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Advanced Placement European History


Advanced Placement European History Spring 2015 Review Drill A – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Advanced Placement European History

Advanced Placement European History Spring
2015 Review Drill A
This ideology arose in response to the American
War of Independence and the French Revolution.
Its adherents viewed society as an organism that
changes (or ought to change) very slowly over the
generations. Mercantilism Conservatism Nationa
lism Liberalism
He is best known for his book The Protestant
Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, in which he
proposed that ascetic (austere) Protestantism,
was one of the major reasons that created both
market-driven Capitalism and the Industrial
Revolution Graham Wallas Alexis de Tocqueville
Charles Darwin Max Weber
In addition to her fear of even a defeated
Germany, the French also feared American and
British economic penetration the loss of more
territory Communism Little Entente
The Paris Peace Talks and the Treaty of
Versailles satisfied no one treated the
defeated Central Powers justly placed the United
States in the forefront of World
affairs satisfied only France, Japan and Italy
He was a rival to and murdered by
Mussolini Giacomo Matteotti Éamon de Valera
Giuseppe Mazzini Giuseppe Garabaldi Camilo
  • If a person traveled from west to east in Europe
    in the eighteenth century the more likely it
    would be that he would see
  • rotten boroughs
  • more clearly defined and responsible nobility
  • people bound to the land
  • the putting out system

In 1922, this Irish author wrote Ulysses, in
which the episodes of Homer's Odyssey are
paralleled in an array of contrasting literary
styles, including stream of consciousness. The
novel explores the squalor and monotony of life
in a Dublin slum with characters paralleling
Odysseus, Penelope and Telemachus.
Thomas Mann James Joyce George Bernard
Shaw Ernest Hemingway
  • Robert Owen
  • believed that society should be managed by
    experts and that wealth not be redistributed
  • inspired Pierre Joseph Proudhon and the Anarchist
    movement of the 1840s
  • was the architect who rebuilt Paris for Napoleon
  • built a successful industrial environment at New
    Lanark, Scotland

The ___________________was the period lasting
from accession of Augustus to the death of Marcus
Aurelius in 180 C.E. Republic Pax Romana Punic
Wars Period of the Kings
His seminal work, Principles of Geology
(published 1830-1833 in three volumes), embraced
the idea of Uniformitarianism or the idea that
the earth was shaped by processes that are still
in operation today. William Paley Herbert
Spencer Charles Darwin Charles Lyell
The Hohenzollerns turned which of the following
states in a major European power? Prussia Hungar
y Spain France Austria
  • Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of
    the Late Middle Ages?
  • The Conciliar Movement
  • Plentitude of Power
  • The Mini Ice Age
  • The Theory of Forms

He was an English Romantic poet who believed that
the artists imagination was God at work in the
mind and said that the imagination was a
repetition in the finite mind of the eternal act
of creation in the infinite I AM. . Samuel
Taylor Coleridge Johann Gottfried Herder Victor
Hugo Lord Byron
  • Protestant reformers in the Sixteenth Century
    tended to do all of the following except
  • oppose the celibate life for clergy
  • encourage basic education
  • oppose monasticism
  • view marriage as a degraded state of life

  • Modern European feminism emphasizes
  • political equality
  • womens control over their own lives
  • economic equality
  • political and legal equality

  • The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748.
  • precipitated the War of Jenkins ear
  • outlawed the importation of slaves into the
    New World
  • ended the War of the Austrian Succession
  • forced Prussia to give up its possessions in
    the Holy Roman Empire

  • When the British Fabian Socialists, Beatrice and
    Sidney Webb, spoke of a new civilization in the
    1920s and 1930s, they were referring to (the)
  • Soviet Union
  • Fascist Italy
  • Ramsay MacDonalds Labor Government
  • Nazi Germany

  • The Congress of Victors in 1934
  • enforced the Dekulakization policies of Stalin
  • invited Lincoln Steffens to address the congress
  • were mostly purged by Stalin
  • gave support to the expulsion of Trotsky from the

Which is the most accurate statement about the
Crimean War? Both sides had well-equipped
armies After the war, stability prevailed in
Europe for decades The European Question was
solved Piedmont gained some political advantages
In his efforts in opposition to the Atlantic
Slave Trade, he was hailed as a 'Renewer of
Society', and, until his death in 1833, was known
as the conscience of Parliament. William
Wilberforce Julio Fandiño John
Trenchard the Earl of Bute
  • As a result of the Hampton Court Conference,
  • Parliament ordered the arrest and eventual
    execution of the Duke of Buckingham
  • Parliament passed the English Bill of Rights
  • The English Civil War of 1642-1646 broke out
  • Anglican and Puritan distrust accelerated
  • Queen Elizabeth came to the throne

Which of the following statements best describes
the school of Impressionism? Impressionists mostl
y portrayed religious, mythological and
historical subjects sought the Platonic ideal of
perfection were inspired by imagination,
folklore, fairy tales, dreams and other phenomena
in opposition to that of empirical reasoning
recorded ordinary people at dance halls, cafes,
beach parties, working in the fields or
picnicking in the country
French Protestants/Calvinists were
called Congregationalists Huguenots Stadhol
ders Puritans Jansenists
The Falangists or supporters of Franco opposed
the Spanish Popular Front triumphed in the
1936 Italian elections supported the Anschluss
in Austria demanded that ethnic Germans be
allowed to separate from the Sudetenland in
Most philosophes in the Age of Enlightenment
favored Nationalism Existing
monarchies American/British style democracy
French revolutionary democracy
The years from 1919 to 1939 marked the Age
of the Great Depression Capitalism Philoso
phy Anxiety
Jaccuse, an 1898 open letter accusing the French
government of anti-Semitism in the unfair trial
of Alfred Dreyfus, was written by Adolphe
Thiers Georges Boulanger Emile
Zola Patrice McMahon
Nineteenth century liberals wanted to extend
liberties to the peasant and urban working
classes opposed the ideas of John Locke opposed
the ideas of Adam Smith believed in advancement
in society based on talent and achievement but
did not favor full democracy.
Aristotle favored polity by which he meant
that a ruler with complete authority should have
power in a state. honor and honesty were far
more important than money or fame or political
power. the world we live in is not the only
world, because our world is a pale and imperfect
reflection of a perfect world that the rule of
law should limit popular sentiment.
In his book, The Birth of Tragedy, Nietzsche
claimed that
to limit human activity to strictly rational
behavior was to impoverish human life. the
study of Socrates and the ancient philosophers
held the key to understanding human societal
evolution accommodations with modernism were
possible the certainty of a better life was
  • Existentialism can best be defined as
  • resistance to the expansion of classical
  • continuation of the revolt against reason that
    began in the nineteenth century.
  • the extension of Hegelian philosophy and faith
    in the power of human reason.
  • return to the Reformational values of

The three nations who partitioned Poland in the
late eighteenth century were Prussia, France,
Ottoman Empire Great Britain, Austria,
Russia France, Prussia, Austria Russia,
Prussia, Austria
  • At the Peace of Augsburg in 1555
  • the prince of any principality determined the
    religion of his principality
  • official recognition was given to both
    Anabaptists and Calvinists
  • Maurice of Saxony supported Charles V
  • the Protestant princes refused to attend and were

French economic reformers such as Francois
Quesnay and Pierre Dupont de Nemours were known
as phisiocrats philosophes autocrats
  • The Old Regime or Ancien Régime
  • was a term that applied to the nobility only
  • was found only in Great Britain
  • was a series of social relationships bound by
  • ignored the peasants

In 1923, Adolph Hitler and his followers
attempted the Beer Hall Putsch whose purpose was
to kill Jews overthrow the German
government throw France out of the Saar
Basin repudiate the Locarno Treaties
A series of important liberal reforms were
enacted by the Catholic Church at the Vatican
II Council of the mid 1960s at the Vatican I
Council of the mid 1860s before the 1950s
at the urging of popes Leo XIII and Pius X
In March 1939, Adolf Hitler signed a
non-aggression pact with Poland sent German
soldiers into the Rhineland occupied Prague
set up the Vichy government in unoccupied
Modern European Existentialism (Europes
philosophy of the twentieth century) has its
roots in the thought of Nietzsche
and Hegel Kierkegard Kant Locke
In 1935, what nation did Benito Mussolini attack
and make an Italian colony in spite of objection
from the League of Nations?
  • Greece
  • Spain
  • Albania
  • Ethiopia
  • Libya

Thales of Miletus, Benjamin Franklin and
Alessandro Volta all experimented with
  • ammonia
  • electricity
  • steam
  • bacteria
  • genetics

Up until 1850, most education in Europe took
place in church run schools literacy was
widespread in all of Western Europe Romanticism
was more important in scientific thought that
Rationalism the popes refused to have any
dialogue with the Italian government
The Jansenists opposed the teachings of St.
Augustine opposed Jesuit teachings about free
will were supported by Pope Innocent X were
defended by Louis XIV and Louis XV
In 1588 at the Battle of Gravelines, the
English finally drove the French from
Calais produced the Bill of Rights won the
Seven Years War defeated the Spanish Armada
Unlike the First World War, what factor led to
the bitterness of the Thirty Years
War? Catholic Protestant hatred growing
nationalism Louis XIVs desire to control
Europe the Defenestration of Prague
To raise money to build a new St. Peters
Basilica in Rome, his famous pitch line was As
soon as a coin in the coffer rings, the soul from
purgatory springs. Julius II Martin
Bucer Thomas Cranmer Johann Tetzel
Which of the following was not a motive of
Nineteenth Century Imperialism? Economics Colo
nization Technology Culture
During the Marburg Colloquy (meaning conversation
or dialogue) of 1529, Luther and Zwingli could
not agree on Clerical Celibacy Justification
by Faith Alone Cuius regio eius religio
The nature of the Eucharist
Stalin did all of the following
except exterminate Kulaks develop Five Year
Plans continue Lenins New Economic Policy
collectivize agriculture carry out
unprededented purges of opponents both real and
The Reformation Parliament of Henry VIII did all
of the following except passed laws to dominate
the clergy recognized Henry as head of the
Church in England made Henry the highest court
of appeal for all Englishmen sanctioned the
execution of Queen Catherine
When Hitler attacked Poland on September 1, 1939,
the Soviet Union came to Polands
defense made an alliance with France and Great
Britain surrounded the Baltic countries of
Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia appealed to the
League of Nations
In her Charter of the Nobility, she defined the
rights and privileges of the nobility in exchange
for their loyalty and service to the state. These
rights included heredity transferring of noble
status, power over their serfs and exemption from
taxes Maria Theresa Catherine the
Great Catherine de Médicis Christina of
Sweden Bloody Mary
William Whewell of Cambridge University in
England first coined the word _____________ to
describe those who studied the physical world in
growing numbers in French, German and British
literacy Positivism scientist phisiocrat
Why did Luther not support the Peasants
Revolt? Luther felt no pity for their harsh
treatment by the German nobility The peasants
supported Charles V and the old Catholic
prince-bishops Luthers view of Reformation was
not political but spiritual Luther was afraid
that the Catholic party would win if he backed
the peasants.
The latter half of the nineteenth century saw the
rise of (the) _____________ or White Collar
Workers which included secretaries, retail clerks
and lower level bureaucrats. Professional
Class Petite Bourgeoisie Captains of
Industry Proletariat
Restrictions on clothing, food, and luxury items
are all examples of the Vingtième Banalités th
e English Game Laws Sumptuary Laws Ghetto life
  • 1871 1918
  • F.D.R.
  • Winston Churchill
  • Adolf Hitler
  • Pearl Harbor
  • Josef Stalin

  • Plato and Aristotle both
  • felt that Philosopher Kings should rule
  • favored Polity or a Constitutional Government
    dominated by members of the middle class
  • developed the idea that rulers themselves are
    both the guardians of the law and subject to the
  • despised tyranny and mob rule and wanted a just
    and stable society.

  • Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès
  • thought that Napoleon could be used for his own
    political purposes
  • proposed a Holy Alliance of Prussia, Austria,
    Britain and Russia whereby the monarchs of those
    nations would promise to act together in
    accordance with Christian principles.
  • advised Tsar Alexander to withdraw from the
    Continental System and prepare for War.
  • negotiated the Treaty of Schöenbrun which
    humiliated Austria and set up Napoleons marriage
    to Marie Louise.

  • In the long term, the Columbian exchange
  • brought a lasting decline in population because
    of the ravages of diseases such as smallpox.
  • had very little influence on world population
  • led to economic instability because of a glut of
    Chinese silver.
  • increased world population because of the spread
    of new food crops.

  • The Petition of Right of 1628
  • forbade taxation by the king without the
    permission of Parliament
  • attempted to collect taxes from the nobility by
    forcing property owners to pay a forced loans to
    the government
  • laid the basis for Magna Carta
  • reflected a deep distrust of Oliver Cromwell and
    his Parliamentary forces

He was a racialist writer who in 1899, wrote The
Foundations of the Nineteenth Century, in which
he championed the concept of biological
determination through race but also believed that
through genetics the human race could be improved
and that even a superior race could be developed.
Theodor Herzl Karl Lueger Houston Stewart
Chamberlain Paul Lagarde
  • In France, Nobles of the Robe gained their rank
  • military service
  • service in the Church
  • serving in the bureaucracy
  • industrial achievement

In May 1871, Adolphe Thiers negotiated the
________________ with Prussia, which obligated
France to pay a large indemnity and turn over
Alsace and Lorraine to Germany. Treaty of
Gastein Treaty of Frankfurt Treaty of
Plombières Treaty of Paris
In his book, Reflections on Violence, George
Sorel stated that
bureaucratization (the creation of bureaucracies)
was alien to the modern way of life people do
not pursue rationally perceived goals but a led
to action by collectively shared
ideals. bureaucracies constitute the most
efficient and rational way in which human
activity can be organized race was the most
important index of human potential
He was elected pope at sixty-eight and reigned
for 25 years. He sought to make accommodations
with the modern age and address the great social
questions of the time. He defended private
property, condemned socialism and Marxism and
said that employers were obligated to treat their
employees fairly. His most important work was
Rerum Novarum.
Pope Pius IX Pope Leo XIII Pope Pius X Pope
Pius XI
In 1815, this Serbian leader began the Second
Serbian Uprising. In 1817, he was defeated by the
Ottomans but gained partial autonomy for most of
Serbia. In 1830, he became head of an independent
Serbia Filiki Eteria Kara George Muhammad
Ali Miloš Obrenovitch
  • The Korean War resulted in
  • an overwhelming victory for U.S.-backed South
  • an overwhelming victory for U.S.-backed North
  • an encouragement of the U.S. policy of
  • a discouragement of the U.S. policy of

  • The Revolution of 1905
  • led to Bloody Sunday
  • was caused by the Tsar dissolving the Duma
  • caused the Russo-Japanese War
  • led to the establishment of the Duma

The French political thinker and historian,
Alexis de Tocqueville
praised the leaders of the French Revolution was
a conservative who despised both Romanticism and
liberalism criticized de Gobineau for his racial
theories Wrote The Foundations of the Nineteenth
  • The Edict of Nantes in 1598
  • established universal religious toleration
  • gave Huguenots qualified religious freedom
  • gave Lutherans religious Freedom
  • settled the French Spanish border dispute

In Arms and the Man (1894 the title taken from
the first words of the Roman poet Vergils
Aeneid) and Man and Superman (1903), he heaped
scorn on the romantic ideals of love and war. and
in Androcles and the Lion (1912), he pilloried
Christianity and in a currently edited out
Preface, he stated that the teachings of Jesus of
Nazareth were lost at his crucifixion.
Charles Dickens J. J. Thompson George Bernard
Shaw John Maynard Keynes
In spite of the strong contrast in motivation and
economics, the leaders of the American and French
Revolutions used the liberal philosophy of what
treatise of John Locke to justify the armed
overthrow of tyrannical rule? Leviathan The
Wealth of Nations Ninety Five Theses Two
Treatises of Government
Which two of the following were NOT among the
three pillars of Nicholas I of Russia?
Autocracy Orthodoxy Republicanism Nationalism
  • Eisenhower endorsed the Domino Theory which held
  • that communism would die out on its own.
  • the Chinese under Mao would challenge the Unequal
    Treaty status imposed upon them by Moscow
  • the Marshall Plan had been a failure.
  • if one state in a region came under the influence
    of communism, then the surrounding countries
    would follow.

  • Søren Kierkegaard
  • supported Vatican II
  • supported Karl Barth and orthodox Lutheranism
  • said that the truth of Christianity was found in
    the lives of those who had faced extreme
    situations, not in creeds or doctrines
  • became popular when an Anglican Bishop, John
    Robinson, published Honest to God.

  • Josephine Butler campaigned against
  • The Contagious Diseases Acts
  • Virginia Woolf
  • The Psychoanalytic Movement
  • The Revolution in Physics
  • The Bloomsbury Group

  • The Council of Trent, which lasted from 1545 to
    1563, successfully
  • reached a compromise between Luther and Calvin.
  • played a key role in Henry VIII's break with the
    Catholic church.
  • took steps to reform the Catholic church.
  • launched the Society of Jesus (the Jesuits).

Louis XIVs view of the monarchy was influenced
by his experience of the revolt known as
the Parlement Fronde Taille Jaquerie
The economic basis of eighteenth century life
was regional trade international trade the
land industry and manufacturing guilds
He believed that behind the development of human
history from one period to the next lay the mind
and purpose of what he called the World-Spirit, a
concept not unlike the Christian God. Immanuel
Kant John Wesley Lord Byron Georg Hegel
This leader of the Counter Reformation wrote
Spiritual Exercises and founded the Society of
Jesus. Charles V Ignatius Loyola John
Calvin Cardinal Caspar Contarini
  • The Social Darwinists believed that
  • a sharp distinction had to be made between the
    biological and social worlds.
  • only a socialist political and social structure
    would keep humans from destroying themselves.
  • powerful nations were meant to dominate weaker
  • human beings had reached the point where
    competition among nations was no longer

In the great Kitchen Debate of 1959,
_____________________ debated luxuries vs. real
needs, but it were clear that the West, led by
the United States had the highest standard of
living in the world. Stalin and
Churchill Churchill and Stalin Eisenhower and
Khrushchev Nixon and Khrushchev
Between 1859 and 1893 Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos
all fell under the control of Great
Britain Japan France Germany
This theory stated that information derived from
logical, mathematical principles and sensory
experience was the only source of knowledge.
Natural Selection Positivism Utilitarianism Poi
In his book, Leviathan, he argued that people
were nasty, greedy and selfish and needed a
strong, strict governmental to keep them under
control. John Locke Thomas Hobbes Rene
Descartes Voltaire
The chief victim of late nineteenth century
European imperialistic expansion
was Russia India Africa Australia
_________________ coined the expression The Lost
Generation. Gertrude Stein Ernest
Hemingway F. Scott Fitzgerald Karl Barth
The Modern Devotion Movement of the late
fifteenth century was a religious movement that
stressed all of the following except individual
piety practical religion education
monastic life
  • Charles de Montesquieu
  • was the first professor of Arabic and Islamic
    studies at the University of Paris.
  • blamed Islam for the fall of both the Roman and
    Byzantine Empires.
  • associated Islamic society with a passivity that
    he attributed to peoples subject to political
  • wrote Turkish Embassy Letters, in which he
    praised Ottoman society especially its practice
    of vaccination against smallpox.

  • The initial driving force in Luther formulating
    the Ninety-Five Theses was
  • his excommunication from the Roman Catholic
  • the sale of indulgences.
  • the rise of secular humanism during the High
    Middle Ages
  • the influence of John Calvin.

In the Sixth Century, he managed to obtain the
obedience of all western bishops, was a skilled
theologian, and emphasized the authority of the
Church over its members, as in stressing the
sacrament of penance. Urban II Hugh
Capet Gregory I John XII
Which of the following best expresses the idea of
Social Darwinism
Argument from design We need a critique of moral
values the value of these values themselves must
first be called into question. The dream is the
disguised fulfillment of a wish justice is
nothing else than the interest of the stronger
He was a French novelist and playwright whose
most famous work was La Comédie Humaine, which
presents a panorama of French life in the years
after the fall of Napoleon Bonaparte. Balzacs
stories showed French life in such accurate
detail with such multifaceted and amoral
characters that he is regarded even more than
Dickens as one of the founders of European
Claude Bernard Émile Édouard Zola Gustave
Flaubert Honoré de Balzac
The German offensive of 1914 aimed at Paris was
halted at the Marne the Somme Verdun Capore
After the 1648 Treaty of Westphalia that ended
the Thirty Years War, _____________emerged as
Europes dominant power France Prussia Engla
nd The Holy Roman Empire
The basic challenge facing the Hapsburg Empire
after 1648 was Lack of Resources Political
and Ethnic Diversity Weak and incompetent
rulers The rising power of England
The first real Prime Minister of Great Britain
was James Edward Stuart William Pitt the
Younger Robert Walpole The Duke of Buckingham
  • In France, Nobles of the Sword gained their rank
  • military service
  • service in the Church
  • serving in the bureaucracy
  • industrial achievement