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Chapter 24 19th Century Society

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Chapter 24 19th Century Society Urbanization and Intellectual Movements 1800-1914 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 24 19th Century Society


1
Chapter 24 19th Century Society
  • Urbanization and Intellectual Movements
  • 1800-1914

2
First Industrial Revolution
  • 1780-1850
  • Textiles
  • Coal
  • Iron
  • Railroads

3
Second Industrial Revolution
  • Last half of the 19th century
  • Steel Production heavy machinery, rails, larger
    structures
  • Oil kerosene for lighting, internal combustion
    engines for factory machines
  • Electricity
  • 1881 England first electric power stations
  • Steel, textiles, shoemaking and construction
    industries
  • Chemicals Photo processing, soaps, dyes,
    fertilizers, explosives (Germany first)

4
Growing Demand for Experts with specialized
knowledge
  • Science and technology became linked
  • New Professionals Engineers, architecture,
    chemistry, accounting, surveying
  • Managers for large private and public
    institutions

5
By 1890s Germany the Industrial Leader
  • Englands early investment in technology made it
    difficult to shift to new techniques of 2nd
    Industrial Revolution
  • Germanys late enterence allowed it to enter with
    state-of-the-art technology
  • Germany led in production of organic chemicals
    and power generators

6
Continued Urban Migration
  • By 1900 over half of industrial workers in
    England, Germany, and Belgium worked for
    companies with more than 20 workers

7
Urbanization
  • Population Growth
  • England the first to experience urban growth
  • 1891 over 50 of population in urban areas
  • 1891 London largest city in Europe
  • 1870-1914 Population in Europe up 50
  • By 1900 9 European cities had 1 million
  • Big decline in mortality rates (especially
    children)
  • Birth rates fell in some areas (France)

8
Population continued
  • Better medical knowledge, nutrition, housing
  • Number of children per family fellespecially
    among the middle class

9
Poor living conditions continued
  • Through first ½ of 19th century
  • Parks and open spaces nonexistent
  • 10 people per room in cellars, attics
  • Open drains and sewers flowed through the streets
    with garbage, excrement
  • Total absence of public transportation

10
Public Health Movement
  • Edwin Chadwick The most important reformer of
    living conditions in cities
  • Tried to end high incidence of disease and
    mortality rate occurring in cities
  • Saw disease and death as CAUSES of poverty
  • Was influenced by Jeremy Benthams Utilitarianism

11
Edwin Chadwick continued
  • Sanitary Idea believed disease could be
    prevented by cleaning up urban environment
  • Adequate supply of cleaned piped water could
    carry off excrement of communal outhouses
  • Would cost only 1/20 of removing it by hand

12
Public Health Laws
  • 1848 England First public health law
  • Due to the Cholera epidemic of early 1830s
  • Germany, France and U.S. adopted many of
    Chadwicks ideas
  • By 1860s and 70s many European cities made
    progress in public sanitation

13
Urban Planning and Public Transportation
  • France first under reign of Napoleon III
  • Georges von Haussmann redeveloped Paris
  • Wide Boulevards (would also prevent barricades)
  • Better middle-class housing on citys outskirts
  • Demolition of slums
  • Creation of parks, open spaces

14
Urban Planning continued
  • New system of aqueducts doubled fresh water
    supply
  • 400 miles of underground sewers were built
  • In response to cholera epidemics of 1832 and 1849
  • Vienna, Cologne, and other cities followed Paris
    lead

15
Mass Transportation
  • By 1890s The electric streetcar revolutionized
    public transportation
  • Created suburbs on the outskirts of cities
  • Electricity led to the creation of Londons
    subway system in the 1860s
  • Paris had the Metro by 1900
  • By 1900 only 9 of Englands population was
    overcrowded (now more than 2 per room)

16
Migration and Immigration
  • Migration to the cities from the countryside
    continued BUT now migrants maintained ties to
    rural areas
  • After 1880 huge numbers of southern and eastern
    Europeans migrated to America for economic
    opportunities
  • Also went to Canada and Latin America
  • In some places agricultural challenges forced
    migration

17
Eastern European Jews
  • Pogroms, other persecution in eastern Europe
    forced Jewish population to flee
  • To Western Europe
  • To U.S., Canada, Latin America
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