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Executive Branch


Title: Executive Branch The executive power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the term of four years ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Executive Branch

Executive BranchThe executive power shall be
vested in a President of the United States of
America. He shall hold his Office during the
term of four years, and, together with the Vice
President, chosen for the same term, be elected
Article II, Section 1
Constitutional Requirements to be President
  • SSCG13 The student will describe the
    qualifications for becoming President of the U.S.
  • Explain the written qualifications for President
    of the United States.
  • Describe unwritten qualifications common to past
  • Constitutional Requirements to be President
  • Natural born Citizen
  • 35 years old
  • Resident of the U.S. for at least 14 years
  • The Vice Presidents qualifications are the
    same as the President with the exception that
    he/she can not have their primary residence in
    the same state as the President.

Informal Presidential Qualifications
  • College Educated
  • Military Experience
  • Prior government experience
  • Most have been white, male, protestants with

What voters want.The impossible dream!
  • Cooperation w/Congress
  • Peacekeeper
  • Ability to solve economic problems
  • Someone with good character, judgment, and humor
  • A sense of purpose
  • Tough, decisive, competent, effective fair
  • A leader with initiative

Electing a President
How is the President Elected?
National Convention Delegates choose the nominee
of each major party with conventions held in
the summer of election year
Presidential Primaries In states with primaries,
party voters select some or all delegates to
national convention and/or express preference for
partys nomination
State Conventions Party voters select some or all
of the delegates to the national convention
Candidates must take two paths to win their
partys nomination (1) Either through primaries
or (2) party state conventions
Local Caucuses Party voters in local meetings
choose delegates to state conventions
How is the President Elected?
Electoral College Presidential electors meet in
State capitals on Monday following the second
Wednesday in December to cast electoral votes.
270 needed to win.
Election Day Voters cast their ballots on Tuesday
following the first Monday in November. Voters
actually choose presidential electors.
Democrat Nominee
Republican Nominee
Third Party Candidates
How does the Electoral College Work?
  • Electoral votes are determined by total number of
    senators and representatives in each state

Example Michigan has 2 senators and 14
representatives total electoral votes are 16
  • Largest state California, has 55 electoral votes
  • Electors are party loyalists that are chosen by
    the state parties
  • Voters elect the slate of electors on Election
    Day. For Michigan 16 Republicans or 16
    Democrats, depending on majority vote.
  • 23rd Amendment allows for 3 electoral votes for
    Wash. DC
  • Majority of Electors 270 of 538 is necessary to

Inauguration of the President
  • Term of Office
  • Four Years
  • Inauguration
  • January 20th

12th Amendment
  • Cleans up the voting mess that was the 1800
    election (Jefferson and Burr tied in electoral
    college voting).
  • Electors vote twice, once for President, once for
  • Restricts House, in the event the election is
    tossed to them, to vote for top three
  • Electors must vote for at least one
    (Pres./V-Pres.) from a different State (why Dick
    Cheney, a Texan, registered to vote in Wyoming!)
  • Requires that Vice-Presidential candidates meet
    same requirements as Presidential candidates
  • Twelfth amendment requires the electoral college
    conduct two separate votes.
  • The first is for President.
  • The Second is for Vice President

20th Amendment
  • Lame Duck Amendment
  • Moves inauguration to January 20th from original
    March date
  • Congressional start date moved to January in same
  • Length of time for a sitting president who is not
    re-elected is reduced
  • Goal prevent inactivity or hasty decisions on
    way out of office

Presidential Term Limits
  • Washington began the tradition of serving only
    two terms, but it was really unlimited until the
    22nd Amendment, which gave two rules
  • No one can be elected as President more than
  • No one that serves more than two years of another
    Presidents term can be elected more than once.

Benefits of the Presidency
  • 1. Salary 400,000 per year (beginning in
  • 2. Perks
  • White House w/staff of 100
  • Doctors and Health Care
  • Expense Account of 50,000
  • Air Force One and a fleet of jets and helicopters
  • Camp David vacation spot in Maryland
  • Pension, Retirement, and Secret Service for 10
    years after they leave office

Benefits of the Presidency
  • White House
  • 132 rooms, 35 bathrooms, 28 fireplaces, 8
    staircases, 3 elevators and 6 levels in the
  • Entertainment
  • Movie theater, bowling lanes, putting green
  • Pension Plan
  • 166,700 a year
  • free mailing privileges for nonpolitical
    correspondence, free office space, 96,000 a year
    for office help, and, during the first thirty
    months after their term of office has ended, up
    to 150,000 for staff assistance.
  • Secret Service protection for 10 years for Pres
    First Lady (children until they are 16)

Air Force One
The White House
Camp David
Marine One
Vice Presidential Roles
  • President in Waiting
  • Acting President of the Senate and can vote in
    order to break a tie.
  • Power over presidential disability as stated in
    the 25th Amendment.
  • Chairs Commissions, meets foreign dignitaries,
    and advises the President.
  • All other responsibilities come from the

The Vice President
Provisions of the Vice President
  • Salary 230,700 per year
  • Lives in House on Observatory Hill
  • Located in the U.S. Naval Observatory in
    Washington, D.C.
  • Home to the Vice President since 1974

25th Amendment
  • Procedures dealing with Presidential Disability
  • Vice President becomes President if the President
    resigns, is removed or dies.
  • If there is a vacancy in the Vice Presidency,
    then the President appoints a new V.P. and both
    houses of Congress must approve him.
  • The Vice President becomes acting President if
    the President is unable to serve temporarily.
  • The President becomes acting President as soon as
    he declares himself fit, unless the Vice
    President, a majority of the Cabinet and 2/3 of
    the Congress declare him still unfit. Then the
    Vice President will remain the acting President
    until it is determined that the President is fit.

Presidential Succession Act
  • Following World War II, a new Presidential
    Succession Act of 1947 was passed
  • Placed the Speaker of the House and the president
    pro tempore of the Senate behind the vice
  • The line of succession then extended to the
    executive department heads in the order in which
    their agencies were created.

Presidential Succession
John Boehner, Speaker
Patrick Leahy, Pres Pro-Tempore
John Kerry, State
Jack Lew, Treasury
Chuck Hagel, Defense
Eric Holder, US Attorney General, Dept of Justice
Did you know?One Cabinet member stays out of
State of the Union Address
  • 2013 - Energy
  • 2012 - Agriculture
  • 2011 Interior
  • 2010 HUD ( State)
  • 2009 - Justice
  • 2008 Energy
  • 2007 Justice
  • 2006 Veterans Affairs
  • 2005 Commerce
  • 2004 Commerce
  • 2003 Justice Transportation
  • 2002 Interior
  • 2001 Veterans Affairs
  • 2000 Energy
  • 1999 HUD
  • 1998 - Commerce
  • 1997 Agriculture
  • 1996 HHS
  • 1995 Transportation
  • 1994 Agriculture
  • 1993 Interior
  • 1992 Agriculture
  • 1991 Interior
  • 1990 Veterans Affairs
  • 1989 None
  • 1988 Interior
  • 1987 Agriculture
  • 1986 Agriculture

Original Intent The Formal Powers
  • Executive with limited power
  • Enforce the laws of Congress
  • Handle foreign policy
  • Be chief executive and head of state
  • Broadly defined constitutional powers for
    flexibility (has resulted in expanded power)
  • Commander in Chief
  • Grant pardons reprieves
  • Report on State of the Union

Informal Powers
  • Morale builder
  • Party leader
  • Legislative leader
  • Coalition builder
  • Crisis manager
  • Personnel recruiter
  • World leader
  • Budget setter
  • Agenda/policy setter
  • Conflict resolver
  • Persuader and policy communicator

Roles of the President
SSCG12 The student will analyze the various
roles played by the President of the United
States include Commander-in-Chief of the Armed
Forces, chief executive, chief agenda setter,
representative of the nation, chief of state,
foreign policy leader, and party leader.
Chief Executive
  • Enforce the law
  • Head the bureaucracy
  • Appoint federal officials
  • Negotiate treaties
  • Grant pardons, reprieves and amnesty

Chief of State
  • Representative of nation
  • Symbol of America
  • Host to distinguished delegates and visitors

Chief of the Economy
  • Guard the Economy
  • Prevent depressions
  • Balance budget

Commander in Chief
  • Civilian control of the military
  • Assignment of troops with war declaration
  • from Congress
  • Sending troops without formal
  • war declaration
  • Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
  • War Powers Act 1974

Party Leader
  • Shape party platform
  • Campaign for party
  • Mobilize public opinion

Chief Legislator/Agenda Setter
  • State of the Union Address
  • Recommend legislation
  • Present the budget
  • Veto power

Chief Diplomat
  • Treaty making with Senate approval
  • Establish diplomatic relations
  • Executive agreements

Presidential Powers
SSCG4 The student will demonstrate knowledge of
the organization and powers of the national
Executive Powers
  • Commander in Chief
  • Gulf of Tonkin Resolution while troops are in
    conflict, the President can take any action to
    protect the troops short of declaring war.
  • War Powers Act President cannot send troops
    out unless
  • Congress declares War
  • A law authorizes the action
  • National Emergency but the President must follow
    2 rules
  • Notify Congress within 48 hours
  • Cannot keep troops abroad for more than 60 days
    without Congressional Approval.

Executive Powers
  1. Enforces Laws
  2. Executive Agreement agreements Presidents make
    on behalf of the U.S. with foreign countries that
    do not require Senate approval.
  3. Treaty agreements Presidents make on behalf of
    the U.S. with foreign countries that require
    Senate approval.

Executive Powers
  • Power of Appointment appoints federal officials
    along with judges and Supreme Court justices.
  • Power of Removal can remove federal officials
    but not judges or justices.
  • Executive Privilege the right to withhold
    information from Congress and the Courts

Legislative Powers
  • Recommend Legislation
  • 3 formal messages
  • State of the Union Address
  • Economic Report
  • Budget Message
  • Approve Legislation signs bill into law

Legislative Powers
  • The Veto Power forbid legislation
  • The Pocket Veto to sit on the bill for ten days
    without signing it and it is a law. However, if
    Congress adjourns within ten days then it cannot
    be overridden.
  • To call Special Sessions of Congress

Judicial Powers
  • Appoint Judges and Justices to the Supreme Court
  • Reprieves delay carrying out of punishments in
    federal crimes
  • Pardons release from punishment in federal
    crimes by absolute or conditional
  • Amnesty blanket pardon given to groups of
  • These do not work in cases of impeachment or in
    state crimes

Responsibilities of the President
Economic Policy
  • Chief Advisors
  • Sec of Treasury
  • Director of OMB
  • Ex-officio Chair of FED
  • Janet Yellen
  • FED is key to interest rates and growth of
  • FED is independent regulatory agency
  • Members have staggered terms beyond the
    presidents term
  • FED cant be fired for policy decisions
  • Fight inflation
  • Keep taxes low
  • Promote economic growth
  • Prevent recession
  • Create jobs

National Security
  • In a national emergency
  • planning, command, unity falls to National
    Security Council
  • Diplomacy and the military are used as
    instruments of foreign policy
  • Congress must appropriate and authorize funding
    for treaties and war

Party Leadership
  • Informal head of party
  • Rarely have control on state and local
  • Cant control party members in Congress b/c of

Legislative Coalition Builder
  • Send messages to Congress on policy and agenda
  • Visit the Hill to twist arms
  • Acts as politician
  • Conflict manager,
  • negotiator, bargainer,
  • reconciler, coalition
  • builder, persuader

Relationship w/Congress
  • Appointments which require Senate confirmation
  • Federal judges, SC justices, Ambassadors, Dept.
    Secretaries, US Attorney
  • Negotiate treaties
  • Binding only w/agreements of 2/3 of Senate
  • Exec Agreement b/t head of countries are as
    binding as treaties

  • Way to control bureaucracy
  • Increases/decreases based on policy
  • Budget requests must go through OMB from all
    departments and agencies before going to Congress
  • OMB writes the budget submitted to Congress

Impoundment Recissions
  • Impoundment
  • Refusal of president to spend funds appropriated
    by Congress.
  • Budget Reform Act of 1974 requires notification
    of Congress
  • Congress has 45 days to delete item or pass
    resolution demanding release
  • Recission
  • Recommendation of president to cut part of
    appropriations bills

Prime Time President
  • Press conferences
  • Speeches from Oval Office
  • Radio messages
  • First 100 days is the honeymoon period
  • The longer they stay in office, the less popular
    they become...interest groups grow impatient,
    unkept promises, blamed for problems left by
    previous president

President the Press
  • Press sees itself as the protector of democracy
  • Filtering Press interpretation of what is said
    and what it means
  • Spin Doctors put twists on what was said and
  • President can leak info to test reaction (trial
    balloons) to new policy

Presidential Style and Character
Presidential Style and Characterby James David
  • Active-long hours, new direction, strong
    leadership, innovative policies
  • Passive-less time and energy, let Congress take
  • Positive-enjoy the power, like the challenge of
    the office
  • Negative-sense of duty to serve, try to prove

  Positive Negative
        Active           ADAPTIVE self-confident flexible creates opportunities for action enjoys the exercise of power, does not take himself too seriously optimistic emphasizes the "rational mastery" of his environment power used as a means to achieve beneficial results. Thomas Jefferson, F. D. Roosevelt,  H. Truman,  J. F. Kennedy,  G. Ford, G. W. Bush(?) COMPULSIVE power as a means to self-realization expends great energy on tasks but derives little joy preoccupied with whether he is failing or succeeding low self-esteem inclined to rigidity and pessimism highly driven problem managing aggression.   John Adams, W. Wilson, H. Hoover,  A. Lincoln, L. B. Johnson, R. Nixon
    Passive   COMPLIANT seek to be loved easily manipulated low self-esteem is overcome by ingratiating personality reacts rather than initiates superficially optimistic. James Madison, W. H. Taft,  W. Harding,  R. Reagan,Bill Clinton WITHDRAWN responds to a sense of duty avoid power low self-esteem compensated by service to others responds rather than initiates avoids conflict and uncertainty. emphasizes principles and procedures and an aversion to politicking. George Washington, C. Coolidge,  D. Eisenhower   
Management Style
  • Circular
  • Everyone with equal access to the president
  • Pyramid
  • Hierarchy with information to president coming
    from bottom up

An Imperial Presidency?
  • Individual actions taken by past presidents have
    enlarged the power of the presidency by expanding
    responsibility and political resources.
  • Proof?
  • Emergency Powers
  • Growing staff
  • Growing bureaucracy
  • Increase in media coverage
  • Executive Agreements
  • Impoundment Power
  • Pocket Veto
  • Executive Privilege

Presidential Impeachment
  • SSCG14 The student will explain the impeachment
    process and its usage for elected officials.
  • Explain the impeachment process as defined in the
    U.S. Constitution.
  • Describe the impeachment proceedings of Andrew
    Johnson and Bill Clinton.

Why Impeach?
  • High Crimes and Misdemeanors
  • Malfeasance (an illegal act)
  • Misfeasance (an illegal act which could have
    otherwise been done legally)
  • Standards acts against state or constitution
  • The definition of an impeachable offense is left
    to the House

  • Presidents can be removed for "high crimes and
  • House Judiciary Committee investigates to
    determine if there has been an offense (A
    majority vote is needed in committee to send
    charges to House)
  • Simple majority in full house impeaches the
  • Senate holds trial to determine whether or not to
    remove official from office
  • Chief Justice of Supreme Court presides and a 2/3
    vote of the Senate is needed

  • Andrew Johnson May 1868
  • Violating Tenure of Office Act (putting in new
    Secretary of War)
  • Saved by a single vote in the Senate, remained in
  • Bill Clinton December 1998
  • Perjury - Votes 55 to 45
  • Obstruction of Justice 50-50
  • Acquitted and remained in office

Presidential Appointments
Presidential Appointments Why choose?
  • Reward for political help
  • Claims of inclusiveness
  • Fence mending
  • Ideology or philosophy
  • Comfort level
  • Ability and notoriety
  • gets legitimacy for your policy
  • Coalition building w/interest groups
  • Administration of presidential policy goals

Supreme Court Appointments
  • Appointments have become increasingly bitter
    fights over judicial temperament and philosophy
  • Major issues include
  • Abortion/choice/privacy
  • Affirmative action
  • Separation of church and state
  • States rights
  • Judicial activism/restraint

Appointments to the court are..
  • Reward for political help
  • Statements of policy priorities
  • Promotion of philosophy and ideology
  • Relation builders with Congress
  • Legacy creators

The current court
  • Conservatives
  • Roberts, Kennedy, Thomas, Scalia, Alito
  • Liberals -Breyer, Ginsburg, Sotomayor, Kagan

Presidential Trivia
Presidential Firsts
  • Father and Son
  • John Adams and John Quincy Adams
  • George H.W. Bush and George W. Bush

Presidential Firsts
  • Youngest
  • Elected John F. Kennedy (43)
  • Served Theodore Roosevelt (42)
  • Oldest
  • Ronald Reagan (age 69 73)

Presidential Firsts
  • Shortest/Longest Terms
  • William H. Harrison
  • (1840 1 month)
  • Franklin Roosevelt
  • (1933-1944 4 terms)

Presidential Firsts
  • Assassinated in Office
  • Abraham Lincoln 1865
  • James Garfield 1882
  • William McKinley 1901
  • John F. Kennedy 1963

The American President
I do solemnly swear, that I will faithfully
execute the office of President of the United
States, and will, to the best of my ability,
preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of
the United States
Inside the Executive Branch
  • SSCG15 The student will explain the functions of
    the departments and agencies of the federal
  • Compare and contrast the organization and
    responsibilities of independent regulatory
    agencies, government corporations, and executive
  • Explain the functions of the Cabinet.

What is the Administration?
  • The Administration is the White House staff,
    Executive Departments, and Independent Agencies
    that assist the President in carrying out his
    duties of enforcing the law.

What is the Administration?
  • The White House Staff
  • Handles the day-to-day activities of the
    President through the White House Office
  • The Chief of Staff heads this office
  • The office coordinates the Presidents schedule,
    writes his speeches, and conducts the business of
    the President, etc.
  • Includes the White House Counsel, Political
    Affairs Office, Presidential Advance team

Denis McDonough, Chief of Staff for Obama
What is the Administration?
  • The Executive Office of the President
  • Provides the President with expert analysts
  • The National Security Council provides military
  • The Council of Economic Advisors provides
    economic advice
  • Office of Management and Budget provides
    budgetary advice and writes the Presidents
    budget for the whole government

What is the Administration?
  • The Executive Office of the President
  • Other offices include
  • Council on Environmental Quality
  • Domestic Policy Council
  • National Economic Council
  • Office of Administration
  • Office of Faith-Based and Community Initiatives
  • Office of Homeland Security
  • Office of National AIDS Policy
  • Office of National Drug Control Policy
  • Office of Science Technology Policy
  • Office of the United States Trade Representative
  • President's Critical Infrastructure Protection
  • President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board
  • USA Freedom Corps
  • White House Military Office

What is the Administration?
  • The Executive Office of the President
  • All in all, the EOP employs over 2,000 staffers
    that work for the President alone.
  • Some of the senior level advisors have offices in
    the West Wing.
  • Most, however, are housed in the Old Executive
    Office Building, next to the White House.

Executive Departments Agencies
  • The Executive Departments implement the policies
    of the President and enforce the laws
  • There are a total of 15 Executive Departments
  • The heads of the Departments are called
    Secretaries, except for the Justice Department
    which is headed by the Attorney General
  • The heads are known as the Presidents Cabinet
  • The Bureaucracy is made up of non-elected
    officials that work for the government in these

Department of Homeland Security
President Obamas Cabinet (July 2012)
Regulatory Agencies
  • Regulates a sector of the economy or government
  • Regulations protect the public
  • FRB (Federal Reserve Board - banks)
  • FCC (Federal Communications Commission -
    broadcast media)
  • OSHA (Occupational Safety Health
    Administrations - workplace)
  • FDA (Food Drug Administration - food producers

Government Corporations
  • Provide goods or services that could be offered
    by a private company
  • Typically provide the services at a cheaper rate
    than a private corporation could
  • Tennessee Valley Authority (power/electricity)
  • Postal Service (mail services)
  • Amtrak (railroad transportation)

  • AP Government

  • Large, complex organization of appointed, not
    elected, officials
  • The bureaucracy was set up to accomplish policy
  • People are hired because of skills that they have
    to implement policy goals.

Max Weber
  • Defined the prototype bureaucracy
  • Characteristics
  • Hierarchical authority structure bottom up
  • Task specialization experts in field
  • Rules similar procedures for similar situations
  • Merit principles entrance and promotion based
    on ability
  • Impersonality treat clients impartially

Bureaucracy The Big Joke
  • Parkinsons Law work and personnel will expand
    to consume available resources
  • Peter Principle personnel are promoted to their
    highest level of incompetence

Did you know?
  • The bureaucracy began in 1789 with the creation
    of the Dept. of State
  • Most federal employees work for only a few
  • About 55 work for the Department of Defense and
    Postal Service
  • Only about 10 work in D.C.
  • 2.8 million civilian employees

Characteristics of American Federal Bureaucracy
  • Divided Supervision
  • Congress creates, organizes and disbands all
  • Political authority is shared between Congress
    executive branch
  • Public Scrutiny
  • About ½ cases in federal court involve govt
  • Regulation (not public ownership)
  • Govt regulates privately owned businesses
    instead of owning the businesses as a govt

Civil Service
  • Originally a patronage (spoils) system
  • Changed as a result of the actions of a
    disappointed office seeker who shot and killed
    Garfield in 1881 because he wouldnt give him a

Civil Service
  • Pendleton Act in 1883 promotes hiring based on
    merit and nonpartisan government service
  • Now use entrance exams for job placement and

Civil Service
  • Hatch Act of 1939 prevents workers from active
    participation in partisan politics
  • Cant run for office, be involved in campaigns,
    make political speeches, disseminate political
  • Can vote, make campaign contributions, join
    parties, participate in non-partisan campaigns

Civil Service
  • Hatch Act amended in 1993
  • Civil servants can engage in political activities
    as long as
  • they are off duty
  • do not run for office
  • dont work in sensitive government areas

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  • Appointments are often characterized by
    transience few more than 2 years
  • When a new administration takes office, Congress
    publishes the plum book which lists the top
    federal jobs available for appointment. About
    400 top positions.
  • President then searches based on talent,
    political skills, policy expertise, demographic
    balance and campaign support.

Four Types of Bureaucratic Agencies
  • Cabinet
  • Regulatory Agencies
  • Government Corporations
  • Independent Agencies

  • 15 departments
  • Secretary is the head of department
  • Chosen by president and approved by Senate
  • Each has their own policy areas and budgets
  • Can be fired at presidents will
  • Secretary, Undersecretary, bureaus, agency

Regulatory Agencies
  • Regulates a sector of the economy to protect the
    public interest
  • QUASI LEGISLATIVE because it makes rules
  • QUASI JUDICIAL because it settles claims

Regulatory Agencies
  • Governed by a small commission
  • members are appointed by the president
  • confirmed by the Senate
  • staggered terms
  • fixed terms that extend past Presidents term
  • neither party may have a majority on a board or

Government Corporations
  • Provide services for a fee that could be handled
    by the private sector and generally charge
    cheaper rates
  • TVA, Postal Service, Amtrak, Public Broadcasting

Independent Agencies
  • Exist outside the structure of the Cabinet
    departments and perform services for the
    government and the public that are often too
    costly for the private sector
  • Appointed by President and serve at his will
  • NASA, NSF (National Science Foundation), GSA
    (General Services Administration), FEC (Federal
    Election Commission), Civil Rights Commission

Functions of the Bureaucracy
What role do bureaucrats play?
  • Communicate with each other
  • Maintain paper for accountability
  • Interpret the law
  • Implement the objectives of the organization

Bureaucracy as Implementors
  • Implementation is the policymaking stage between
    the establishment of a policy and the
    consequences of the policy.

  • Includes three elements
  • Creation of a new agency or assignment of
    responsibility to an old one
  • Translation of policy into operational rules
  • Coordination of resources and personnel to
    achieve the intended goals

Regulation through bureaucracy
  • Regulation is the use of governmental authority
    to control or change some practice in the private
  • Agencies must apply and enforce rules and
  • Can be done either in court or by administrative
    procedures which use either inspectors,
    complaints, or licensing to monitor behavior.

  • All regulation contains
  • A grant of power from Congress
  • A set of rules and guidelines
  • Some means of enforcing compliance

Executive Control on the Bureaucracy
  • President tries to control by
  • Appointing the right people to head
  • Tinkering with agency budget
  • Issuing executive orders
  • Reorganizing an agency w/Congress

Congressional Control over the Bureaucracy
  • Congress tries to control by
  • Influencing the appointment of dept head (Senate
  • Tinkering with budget
  • Holding oversight hearings
  • Rewriting more detailed legislation
  • Establishing new agencies or departments
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