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The Executive Branch

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The Executive Branch Bureaucracy Cont. Federal government is the largest organization in the country Consists of four main groups: The White House staff The Executive ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Executive Branch


1
The Executive Branch
2
Voices from the past
  • I dont know whether you fellows ever had a load
    of hay
  • fall on you, but when they told me yesterday what
    had
  • happened, I felt the moon, the stars, and all the
    planets had
  • fallen on me
  • -Harry
    S. Truman, the day after FDRs death.

3
The Executive Branch
  • Not only the President and Vice President
  • Also The Cabinet and Government Agencies

4
Article II of the Constitution
  • The Executive power shall be vested in a
    president of the United States.

5
Presidential Oath
  • I do solemnly swear that I will faithfully
    execute the office of President of the United
    States, and will to the best of my ability,
    preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of
    the United States. Article II, Constitution

6
Term of Office
  • 4 year term
  • Allowed two terms
  • Based off George Washingtons Presidency
  • FDR had 4 terms
  • After his (FDRs) death amendment made it only 2
    terms or 10 years in office.

7
Qualifications
  • Formal
  • Natural born citizen
  • At least 35
  • At least 14 years residency in the US
  • Informal
  • Military background?
  • Executive experience? Ex Governor
  • Educational background
  • Occupations
  • Charismatic

8
Chief Executive 3 Main Powers
  • Appointment or Removal of key executive branch
    officials
  • Issuing executive orders
  • Maintaining executive privilege

9
Appointment and Removal Powers
  • Constitution gives president power to appoint
    people to fill top posts in the executive branch
  • Some are checked by the Senate
  • Federal Judges
  • Cabinet Members
  • Ambassadors to Foreign Nations
  • Top Military Advisors
  • President can remove them at anytime
  • Except Federal Judges (Lifetime)-Congress can
    impeach

10
Executive Orders
  • A formal Rule or Regulation
  • Instructing Executive Branch officials on how to
    carry out their job
  • Controversy
  • War Powers Act of 1973

11
Executive Privileges
  • President can withhold information from congress
    or a court
  • United States v. Nixon 1974
  • Watergate
  • Limited the executive privilege and power

12
(No Transcript)
13
Check and Balances Review
  • The Executive Branch is given the power to carry
    out the laws. It has the following checks over
    the Legislative Branch
  • Veto power
  • Ability to call special sessions of Congress
  • Can recommend legislation
  • Can appeal to the people concerning legislation
    and more
  • The Executive Branch has the following checks
    over the Judicial Branch
  • President appoints Supreme Court and other
    federal judges

14
Diplomatic Powers
15
Diplomatic Powers
  • Foreign Policy Leader- formulates the nations
    plan and procedure with dealing with other
    countries.
  • Negotiating treaties
  • 2/3 Senate Vote to approve
  • World War I Treaty of Versailles never approved
  • Diplomacy- the art of negotiating with foreign
    countries

16
Diplomatic Cont.
  • Executive Agreements
  • Agreements between President and Foreign
    Governments
  • Ex NAFTA North American Free Trade Association
  • Diplomatic Recognition
  • Recognizing the legitimacy of a foreign country
  • Ex Harry Truman recognized Israel in 1948,
    Controversial today

17
Military Powers
  • Commander in Chief
  • Congress has power to declare war
  • President has called out the armed forces over
    200 times (executive orders) Only 5 has Congress
    declared war
  • Post-Vietnam saw the War Powers Act follow
  • Modern times the Iraq War 2002

18
Roles (Official and Unofficial)
  • Head of StateChief of State
  • Chief Executive
  • Chief Legislator-Chief Agenda Setter
  • Economic Planner
  • Party Leader
  • Chief Diplomat-Foreign Policy Leader
  • Commander in Chief

19
Roles
  • Head of StateChief of State
  • a. Represents the Nation
  • b. Performs ceremonial duties (hosts kings,
    queens, gives awards)

20
Roles
  • Chief Executive
  • Head of Executive branch (enforces laws and
    programs)
  • Tools that enforces laws
  • Executive order-detailed instruction w/force of
    law
  • Appointments
  • Remove officials they appoint
  • Executive privilege- presidents right not to
    turn over document or testify on executive
    confidential business
  • Grants reprieves-postponement from punishment and
    pardons-release from prison or removal of a
    crime/penalty from criminal record
  • Grants amnesty- forgiving of a crime (no
    punishment)

21
Roles
  • Chief Legislator-Chief Agenda Setter
  • State of the Union Address-describes the Pres.
    ideas about how to solve problems
  • May give political favors for support
  • May threaten to veto a bill to get Congress to
    stop or make changes to bills

22
Roles
  • Economic Planner
  • Submits an annual economic report (includes
    unemployment, GDP, etc.)
  • Prepares budget every year
  • Promotes high employment, production and
    purchasing power

23
Roles
  • Party Leader
  • Gives speeches to help members running for
    reelection
  • Fundraiser for party

24
Roles
  • Chief Diplomat-Foreign Policy Leader
  • Directs US foreign policy
  • Makes treaties-agreements between countries
  • Executive agreements-agreements between heads of
    states which do not require Senate approval
  • May refuse to recognize the legal existence of
    other countries

25
Roles
  • Commander in Chief
  • Can send troops
  • Responsible for key military decisions
  • Authority to use atomic/nuclear weapons

26
Some Powers Enacted by Past Presidents
  • Thomas Jefferson purchased LA Territory
  • --the Constitution does not state a President
    can acquire territory
  • Abraham Lincoln jailed opponents of the Union
    without trials and blocked ports
  • Theodore Roosevelt stated it is the Presidents
    duty to do anything that the needs of the nation
    demanded
  • F.D.R. persuaded Congress to create new social
    and economic programs (The New Deal)
  • --Americans began to expect the Pres. To deal
    directly with the nations economic and political
    life

27
POWER
  • Congress has been a source of presidential power
    when they work together well
  • A. LBJ reported destroyers attacked a US
    warship in the Gulf of Tonkin
  • --Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
    (gave president power to take necessary steps
    including armed force to protect Americans in SE
    Asia)
  • B. Congress asked for President leadership
    from FDR during the Depression

28
POWER
  • Media
  • --TV and radio can give the President great
    power

29
POWER
  • Limits on Presidential power
  • Congressional overrides of vetoes
  • Congress can impeach the president
  • The Courts can limit the president with judicial
    review
  • The Bureaucracy may limit needed information
  • Public opinion may cause presidents not to run
    for re-election

30
Removal from Office
  • The president shall be removed from office if
    convicted in an impeachment trial
  • Crimes
  • Treason
  • Bribery
  • Other high crimes and misdemeanors
  • This also applies to the Vice President
  • Two Presidents were Impeached
  • Andrew Johnson
  • Bill Clinton
  • Richard Nixon resigned before impeachment

31
Line of Succession
  • The order successors to the presidency if the
    president is unable to serve as specified in the
    Constitution
  • Vice President
  • Speaker of the House
  • President pro tempore of the Senate
  • Secretary of State
  • Line continues by each of the 14 heads
  • of the Cabinet departments, in the order
  • in which their offices were created by
  • Congress

32
Vice President
  • 1st in line in succession.
  • Changed very much from earlier VPs
  • Duties
  • Presides over the Senate
  • Votes in deadlock (50-50)
  • Role in 25th Amendment
  • Helps decide the question of Presidential
    disability
  • Debate whether VP is an Executive or Legislative
    position or both.

33
Federal Bureaucracy
  • Bureaucracy- Large, complex administrative
    structure that handles the everyday business of
    the federal government
  • Bureaucrats- civil servants who work for the
    Federal Bureaucracy

34
Bureaucracy Cont.
  • Federal government is the largest organization in
    the country Consists of four main groups
  • The White House staff
  • The Executive Office of the President
  • Executive departments
  • Independent agencies

35
White House Staff
  • Consists of about 400 people
  • Chief of Staff
  • Jack Lew
  • Presidents most loyal aid
  • Gate-keepercontrols who talks to president and
    who does not
  • Provide guidance and advice on issues

36
Executive Office of the President
  • About 1,800 employees
  • Perform a variety of specialized tasks for
    President Ex
  • Office of Management and Budgetaids president in
    developing budget proposal to Congress
  • National Security Council (NSC)advises president
    on foreign and defense policy

37
Executive Departments
  • Carry out work of government in broad areas of
    public policy
  • Presidents cabinet

38
Cabinet Departments
  • State
  • Treasury
  • Interior
  • Agriculture
  • Justice
  • Commerce
  • Labor
  • Defense
  • Health and Human Services
  • Housing and Urban Development
  • Transportation
  • Energy
  • Education
  • Veterans Affairs
  • Homeland Security-last in line of presidential
    succession

39
Independent Agencies
  • Independent establishments are created by
    Congress to address concerns that go beyond the
    scope of ordinary legislation.
  • These agencies are responsible for keeping the
    government and economy running smoothly.
  • Ex AMTRAK, NASA, FDIC, Social Security
    Administration, USPS (postal service)

40
Regulatory Commissions
  • Independent of all three branches
  • Impartial
  • Appointed by the president, approved by the
    Senate
  • Unlike Bureaucrats, They do not report to the
    president and cannot be fired or removed by
    president
  • Impact our daily lives
  • Example Nuclear Regulatory commission
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