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Intro to Comparative Government , the UN, and Industrial Democracies

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Title: Intro to Comparative Government , the UN, and Industrial Democracies


1
Intro to Comparative Government , the UN, and
Industrial Democracies
2
Comparative Politics Methodology
  • All comparative methods are scientific
    therefore, all scientific method is comparative.

3
3 Basic Questions of Comparative Politics
  • What are we comparing? Units of analysisstates
    and governments
  • How do we systemitize our understanding of
    comparative politics? Cant study all, so we take
    small samples and generalize.
  • How can we make the comparisons?
  • --Across cultures/nations (vertical)
  • --Across groups/social movements (horiz.)
  • --Across time (temporal)

4
3 Shifts in Scope of Analysis
  • General theory is not helpful limit research to
    a few cases and address middle range theory
  • Shift 1 Middle-range theory
  • Shift 2 Methods
  • Deductive Method General to specific
  • Inductive Method Specifics to general
    conclusion. Best method case study
  • Shift 3 Cross-temporal analysis

5
Comparative Approaches(David Apter)
  • Institutionalist look at institutions. (What
    makes a strong state? Military, economy,
    resources, legitimacy, adaptive power of states.
    Is regime Totalitarian, Authoritarian,
    Transitional, or Democratic?)
  • Developmentalist look at society, culture.
  • 2 types Modernization and Dependency school
  • Must understand socioeconomic forces
  • Ethnic Composition plays a role
  • State aggression/frustration/identity
  • I. Couldnt explain Fascist Italy, Weimar German
    failure (really due to Versailles, economic
    collapse)
  • Neo-institutionalist state and society interact

6
Methods of Analysis
  • Clinical MethodControlled settings, operate
    within confinement (lab climate). Highly
    objective, very analytical, devoid of personal,
    emotional interference. Manipulate variables to
    shape experiment
  • Statistical MethodGather random data, look for
    correlation, hopefully diagnose causation
  • Case Study1 element. Good that it relates to
    that element only. Ex Marxism believes that
    economy is the most important not always true
  • Comparative MethodContains old and new
    methods

7
Comparative Politics Approaches
  • Traditionallook at cultures, study to learn
    similarities. Focus formal institutions only
  • Behaviorist ApproachFeelings, attitudes,
    functions as opposed to institutions. Shift to
    infrastructure. Use mass media, foreign policy,
    public opinions, ideology to analyze. Focus
    cross-national, cross-cultural (Western world).
    Take a prescriptive approach and analyze data
    empirically
  • Post-Behaviorism-reaction to precision and
    quantification

8
The Comparative Method Stages
  • 1. Identify a problem/question (Ex What
    causes/promotes democracy?)
  • 2. Gather data, collect info thru observation
  • 3. Formulate connection between data, make a
    hypothesis
  • 4. Make prediction/projection (inference) from
    generalization (if/then statement)
  • 5. Verify/Falsify (Falsification more useful)
  • 6. Theory

9
Political CultureBuilding Civil Society
  • Defn A buffer between state and individual
  • Ex Legal association, doctors association
  • There are moral, legal, and economic concerns in
    building civil society.
  • Moral Soviets had tradition of strong state
    crushing religion, had no morals under communism.
    Soviet people saw free market as cheating.
  • Legal Soviets had no experience with contracts,
    ownership, bankruptcy, judges taught to rule the
    way the party wanted them to
  • Economic Soviets used command economy
    exclusively, no entrepreneurial knowledge

10
Where Do We Focus Our Study of International
Politics?
  • Three levels of analysis
  • Individual-level People make policy
  • State-level States make policy
  • System-level International Arena
    encourages/discourages certain types of behavior

11
Man, the State, and WarKenneth Waltz (1959)
  • Classified theories of international relations
    into three categories, or levels of analysis.
  • The first level explained international politics
    as being driven primarily by actions of
    individuals, or outcomes of psychological forces.
  • The second level explained international politics
    as being driven by the domestic regimes of
    states.
  • The third level focused on the role of systemic
    factors, or the effect that international anarchy
    was exerting on state behavior. "Anarchy" in this
    context is meant not as a condition of chaos or
    disorder, but one in which there is no sovereign
    body that governs nation-states.

12
Waltzs First Level Man (Human Behavior)
  • Wars result from selfishness, from misdirected
    aggressive impulses, from stupidity.
  • If these are the primary causes, the elimination
    of war must come through uplifting and
    enlightening men (p.16).
  • For pessimists, peace is at once a goal and a
    utopian dream, while optimists take seriously the
    proposition to reform the individual. Pessimists
    (Niebuhr, Morgenthau) have countered the theory
    of politics built on an optimistic definition of
    man but also expose the important error of
    exaggerating the causal importance of human
    nature. Since this nature is very complex, it can
    justify any hypothesis we may entertain. If men
    can be made good, then one must discover how to
    alter human nature. This expectation is often
    buried under the conviction that individual
    behavior is determined more by religious and
    spiritual inspiration rather than material
    circumstance. If man's evil qualities lead to
    wars, then one must worry about ways to repress
    them or compensate for them. Control rather than
    exhortation is needed, tends to assume a fixed
    human nature, which shifts the focus away from
    it, toward social and political institutions that
    can be changed (p.41).
  • Not every contribution the behavioral scientist
    can make has been made before and found wanting,
    but rather, the proffered contributions of many
    of them have been rendered ineffective by a
    failure to comprehend the significance of the
    political framework of international action.
    Social and psychological realism has produced
    political utopianism (p.77).

13
Waltzs Second Level Internal Structure of States
  • The internal organization of states is the key to
    understanding war and peace. Removing the defects
    of states would establish the basis for peace.
    Definition of a good'' state (a) Marx -
    according to the means of production, (b) Kant -
    according to abstract principles of right, (c)
    Wilson - according to national self-determination
    and democracy.
  • The use of internal defects to explain external
    acts of a state can take many forms (i) type of
    government generally bad - deprivations imposed
    by despots upon their subjects produce tensions
    that find their expression in foreign adventure
    (ii) defects in governments not inherently bad -
    restrictions placed on the state in order to
    protect the rights of its citizens interfere with
    executing foreign policy and (iii) geographic or
    economic deprivations - state has not attained
    its natural'' frontiers, or deprived''
    countries undertake war to urge the satisfied
    ones to make the necessary compensatory
    adjustments (p.83).
  • Liberal thought has moved from reliance upon
    improvement within separate states to acceptance
    of the need for organization among them. Rigorous
    application of this logic leads to asking to what
    extent organized force must be applied in order
    to secure the desired peaceful world. Arguing for
    a world government and settling for balance of
    power as an unhappy alternative reveals the
    limits of the second image analysis. Even though
    bad states may lead to war, the obverse that good
    states mean peace is doubtful. Just like
    societies they live in make men, the
    international environment makes states (p.122).
  • War results from states seeking to further their
    own national interest

14
Waltzs Third Level International Anarchy
  • With many sovereign states, with no system of law
    enforceable among them, with each state judging
    its grievances and ambitions according to the
    dictates of its own reason or desire - conflict,
    sometimes leading to war, is bound to occur. To
    achieve a favorable outcome from such a conflict,
    a state has to rely on its own devices, the
    relative efficiency of which must be its constant
    concern (p.159). Machiavelli, Rousseau,
    Thucydides, Clausewitz.
  • In anarchy, there is no automatic harmony.
    Because some countries may be willing to use
    force to achieve their ends, and because there is
    no authority to prevent them from doing so, even
    peacefully inclined states must arms themselves.
    Goodness and evil, agreement and disagreement,
    may or may not lead to war.
  • War occurs because there is nothing to prevent
    it there is no automatic adjustment of interests
    among states and there is a constant possibility
    that conflicts will be settled by force (p.188).
  • A balance of power may exist because some
    countries consciously make it the end of their
    policies, or it may exist because of the
    quasi-autonomous reactions of some states to the
    drive for ascendancy of others. It is not so much
    imposed by statesmen on events as it is imposed
    by events on statesmen (p.209).

15
What Causes War?
  • Self-defense
  • Collective self-defense
  • Help a helpless 3rd party
  • Dissatisfied with status quo (Hitler and
    Versailles Treaty)
  • Nationalism/Jingoism
  • Perception of leaders (Galtieri, Hussein)
  • Preemptory strikes more effective, self-defense
    implications (Bush 43 and Iraq)
  • Religion
  • Conquest (outlawed by UN Charter)
  • Parityboth sides are evenly matched and think it
    would be possible to beat the other
  • Preponderanceone side really believes it can
    clean the other sides clock
  • Xenophobiaunites citizens

16
Prisoners dilemma
  • Two prisoners are accused of a crime.
  • If one confesses and the other does not, the one
    who confesses will be released immediately and
    the other will spend 20 years in prison.
  • If neither confesses, each will be released.
  • If both confess, they will each be jailed 5
    years.
  • They cannot communicate with one another.
  • Given that neither prisoner knows whether the
    other has confessed, it is in the self-interest
    of each to confess himself.
  • Paradoxically, when each prisoner pursues his
    self-interest, both end up worse off than they
    would have been had they acted otherwise
  • Demonstrates how many conflicts are caused by
    system-level factors, although all 3 levels of
    analysis offer insight into why war happens

17
What Promotes Peace?
  • Communication
  • Prisoners Dilemma
  • Interdependenceif you really need something from
    the other state, you cant risk war
  • Alliancescollective security mechanisms make
    aggressors less likely to attack
  • Liberal Democracy with transparency

18
25-27 First World Industrial Countries
  • USA, UK, France, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden,
    Spain, Portugal, Norway, New Zealand, Australia,
    Belgium, Austria, Denmark, Canada, Finland,
    Iceland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands,
    Ireland, Greece
  • Iffy Israel

19
Evolution of the 1st World
  • 1648 Treaty of Westphalia lays ground for the
    modern state with the principles of territorial
    integrity and government
  • All faced questions about the role of religion in
    politics
  • Industrial Revolution impacts countries, leads to
    social unrest/problems/basis for sociology

20
Industrial Democracies Similarities and
Differences
  • Similarities
  • Wealth 15K-30K GNP/person). Charles Hauss IDs
    wealth as reason for democracy
  • Evolution similar
  • Stability-- Dall (Yale) Polyarchy means
    different groups share power on different issues
  • Post-industrial (Service economy)
  • Post-materialist
  • Differences
  • Political systems
  • Economic systems range from USA market
    capitalism? protected capitalism in JPN ?
    socialism in SWE
  • Culture (GER, ITY, FRA, JPN have penchant for
    strong father state. Huntington claims culture
    makes democracybut if this is true, why are
    these countries different?
  • Foreign Policy orientations (sanctions on Iraq)

21
Post-Materialism(Ronald Inglehart, U-M)In the
industrial world, there are 2 kinds of people
  • Post-Materialist
  • Wealthy, well educated UC/MC
  • Concerned with environment, feminism, consumer
    protection, civil liberties, support peace
    movements.
  • They think about self-actualization
  • Materialist
  • Poor
  • Uneducated
  • Older, concerned with living from day to day

22
Western Europe
  • What is Western Europe?
  • Cultural distinction
  • Religion
  • Languages Slavic, Romantic, Germanic
  • Pre-iron curtain
  • Post-iron curtain
  • NATO
  • EU creates in/out division
  • Neutrals? Austria, Switzerland, Sweden
  • Borders Turkey? EU requires democracy and human
    rights
  • Legal systems based on Common Law, Roman Law,
    Napoleonic Code

23
Political Ideology Quick Review
  • Defn A coherent and consistent set of beliefs
    about who ought to rule, what principles rulers
    should obey, and what policies rulers ought to
    pursue
  • People regularly have inconsistent opinions
    (ex wanting to spend more on both national
    defense and welfare)

24
European Ideology
  • Classical Liberalism
  • Against State Intervention in Economy
  • Favors personal and economic liberty.
  • Would have supported free market and opposed
    government regulation of trade
  • Classical Conservatism
  • Pro-Status quo
  • Economic Inequality
  • Opposed excesses of French Revolution and its
    emphasis on personal freedom, wants to restore
    power of the State, Church, and aristocracy
  • Doesnt favor EUR integration
  • Thatcherite Conservatism different, more like
    American Conservatism

25
The Concept of Regime
  • Institutions and practices that typically endure
    from government to government
  • Iraqi regime removed 2003

26
Women in National Parliaments
27
Benjamin Barber Jihad v. McWorld
  • Fragmentation and Globalization compete
  • Tribal enclaves lure members
  • McDonalds and MNCs now have global operations
  • These two forces collide to produce catastrophe
    and anomie

28
Fareed ZakariaIlliberal Democracy
  • Most democracies before third wave of
    democratizations were liberal democracies
  • Protect civil liberties
  • Allow for free elections
  • Recent development only 1 of 2 present
  • Hong Kong civil liberties but no voting
  • Haiti voting but no civil liberties

29
The United Nations
30
History of the UN
  • Formed after the fall of the League of Nations
    which could not successfully rule as a governing
    body and WW II
  • Has the ability to maintain and deploy its member
    nations' armed forces as peace keepers.
  • The term "United Nations" was suggested by
    Franklin D. Roosevelt during World War II, to
    refer to the Allies.
  • From August to October 1944, representatives of
    France, the Republic of China, the United
    Kingdom, the United States, and the Soviet Union
    met to elaborate the plans at the Dumbarton Oaks
    Estate in Washington, DC. Those and later talks
    produced the framework of the UN (finalized in
    San Francisco)
  • Originally 51 member countries in 1945
  • Now over 200 members

31
UN Financing
  • Financed by two methods Assessed and Voluntary
  • Assessed is decided by how large and wealthy the
    member country is, therefore determining the
    amount of money it is able to allocate to the UN
    (decided when the UN makes its budget every two
    years).
  • There is a ceiling rate for countries so the UN
    is not dependent one country for its money. The
    ceiling rate is now 22. Only the United States
    meets this amount.

32
UN General Assembly
  • Meets in regular yearly sessions under a
    president elected from among the representatives.
  • Only UN organ in which all members are
    represented,
  • Serves as a forum for members to discuss issues
    of international law and make decisions on the
    functioning of the organization.
  • Begins on the third Tuesday in September and ends
    in mid-December
  • President elected at the beginning of each
    session
  • Hold special session under request of Security
    Council if majority of members or majority of a
    single member
  • Uniting for Peace Resolution has not been
    effective

33
Voting in the General Assembly
  • Voting -important questions
  • recommendations on peace and security election
    of members to organs admission, suspension, and
    expulsion of members budgetary matters
  • is by a two-thirds majority of those present and
    voting.
  • Other questions are decided by majority vote.
  • Each member country has one vote

34
Security Council
  • Security Council has the power to make decisions
    which member governments must carry out under the
    United Nations Charter.
  • decisions of the Council are known as UN Security
    Council Resolutions.
  • Presidency of the Security Council is rotated and
    lasts for one month.
  • Members must always be present at UN headquarters
    in New York so that the Security Council can meet
    at any timeweakness in League of Nations
  • president sets the agenda, presides at meetings
    and oversees any crisis - alternates in
    alphabetical order
  • Permanent Members (5) Republic of China, French
    Republic, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics,
    United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
    Ireland, United States of America
  • Elected Members.(10) elected to 2 year terms

35
The Secretariat
  • One of the main organs of the UN
  • Headed by the Secretary General, and other civil
    servants, and provides information for UN
    Assembly meetings. It also carries out tasks as
    directed by the UN Security Council, the UN
    General Assembly, the UN Economic and Social
    Council, and other U.N. bodies.
  • The United Nations Charter provides that the
    staff be chosen by application of the "highest
    standards of efficiency, competence, and
    integrity," with due regard for the importance of
    recruiting on a wide geographical basis
  • The Secretary Generals duties include
  • -helping resolve international disputes,
  • -administering peacekeeping operations,
  • -organizing international conferences,
  • -gathering information on the implementation of
    Security Council decisions, and
  • -consulting with member governments regarding
    various initiatives.
  • The Secretary General may bring to the attention
    of the Security Council any matter that, in his
    or her opinion, may threaten international peace
    and security.

36
Offices under the Secretariat
  • United Nations Office of the Secretary-General
  • United Nations Office of Internal Oversight
    Services
  • United Nations Office of Legal Affairs
  • United Nations Department of Political Affairs
  • United Nations Department for Disarmament Affairs
  • United Nations Department of Peacekeeping
    Operations
  • United Nations Office for the Coordination of
    Humanitarian Affairs
  • United Nations Department of Economic and Social
    Affairs
  • United Nations Department of General Assembly and
    Conference Management
  • United Nations Department of Public Information
  • United Nations Department of Management
  • United Nations Office of the Iraq Program
  • United Nations Office of the United Nations
    Security Coordinator
  • United Nations Office of the High Representative
    for the Least Developed Countries,
  • Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island
    Developing States
  • United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
  • United Nations Office at Geneva
  • United Nations Office at Vienna
  • United Nations Office at Nairobi

37
UN Secretaries General
  • Trygve Lie, Norway (1945-1953)
  • Dag Hammarskjöld, Sweden (1953-1961)
  • U Thant, Burma (1961-1971)
  • Kurt Waldheim, Austria (1972-1981)
  • Javier Pérez de Cuéllar, Peru (1982-1991)
  • Boutros Boutros-Ghali, Egypt (1992-1996)
  • Kofi Annan, Ghana (1997-2006)
  • Ban Ki-moon, South Korea (2006-present)

38
The International Court of Justice
  • Composition Rosalyn Higgins, President (United
    Kingdom) Awn Shawkat Al-Khasawneh,
    Vice-President (Jordan) Judges Raymond Ranjeva
    (Madagascar), Shi Jiuvong (China), Abdul G.
    Koroma (Sierra Leone), Gonzalo Parra-Aranguren
    (Venezuela), Thomas Buergenthal (US), Hisashi
    Owada (Japan), Bruno Simma (Germany), Peter Tomka
    (Slovakia), Ronny Abraham (France), Kenneth Keith
    (New Zealand), Bernardo Sepulyeda Amor (Mexico),
    Mohamed Bennouna (Morocco), Leonid Skotnikov
    (Russian Federation) Registrar Mr. Philippe
    Couvreur (Belgium).
  • There are always 15 judges on the court elected
    by members of the UN and the Security Council.
    Elected for 9 year-terms. Elections held every
    three years for one-third of the assembly.
  • Only one person per nationality and if the State
    is not presented by a justice in a case involving
    that State, the State can elect an ad hoc
    justice.
  • Nominees have to meet the requirements of their
    countrys requirements for their highest court of
    law, or can be jurists of recognized competence
    in international law.
  • Both countries must submit to ICJ jurisdiction
    (Case of Certain Norwegian Loans)

39
Charles Krauthammer The Unipolar Moment (1990)
(2002) (2006)
  • Thinking about post-Cold War US foreign policy
    has been led astray by three conventionally-accept
    ed but mistaken assumptions about the character
    of the post-Cold War environment.
  • (1) that the world is now multipolar, whereas it
    is in fact unipolar, with the USA the sole
    superpower, at least for present policy purposes
  • (2) that the US domestic consensus favors
    internationalism rather than isolationismKrautham
    mer admits he was wrong here
  • (3) that in consequence of the Soviet collapse,
    the threat of war has substantially diminished.
    Dangers may be smaller, but more widespread.
  • Krauthammer thought this unipolarity would last
    30 years or so.
  • Revisited in 2002 and 2006 Apogee
  • Halfway through the 30 years, still no alliances
    against U.S.
  • Some trouble being made by Iran, assisted by
    Russia/China
  • Economic concerns, debt, EU emerging, China
  • But no clear end in sight. Fewer state-on-state
    conflicts. Why?

40
Democratic Theory
  • Democratization Spread of democracy
  • Standards of democracy
  • Process versus outcome (Fareed Zakaria)
  • Procedural (Illiberal) versus substantive
    (liberal) democracy
  • Exclusiveness versus inclusiveness
  • Role of gender
  • Individualism versus communitarianism
  • Individualism Rights and liberties of individual
    are supreme
  • Communitarianism Welfare of the collective is
    most important
  • Three Waves of Democratization (Huntington)
  • But lets examine the causes of democracy before
    we get to Huntington

41
Causes of Democracy
  • Wealth. A higher GDP per capita correlates with
    democracy and the wealthiest democracies have
    never been observed to fall into
    authoritarianism. There is also the general
    observation that democracy was very rare before
    the industrial revolution. Empirical research
    thus lead many to believe that economic
    development either increases chances for a
    transition to democracy (modernization theory),
    or helps newly established democracies
    consolidate. Some campaigners for democracy even
    believe that as economic development progresses,
    democratization will become inevitable. However,
    the debate about whether democracy is a
    consequence of wealth, a cause of it, or both
    processes are unrelated, is far from conclusion.
  • Education. Wealth also correlates with education,
    though their effects on democratic consolidation
    seem to be independent. Better educated people
    tend to share more liberal and pro-democratic
    values. On the other hand, a poorly educated and
    illiterate population may elect populist
    politicians who soon abandon democracy and become
    dictators even if there have been free elections.
  • Fewer Natural Resources. The resource curse
    theory suggests that states whose sole source of
    wealth derives from abundant natural resources,
    such as oil, often fail to democratize because
    the well-being of the elite depends more on the
    direct control of the resource than on the
    popular support. On the other hand, elites who
    invested in the physical capital rather than in
    land or oil, fear that their investment can be
    easily damaged in case of a revolution.
    Consequently, they would rather make concessions
    and democratize than risk a violent clash with
    the opposition.
  • Capitalism. Some claim that democracy and
    capitalism are intrinsically linked. This belief
    generally centers on the idea that democracy and
    capitalism are simply two different aspects of
    freedom. A widespread capitalist market culture
    may encourage norms such as individualism,
    negotiations, compromise, respect for the law,
    and equality before the law. These are seen as
    supportive for democratization. By contrast, many
    Marxists would claim that capitalism is
    inherently undemocratic, and that true democracy
    can only be achieved if the economy is controlled
    by the people as a whole rather than by private
    individuals.

42
Causes of Democracy Contd
  • Social equality. Acemoglu and Robinson argued
    that the relationship between social equality and
    democratic transition should be nonlinear People
    have less incentive to revolt in an egalitarian
    society (Singapore), so the likelihood of
    democratization is lower. In a highly unequal
    society (South Africa under Apartheid), the
    redistribution of wealth and power in a democracy
    would be so harmful to elites that these would do
    everything to prevent democratization.
    Democratization is more likely to emerge
    somewhere in the middle, in the countries, whose
    elites offer concessions because (1) they
    consider the threat of a revolution credible and
    (2) the cost of the concessions is not too high.
    This expectation is in line with the empirical
    research showing that democracy is more stable in
    egalitarian societies.
  • Middle class. According to some models, the
    existence of a substantial body of citizens who
    are of intermediate wealth can exert a
    stabilizing influence, allowing democracy to
    flourish. This is usually explained by saying
    that while the upper classes may want political
    power to preserve their position, and the lower
    classes may want it to lift themselves up, the
    middle class balances these extreme positions.
  • Civil society. A healthy civil society (NGOs,
    unions, academia, human rights organizations,
    LINKAGE INSTITUTIONSMEDIA, POLITICAL PARTIES,
    ELECTIONS, INTEREST GROUPS) are considered by
    some theorists to be important for
    democratization, as they give people a unity and
    a common purpose, and a social network through
    which to organize and challenge the power of the
    state hierarchy. Involvement in civic
    associations also prepares citizens for their
    future political participation in a democratic
    regime. Finally, horizontally organized social
    networks build trust among people and trust is
    essential for functioning of democratic
    institutions.

43
Causes of Democracy contd
  • Civic culture. In The Civic Culture and The Civic
    Culture Revisited, Gabriel A. Almond and Sidney
    Verba conducted a comprehensive study of civic
    cultures. The main findings is that a certain
    civic culture is necessary for the survival of
    democracy. This study truly challenged the common
    thought that cultures can preserve their
    uniqueness and practices and still remain
    democratic.
  • Culture. It is claimed by some that certain
    cultures are simply more conductive to democratic
    values than others. This view is likely to be
    ethnocentric. Typically, it is Western culture
    which is cited as "best suited" to democracy,
    with other cultures portrayed as containing
    values which make democracy difficult or
    undesirable. This argument is sometimes used by
    undemocratic regimes to justify their failure to
    implement democratic reforms. Today, however,
    there are many non-Western democracies. Examples
    include India, Japan, Indonesia, Namibia,
    Botswana, Taiwan, and South Korea.
  • Human Empowerment and Emancipative Values. In
    Modernization, Cultural Change and Democracy,
    Ronald Inlgehart and Christian Welzel explain
    democratization as the result of a broader
    process of human development which empowers
    ordinary people in a three-step sequence. First,
    modernization gives more resources into the hands
    of people, which empowers capability-wise,
    enabling people to practice freedom. This tends
    to give rise to emancipative values that
    emphasize freedom of expression and equality of
    opportunities. These values empower people
    motivation-wise in making them willing to
    practice freedom. Democratization occurs as the
    third stage of empowerment it empowers people
    legally in entitling them to practice freedom. In
    this context, the rise of emancipative values has
    been shown to be the strongest factor of all in
    both giving rise to new democracies and
    sustaining old democracies. Specifically, it has
    been shown that the effects of modernization and
    other structural factors on democratization are
    mediated by these factors tendencies to promote
    or hinder the rise of emancipative values.
    Further evidence suggests that emancipative
    values motivate people to engage in
    elite-challenging collective actions that aim at
    democratic achievements, either to sustain and
    improve democracy when it is granted or to
    establish it when it is denied.

44
Causes of Democracy contd
  • Homogeneous population. Some believe that a
    country which is deeply divided, whether by
    ethnic group, religion, or language, have
    difficulty establishing a working democracy. The
    basis of this theory is that the different
    components of the country will be more interested
    in advancing their own position than in sharing
    power with each other. India is one prominent
    example of a nation being democratic despite its
    great heterogeneity.
  • Previous experience with democracy. According to
    some theorists, the presence or absence of
    democracy in a country's past can have a
    significant effect on its later dealings with
    democracy. Some argue, for example, that it is
    very difficult (or even impossible) for democracy
    to be implemented immediately in a country that
    has no prior experience with it. Instead, they
    say, democracy must evolve gradually. Others,
    however, say that past experiences with democracy
    can actually be bad for democratization a
    country, such as Pakistan, in which democracy has
    previously failed may be less willing or able to
    go down the same path again.
  • Foreign intervention. Some believe that foreign
    involvement in a democratization is a crucial
    factor in its success or failure. For some,
    foreign involvement is advantageous for
    democracythese people believe that democracy
    should be actively promoted and fostered by those
    countries which have already established it, and
    that democracy may not otherwise take hold.
    Others, however, take the opposite stance, and
    say that democratization must come "from the
    bottom up", and that attempts to impose democracy
    from the outside are often doomed to failure. The
    most extreme form is military intervention to
    create democracy, with advocates pointing to the
    creation of stable democracies in Japan and
    Germany (disputed) 12 after WWII, while critics
    point out, for example, the failures of
    colonialism and decolonization to create stable
    democracies in most developing nations, where
    dictators often quickly took power after a brief
    democratic period following independence.
  • Age distribution. Countries which have a higher
    degree of elderly people seems to be able to
    maintain democracy, when it has evolved once,
    according to a thesis brought forward by Richard
    P. Concotta. When the young population (defined
    as people aged 29 and under) is less than 40, a
    democracy is more secure.

45
Samuel Huntington, The Third Wave (1991)
  • 3 Waves of Democratization
  • The first one brought democracy to Western Europe
    and Northern America in the 19th century. It was
    followed by a rise of dictatorships between
    1918-1939.
  • The second wave began after World War II, but
    lost steam between 1962 and the mid-1970s.
  • The latest wave began in 1974 and is still
    ongoing. Democratization of Latin America and
    post-Communist countries of Eastern Europe is
    part of this third wave.
  • Recall Zakarias article on Illiberal
    Democraciesmostly 3rd wave
  • Two-turnover test determines if consolidation is
    complete

46
Causes of The Third Wave
  • Loss of legitimacy of authoritarian regimes due
    to increased popular expectation of periodic and
    competitive election, and/or poor economic
    performance or military failure.
  • Growth in global economic output helped modernize
    many less developed economies. Economic
    modernization, which includes structural changes
    like increased rates of urbanization, education,
    and a rising middle class, unleashes a
    constellation of social forces with the
    organizational capacity and education to press
    for democratic governance.
  • Changes in the Catholic Church brought about by
    Vatican II emphasized individual rights and
    opposition to authoritarian rule. This shift in
    world view was especially important for the
    Catholic countries of the Mediterranean and Latin
    America, as well as the Philippines, Poland and
    Hungary.
  • Regional Contingency Factor (Snowball effect. For
    Soviet equivalent see Domino Theory), also known
    as demonstration effects, happens when success of
    democracy in one country causes other countries
    to democratize.
  • External factors, most notably the efforts to
    spread democracy by the European Union and the
    United States.

47
Democratization as a Policy Goal
  • Increased democratization in recent times
  • Linked with economic development and education
    levelmore investment in education, consumer
    products
  • Classic question Does economic liberalization
    precede or follow political liberalization
  • Attitudes Freedom is not always the first
    priority of citizens
  • Inevitability? Francis Fukuyama

48
Francis Fukuyama, The End of History and the
Last Man (1992)
  • The end point of mankind's ideological evolution
    and the universalization of Western liberal
    democracy as the final form of human government.
  • Fukuyama's thesis consists of 2 main elements
  • The empirical argument Since the beginning of
    the 19th Century, there has been a move for
    States to adopt some form of liberal democracy as
    its government.
  • The philosophical argument Fukuyama examines the
    influence of thymos (or human spiritedness). His
    argument is democracy hinders risky behavior.
    Enlightened rational thought shows that the roles
    of master and slave are unsatisfying and
    self-defeating and hence not adopted by lofty
    spirts. This type of argument was originally
    taken up by Hegel and John Locke.

49
Problems With Spreading Democracy
  • Many countries are not ready
  • May hinder a countrys economy
  • Different standards of democracy (if illiberal
    democracy is adopted, may never get liberal)
  • Limited public support in many areas due to
    perception of government corruption, lack of
    education (Democracy requires educated citizenry)

50
Democracy, Foreign Policy, Security
  • The new global standard of acceptable governance?
  • Implications for world politics
  • Foreign policy success
  • Democracies more successful at war (but is this a
    tautology?)
  • Women and political participation
  • Democratic Peace Theory-- Democracies Are
    Unlikely to Fight Each Other

51
Criticisms of Democratic Peace Theory
  • Peace is an anomalywar the normal condition
  • Democracies are not always peaceful
  • What about the United States and its war record?
  • Feminists would argue need for positive peace

52
Francis FukuyamaThe End of History and the Last
Man (1992)
  • "What we may be witnessing is not just the end of
    the Cold War, or the passing of a particular
    period of post-war history, but the end of
    history as such that is, the end point of
    mankind's ideological evolution and the
    universalization of Western liberal democracy as
    the final form of human government.
  • But not so fast.

53
Clash of CivilizationsSamuel Huntington (1991)
  • After the Cold War, what are we going to fight
    about? Democracies generally have same western
    values, rarely fight each other
  • People's cultural and religious identities will
    be the primary source of conflict in the
    post-Cold War world.

54
Samuel Huntington,Clash of Civilizations (1992)
  • World politics is entering a new phase, in which
    the great divisions among humankind and the
    dominating source of conflict will be cultural.
  • Civilizations-the highest cultural groupings of
    people-are differentiated from each other by
    religion, history, language and tradition. These
    divisions are deep and increasing in importance.
  • The fundamental source of conflict in this new
    world will not be primarily ideological or
    primarily economic. The great divisions among
    humankind and the dominating source of conflict
    will be cultural. Nation states will remain the
    most powerful actors in world affairs, but the
    principal conflicts of global politics will occur
    between nations and groups of different
    civilizations. The clash of civilizations will
    dominate global politics. The fault lines between
    civilizations will be the battle lines of the
    future.
  • In this emerging era of cultural conflict the
    United States must forge alliances with similar
    cultures and spread its values wherever possible.
    With alien civilizations the West must be
    accommodating if possible, but confrontational if
    necessary.
  • In the final analysis, however, all civilizations
    will have to learn to tolerate each other.

55
Huntingtons Civilizations
56
Analysis of Huntington
  • Rejected by most scholars in the 1990s
  • After the September 11, 2001 attacks, Huntington
    has been increasingly regarded as having been
    prescient in light of
  • The United States invasion of Afghanistan.
  • The 2002 Bali Bombings.
  • The 2003 Invasion of Iraq.
  • The 2004 Madrid train bombings.
  • The 2006 cartoon crisis.
  • The 2005 London bombings.
  • The ongoing Iranian nuclear crisis.
  • The 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict.
  • The 2008-09 Israel-Gaza conflict.

57
The Breakup of Yugoslavia The Aftermath
58
Benjamin Barber Jihad v. McWorld (1992)
  • Fragmentation and Globalization compete
  • McDonalds and MNCs now have global
    operationsproduce and sell products around the
    world.
  • World smaller than everinterconnected by
    internet, telecommunications
  • Tribal enclaves lure members
  • These two forces collide to produce catastrophe
    and anomie

59
Fareed ZakariaIlliberal Democracy (1997)
  • Most democracies before 1960 were liberal
    democraciestwo characteristics
  • Protect civil liberties
  • Allow for free elections
  • Recent development only 1 of 2 present
  • Examples
  • Haiti
  • Singapore
  • Hong Kong

60
Paul KennedyThe Rise and Fall of Great Powers
(1988)
  • Kennedy Great powers eventually fall, usually
    after imperial overstretch
  • Examples Rome, British Empire
  • Such Declinists worry U.S. is guilty of
    overstretch too and will pay a price as a
    resultloss of Pax Americana
  • Critics Lax Americana more dangerous than Pax
    Americana. America MUST be involved to keep the
    world secure.
  • Social Overstretch more of a danger The idea
    that spending money on altruistic social welfare
    programs to support the least productive people
    in society financially drains that economy.

61
Learning Objectives
  • Define democracy
  • Explain variations in democracies in different
    countries
  • Define rule of law
  • Describe characteristics of civil society and
    civic culture
  • Outline support for and exceptions to the
    hypothesis that capitalism and affluence are
    prerequisites of democratic political cultures
  • Outline the development of democratic states in
    Western Europe since the 18th century
  • Define political legitimacy and explain its
    role in democratic civil societies
  • Explain the roles of social capital and tolerance
    in democratic civil societies
  • Outline the characteristics of the types of
    political parties found in Western democratic
    states
  • Describe characteristics of presidential and
    parliamentary regimes
  • Explain the primary roles of bureaucracies in
    democratic regimes
  • Define and apply the concept of an integrated
    elite
  • Describe an interventionist state and its
    primary characteristics
  • Define feedback within the context of political
    systems

62
Learning Objectives
  • After mastering the concepts presented in this
    chapter, you will be able to
  • Describe and define state, nation, regime, and
    government.
  • Understand the definition of a nation-state.
  • Gain introductory knowledge of the process of
    comparative political analysis.
  • Comprehend the difference between globalization
    and imperialism.
  • Recognize the essence of political system and
    system theory and be able to apply this theory in
    comparative analysis.
  • Describe the input-output process of political
    system operation.
  • Identify roles and positions of states and
    nation-states in international politics.
  • Explain the applicability of the international
    political economy.
  • Understand the three-way classification of states
    and regimes.
  • Define the fundamentals of the public policy and
    the process of its analysis.

63
Learning Objectives
  • describe comparative politics as a field of
    political science.
  • explain at least one rationale for comparing
    political systems.
  • explain why generalizations and theories are
    goals of comparative politics.
  • describe how comparativists use scientific
    method.
  • define state in the context of comparative
    politics.
  • explain why the state is a focus of comparative
    politics in this textbook.
  • distinguish between the types of states
    described in this chapter and offer examples of
    the types.
  • recognize and offer initial definitions of
    other core concepts identified in the chapter.
  • describe a generic political system and label
    its most important elements.
  • identify historical, contemporary, domestic,
    and global factors that determine basic patterns
    of politics and government.

64
Learning Objectives
  • After mastering the concepts presented in this
    chapter, you will be able to
  • Gain knowledge of democracy as a political
    system.
  • Become aware of the latest electoral results and
    their impact on political realities in the USA,
    Great Britain, France and Germany.
  • Understand concepts and criteria of democracy,
    such as rights, elections, the rule of law, civil
    society and capitalism in the free market.
  • Define liberal and liberalism.
  • Describe and define the origins of the democratic
    state empowered by the evolution of political
    thoughts on democracy.
  • Differentiate between philosophical positions of
    Thomas Hobbes and John Locke.
  • Recognize the process of democracy building
  • Understand the challenges of democratization.
  • Define and explain legitimacy and the process of
    political legitimization.
  • Comprehend the role of political parties in
    political system.
  • Identify different political ideologies and
    recognize the difference between left and right
    political ideologies and parties.

65
Learning Objectives
  • Classify leading political parties in France,
    Germany and Great Britain. Understand political
    positions of Liberals, Radicals, Social Democrats
    and Christian Democrats.
  • Define catch-all political parties.
  • Understand postindustrialism and post materialism
    and their affect on the development of the
    political system.
  • Recognize mechanisms of party dealignment and
    realignment.
  • Describe interests groups and understand factors
    contributing to the political protest.
  • Recognize differences between presidential and
    parliamentarian forms of government and their
    impact of government formation, duration,
    stability and effectiveness.
  • Define cabinet responsibility and vote of
    confidence in parliamentarian systems.
  • Recognize the role of bureaucracy. Define the
    law of iron triangle.
  • Describe the process of public policy formation
    and implementation.
  • Define the interventionist state.
  • Understand challenges of economically liberalized
    democratic state.
  • Describe the impact of foreign policy on
    international relations.
  • Recognize balances that democratic states should
    achieve to be more effective and efficient.

66
Learning Objectives
  • After mastering the concepts presented in this
    chapter, you will be able to
  • Discuss the summary of the book, including the
    summary of the current economic and political
    situation in the world.
  • Understand the definitions and components of
    crisis, danger, and globalization.
  • Comprehend the basics of global warming
    challenges in the contemporary world.
  • Define the concept of interdependence in the
    process of globalization.
  • Recognize the key elements of the historical
    formation and impact of imperialism.
  • Understand the concept of challenges in the way
    of thinking.
  • Discuss differences between zero-sum and
    positive-sum outcomes.
  • Gain complete understanding of the whole book and
    recognize the importance of studying politics and
    international affairs, especially in comparative
    prospective.
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