the East.
  • In 1815 Britain acquired from Holland the Cape
    Colony.
  • It included Capetown, a port at southernmost
    Africa that served as a supply base for British
    ships enroute to India.
  • In 1875 Prime Minister Disraeli purchased from
    the bankrupt ruler of Egypt sufficient stock to
    give Britain control of the Suez Canal.
  • By sailing through the canal, British ships
    eliminated the long voyage around Africa.
  • In 1882 Britain established a protectorate over
    Egypt.
  • Britain's trade route to Indiavia Gibraltar, the
    Mediterranean Sea, the Suez Canal, and the Red
    Seabecame known as the lifeline of the British
    Empire.

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8
Imperialism in Africa 2
  • Great Britain
  • 2. To Gain a Rich Empire.
  • Cecil Rhodes, foremost empire builder in Africa,
    dreamed of an unbroken north-south line of
    British territory to be linked by a Cape-to-Cairo
    railroad. Rhodes' ambition became British policy.
  • By 1914 the British dominated South Africa,
    Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), Northern Rhodesia (now
    Zambia), Kenya, Uganda, and the Sudan, as well as
    Egypt.
  • After World War I, Britain acquired the final
    link for the railroad, the former German East
    Africa, or Tanganyika (now Tanzania).
  • Also, by the beginning of the 20th century,
    British control was firmly established in Sierra
    Leone, Gambia, the Gold Coast (now Ghana), and
    Nigeriaall on the west coast of Africa.

9
Imperialism in Africa 3
  • France
  • For economic gain and nationalist glory, the
    French gained a considerable African domain.
  • By 1847 the French had subdued the Moslem tribes
    and gained control of Algeria.
  • Between 1881 and 1912 France acquired Tunisia,
    Morocco, West Africa (now Benin, Guinea, Ivory
    Coast, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, and
    Upper Volta), Equatorial Africa (now Chad,
    Central Africa, Congo, and Gabon), and Madagascar
    (now Malagasy).
  • Italy.
  • A imperialist late starter Italy controlled
    Eritrea, Italian Somaliland, and Libya by 1914.
  • In 1936 Italy conquered and annexed Ethiopia.

10
Imperialism in Africa 4
  • Portugal.
  • As a 16th-century maritime power, Portugal early
    established supply bases and trading posts on the
    east and west coasts of Africa.
  • In the mid-1970's Portugal granted independence
    to its African territories Portuguese Guinea
    now Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, and Angola.
  • Spain.
  • By the early 20th century, Spain controlled
    Spanish Morocco (opposite Gibraltar) and Spanish
    Sahara on the Atlantic coast of Africa.
  • In 1956 Spain ceded Spanish Morocco to newly
    independent Morocco.
  • In 1976 Spain surrendered Spanish Sahara now
    Western Sahara to Mauritania and Morocco.
  • Belgium.
  • In 1876 King Leopold II and a group of Belgian
    capitalists founded a private company to manage
    the Congo region.
  • The company reaped huge profits from rubber and
    ivory but shockingly mistreated the natives.
  • In 1908 the Belgian government took control of
    the Congo.
  • In 1960 Belgium granted independence to the
    Congo (now Zaire).

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12
Conflicts in African Imperialism
  • Boer War
  • Boers were Dutch descendants in South Africa
  • Afrikaans (Dutch settlers in South Africa) called
    Boers, objected to British rule.
  • Many took up arms against Britain and were
    eventually defeated.
  • Khartoum
  • Local native people (aboriginal) objected to
    British rule of Sudan. They chased the British
    out of southern Sudan.
  • Germany challenged France over Morocco (1905,
    1911), but France retained control .

13
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