Land of the Pharaohs - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: Land of the Pharaohs


1
Land of the Pharaohs
  • Rulers of Ancient Egypt

2
Pharaohs
  • Pharaohs were the kings of Egypt
  • Pharaoh was believed by the Egyptians to be the
    supreme ruler chosen by the gods to lead his
    people
  • They believed that when a man became a pharaoh,
    he also became a god
  • According to Egyptian legend, the first kings of
    Egypt were later some of the most famous gods

3
Pharaohs
  • The word Pharaoh was used by the Greeks and
    Hebrews
  • The title Pharaoh originated from the Greek
    language and it is used in the Old Testament
  • The title originates in the term
  • "pr-aa" which means "great house" and describes
    the royal palace

4
Responsibility of Pharaohs
  • Pharaohs ruled with absolute power
  • Despite absolute power the Pharaohs rule was
    subject to Maat and was expected to govern
    according its principles
  • Maat was the goddess and symbol of the
    equilibrium of the universe
  • Any King that attempted to radically change
    society would be seen as destroying the
    equilibrium that was so important to Egyptian
    tradition resulting in civil war or a challenge
    in his authority

5
Succession
  • To keep the pure line of succession, a Pharaoh
    passed on the throne to the eldest son born of
    the Principal Queen, or Great Royal Wife
  • Each king was usually keen to demonstrate to his
    subjects that he was the chosen heir
  • The Pharaoh owned all of the land, people, and
    possessions in Egypt
  • Any personal wealth enjoyed by Egyptians people
    was considered a result of the generosity of the
    King.

6
Key Pharaohs
  • There were several Pharaohs of Egypt. However, we
    will focus on the main male Pharaohs
  • Menes
  • Khufu
  • Hatshepsut
  • Tuthmosis III
  • Akhenaton
  • Tutankhamen
  • Ramses II
  • Cleopatra
  • Nefertiti

7
Menes (c. 3100 3050 B.C.E.)
  • First Pharaoh to unify upper and lower Egypt into
    one Kingdom and wear the red crown of lower Egypt
    and the white crown of upper Egypt

8
Menes (Ruled 3100 2850 B.C.E.)
  • Ancient Egypts form of a civilization began with
    King Menes
  • Founded the city of Memphis because of its good
    location and easy to defend against attacks
  • During his reign he expanded his kingdom and
    developed commercial trade links

9
Khufu (2589-2566 B.C.E)
  • Ruthless ruler who enslaved people and sold
    daughter into prostitution
  • Most remembered for building Great Pyramid of
    Giza
  • The pyramid originally stood 481 feet tall and
    even today its still a mystery to how it was
    built

10
Hatshepsut (c. 1470 B.C.E)
  • Remembered as historys first great woman ruler
  • Hatshepsut became regent when her husband
    Tuthmosis II died and the new pharaoh was very
    young (son of a minor wife)
  • Several years later she declared herself king
    and began wearing the false beard and garments of
    a pharaoh
  • Egypt prospered while she was in power as she
    established famous trade and economic expedition
    to the land of Punt
  • Prolific builder and commissioned many
    architectural projects and the restoration of
    older temples

11
Tuthmosis III (c. 1450 B.C.E.)
  • When his father died his stepmother Hatshepsut,
    took charge and he was pushed into the background
    as she ruled Egypt over a 20 year period
  • When Hatshepsut died he came to the throne and as
    an act of revenge or retribution, he destroyed as
    many of Hatshepsut's statues, monuments, and
    buildings
  • He is remembered as the Napoleon of Egypt a
    great warrior king who expanded the empire to its
    greatest size through his successful military
    campaigns
  • Wealth of the New kingdom came from tributes paid
    by people he conquered

12
Akhenaton (c. 1350 B.C.E.)
  • Original name was Amonhotep IV but his name to
    Akhenaton which means he who serves Aton
  • This was the first attempt at radically changing
    the polytheistic Egyptian religion with a
    monotheistic religion
  • He wanted to change the Egyptian supreme god from
    Amon-Re to Aton
  • Built a new city called Akhetaton which contained
    new priests and government
  • More concerned with building his vision of a new
    society than focusing on war and conquest
  • Religious revolution led to tension and revolt in
    Egypt

13
Tutankhamen (c. 1334 B.C.E.)
  • Known as the Boy King of Egypt, he came to the
    throne when his father Akhenaton died, he became
    King around age eight
  • Helped restore Egypt's old beliefs from when his
    father tried to make Egypt a monotheism society
    and moved the capital back to Thebes
  • He died suddenly at the young age of 18 by a blow
    to the back of his head
  • Since his tomb had not yet been made, he was laid
    in a tomb of a member of the nobility
  • He is famous today because of his tomb being
    found intact by archaeologist Howard Carter in
    1922

14
Rames II (c. 1290 B.C.E.)
  • Went to the throne at the age of 20 and reigned
    for 67 years the second longest reign for any
    Egyptian King
  • Considered to be the last great Egyptian King
    bringing Egypt peace and stability
  • Signed earliest known peace treaty in world
    history after the Battle of Kadesh with the new
    Hittite king
  • Ramses is remembered for constructing many
    architectural marvels including the two huge
    temples at Abu Simbel
  • Constructed more colossal statues, large statues
    of human or human like figures, than any other
    Egyptian King
  • Ruled during the time of Moses and used many
    Jewish slaves to build his monuments and statues

15
Cleopatra (c. 30 B.C.E.)
  • Last independent ruler of Egypt
  • Not of Egyptian lineage descended from Ptolemy
    who was a general in Alexander the Greats army
    (Greek Ptolemy family ruled Egypt for 300 years)
  • She is best known for her beauty who seduced
    Caesar and fell in love with Marc Antony
  • Committed suicide with Marc Antony when Octavian
    forces invaded Egypt
  • After her death, Egypt was ruled as a Roman
    province.

16
Nefertiti (c. 1370-1330 B.C.E.)
  • Queen of Egypt, who was married to Akhenaten
    (Amenhotep IV) and is known as the most beautiful
    woman in history
  • In artwork, her status is evident and indicates
    that she had almost as much influence as her
    husband
  • For example, she is depicted nearly twice as
    often in reliefs as her husband, at least during
    the first five years of his reign
  • It is believed that Nefertiti was active in the
    religious and cultural changes initiated by her
    husband (some even maintain that it was she who
    initiated the new religion)
  • She also had the position as a priest, and she
    was a devoted worshipper of the god Aten.

17
Discussion Questions
  1. In your opinion, was it right for the Pharaohs to
    rule with absolute power? Explain.
  2. Do you think Egypt would be so well known today
    if Pharaohs did not exist?
  3. In ancient Egypt all property belonged to the
    Pharaohs, would our society be successful if this
    was true today about the Prime Minister.
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Land of the Pharaohs

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Title: Land of the Pharaohs


1
Land of the Pharaohs
  • Rulers of Ancient Egypt

2
Pharaohs
  • Pharaohs were the kings of Egypt
  • Pharaoh was believed by the Egyptians to be the
    supreme ruler chosen by the gods to lead his
    people
  • They believed that when a man became a pharaoh,
    he also became a god
  • According to Egyptian legend, the first kings of
    Egypt were later some of the most famous gods

3
Pharaohs
  • The word Pharaoh was used by the Greeks and
    Hebrews
  • The title Pharaoh originated from the Greek
    language and it is used in the Old Testament
  • The title originates in the term
  • "pr-aa" which means "great house" and describes
    the royal palace

4
Responsibility of Pharaohs
  • Pharaohs ruled with absolute power
  • Despite absolute power the Pharaohs rule was
    subject to Maat and was expected to govern
    according its principles
  • Maat was the goddess and symbol of the
    equilibrium of the universe
  • Any King that attempted to radically change
    society would be seen as destroying the
    equilibrium that was so important to Egyptian
    tradition resulting in civil war or a challenge
    in his authority

5
Succession
  • To keep the pure line of succession, a Pharaoh
    passed on the throne to the eldest son born of
    the Principal Queen, or Great Royal Wife
  • Each king was usually keen to demonstrate to his
    subjects that he was the chosen heir
  • The Pharaoh owned all of the land, people, and
    possessions in Egypt
  • Any personal wealth enjoyed by Egyptians people
    was considered a result of the generosity of the
    King.

6
Key Pharaohs
  • There were several Pharaohs of Egypt. However, we
    will focus on the main male Pharaohs
  • Menes
  • Khufu
  • Hatshepsut
  • Tuthmosis III
  • Akhenaton
  • Tutankhamen
  • Ramses II
  • Cleopatra
  • Nefertiti

7
Menes (c. 3100 3050 B.C.E.)
  • First Pharaoh to unify upper and lower Egypt into
    one Kingdom and wear the red crown of lower Egypt
    and the white crown of upper Egypt

8
Menes (Ruled 3100 2850 B.C.E.)
  • Ancient Egypts form of a civilization began with
    King Menes
  • Founded the city of Memphis because of its good
    location and easy to defend against attacks
  • During his reign he expanded his kingdom and
    developed commercial trade links

9
Khufu (2589-2566 B.C.E)
  • Ruthless ruler who enslaved people and sold
    daughter into prostitution
  • Most remembered for building Great Pyramid of
    Giza
  • The pyramid originally stood 481 feet tall and
    even today its still a mystery to how it was
    built

10
Hatshepsut (c. 1470 B.C.E)
  • Remembered as historys first great woman ruler
  • Hatshepsut became regent when her husband
    Tuthmosis II died and the new pharaoh was very
    young (son of a minor wife)
  • Several years later she declared herself king
    and began wearing the false beard and garments of
    a pharaoh
  • Egypt prospered while she was in power as she
    established famous trade and economic expedition
    to the land of Punt
  • Prolific builder and commissioned many
    architectural projects and the restoration of
    older temples

11
Tuthmosis III (c. 1450 B.C.E.)
  • When his father died his stepmother Hatshepsut,
    took charge and he was pushed into the background
    as she ruled Egypt over a 20 year period
  • When Hatshepsut died he came to the throne and as
    an act of revenge or retribution, he destroyed as
    many of Hatshepsut's statues, monuments, and
    buildings
  • He is remembered as the Napoleon of Egypt a
    great warrior king who expanded the empire to its
    greatest size through his successful military
    campaigns
  • Wealth of the New kingdom came from tributes paid
    by people he conquered

12
Akhenaton (c. 1350 B.C.E.)
  • Original name was Amonhotep IV but his name to
    Akhenaton which means he who serves Aton
  • This was the first attempt at radically changing
    the polytheistic Egyptian religion with a
    monotheistic religion
  • He wanted to change the Egyptian supreme god from
    Amon-Re to Aton
  • Built a new city called Akhetaton which contained
    new priests and government
  • More concerned with building his vision of a new
    society than focusing on war and conquest
  • Religious revolution led to tension and revolt in
    Egypt

13
Tutankhamen (c. 1334 B.C.E.)
  • Known as the Boy King of Egypt, he came to the
    throne when his father Akhenaton died, he became
    King around age eight
  • Helped restore Egypt's old beliefs from when his
    father tried to make Egypt a monotheism society
    and moved the capital back to Thebes
  • He died suddenly at the young age of 18 by a blow
    to the back of his head
  • Since his tomb had not yet been made, he was laid
    in a tomb of a member of the nobility
  • He is famous today because of his tomb being
    found intact by archaeologist Howard Carter in
    1922

14
Rames II (c. 1290 B.C.E.)
  • Went to the throne at the age of 20 and reigned
    for 67 years the second longest reign for any
    Egyptian King
  • Considered to be the last great Egyptian King
    bringing Egypt peace and stability
  • Signed earliest known peace treaty in world
    history after the Battle of Kadesh with the new
    Hittite king
  • Ramses is remembered for constructing many
    architectural marvels including the two huge
    temples at Abu Simbel
  • Constructed more colossal statues, large statues
    of human or human like figures, than any other
    Egyptian King
  • Ruled during the time of Moses and used many
    Jewish slaves to build his monuments and statues

15
Cleopatra (c. 30 B.C.E.)
  • Last independent ruler of Egypt
  • Not of Egyptian lineage descended from Ptolemy
    who was a general in Alexander the Greats army
    (Greek Ptolemy family ruled Egypt for 300 years)
  • She is best known for her beauty who seduced
    Caesar and fell in love with Marc Antony
  • Committed suicide with Marc Antony when Octavian
    forces invaded Egypt
  • After her death, Egypt was ruled as a Roman
    province.

16
Nefertiti (c. 1370-1330 B.C.E.)
  • Queen of Egypt, who was married to Akhenaten
    (Amenhotep IV) and is known as the most beautiful
    woman in history
  • In artwork, her status is evident and indicates
    that she had almost as much influence as her
    husband
  • For example, she is depicted nearly twice as
    often in reliefs as her husband, at least during
    the first five years of his reign
  • It is believed that Nefertiti was active in the
    religious and cultural changes initiated by her
    husband (some even maintain that it was she who
    initiated the new religion)
  • She also had the position as a priest, and she
    was a devoted worshipper of the god Aten.

17
Discussion Questions
  1. In your opinion, was it right for the Pharaohs to
    rule with absolute power? Explain.
  2. Do you think Egypt would be so well known today
    if Pharaohs did not exist?
  3. In ancient Egypt all property belonged to the
    Pharaohs, would our society be successful if this
    was true today about the Prime Minister.
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