West Virginia University Laboratory Training Module 3. General Laboratory Safety - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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West Virginia University Laboratory Training Module 3. General Laboratory Safety


West Virginia University Laboratory Training Module 3. General Laboratory Safety Topics to be covered Contacting the Safety Department Incident Reporting Electrical ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: West Virginia University Laboratory Training Module 3. General Laboratory Safety

West Virginia UniversityLaboratory Training
Module 3. General Laboratory Safety
Topics to be covered
  • Contacting the Safety Department
  • Incident Reporting
  • Electrical Safety
  • Laser Safety
  • Centrifuge Safety
  • Housekeeping
  • Personal Protective Equipment
  • Cryogenic Liquids

1. Contacting the Safety Department
  • The Health Sciences Center Safety Department is
    located at g139 of the Health Sciences Center.
  • If at any time you feel there is any type of
    safety related issue please contact the safety

2. Incident/injury Reporting
  • Incident reporting is the most effective way for
    the safety department to gage the effectiveness
    of its safety program. Therefore, by reporting
    all incidents no matter how insignificant they
    may seem will aid the safety department in
    ensuring a safe working environment for you and
    your coworkers.

Hurt at WorkYou've carefully thought out all
the angles.You've done it a thousand times.It
comes naturally to you.You know what you're
doing, its what you've been trained to
do your whole life.Nothing could possibly go
wrong, right ?
Think Again!
How do I report an Incident/Injury?
  • Supervisors or Principal Investigators are
    responsible for completing Incident / Injury
    report forms. If the supervisor or principal
    investigator does not possess this form, one may
    be printed from WVUs Environmental Health and
    Safety home page at http//www.wvu.edu/ehs

3. Electrical Safety
  • All areas on the West Virginia University campus
    at some points utilize electricity. The goal of
    electrical safety is to educate you on the
    importance of the hazards involved with
    electricity and the precautions and some simple
    rules to follow to avoid becoming a victim of
    those hazards.

  • The hazards associated with electricity come from
    the direct contact that results in current flow
    through an inappropriate conductor, the human
    body, or from excessive heating by current flow
    through a conductor with a greater resistance
    than expected. In basic terms the hazards are
    electrocution or fire. Most electrical accidents
    result from unsafe equipment, unsafe environment,
    and unsafe work practices.

Shock and Electrocution
  • Direct contact with electricity can cause
    electric shocks that can result in death by
    electrocution. The human body is a good
    conductor and when the body is exposed to
    electric current the muscles and nerves of the
    human body are electrically stimulated. The
    muscles will attempt to contract at the same
    frequency as the electric current. The muscle of
    the diaphragm will clamp and you will stop
    breathing and the heart will go into fibrillation
    and stop beating. Death is most likely to occur
    in the 100 to 300 mA current range.

Effects of electric current in the human body
  • Below 1 milliampere Not perceptible.
  • 1mA Tingle.
  • 5mA Slight Shock.
  • 6-25mA women Painful Shock and Let- go
  • 9-30mA men Let-go range (Individual cannot
    let go).
  • 50-150mA Extreme pain, Death possible.
  • 1000-4300mA Death Likely.
  • 10,000mA Cardiac arrest, Death.

Electrical Fires
  • The most common cause of laboratory fire is worn
    or damaged power cords. An exposed cord can burn
    or heat objects in contact with them to their
    flash point.

Electrical Fire Prevention
  • Take the time to do it right the first time
  • When needed request electrical repairs and
    changes that are necessary
  • Never try to fix electrical equipment.
  • Keep water and electricity separated
  • Do not stretch electrical cords across aisles or
  • Do not use extension cords as a substitute for
    wiring additions or changes.
  • Do not use electrical equipment that has worn or
    damaged power cords.

Electrical Fire Prevention
  • FUSESBefore removing any fuse from a circuit,
    be sure the switch for the circuit is open or
    disconnected. When removing fuses, use an
    approved fuse puller and break contact on the hot
    side of the circuit first. When replacing fuses,
    install the fuse first into the load side of the
    fuse clip, then into the line side.
  • Lockout/TagoutElectrical power must be removed
    when electrical equipment is inspected, serviced,
    or repaired. To ensure the safety of personnel
    working with the equipment, power is removed and
    the equipment must be locked out and tagged out.

Personal Protective Equipment
  • Employees who work directly with electricity
    should use the personal protective equipment
    required for the job which may include rubber
    insulating, gloves, hoods, sleeves, matting,
    blankets, line hose, and industrial protective

4. Laser Safety
  • A laser should be isolated from areas where the
    uninformed and curious would be attracted by its
    operations. Doors should be closed or locked to
    keep out unqualified personnel. Signs should be
    posted to keep out unqualified persons.

Work Area Safety Practices
  • The illumination in the area should be as bright
    as practicable in order to constrict the eye
    pupils of users.
  • The laser should be set up so that the beam path
    is above or below normal eye level (below 4.5ft
    or above 6.5ft.).
  • Where practical, the laser system or beam should
    be enclosed to prevent accidental exposure to the
  • The potential for specular reflections should be
    minimized by shields and by removal of all
    unnecessary shiny surfaces.

Work Area Safety Practices continued
  • Windows to hallways or other outside areas should
    be provided with adequate shades or covers.
  • The main beams and reflected beams should be
    terminated or dumped. This is required for any
    accessible laser for which the MPE limit could be
  • Electrical installation must meet electrical
    safety standards. The active laser shall not be
    left unattended unless it is part of the
    controlled environment.
  • Good housekeeping should be practiced to ensure
    that no specular reflector is left near the beam.
  • Warning devices should be installed for lasers
    with invisible beams to warn of operation.

Laser Use Safety Practices
  • Avoid looking into the primary beam at all times.
  • Avoid looking at the pump source.
  • Before operating the laser, warn all personnel
    and visitors of the potential hazard, and ensure
    all safety measures are satisfied.
  • Be very cautious around lasers that operate at
    frequencies not visible to the human eye.
  • Do not wear bright, reflective jewelry or other
  • Use proper eye protection when working with a
    Class III, or Class IV laser.
  • Clothing such as gloves and covers for the
    forearms may be required to protect the skin if
    laser intensity and wavelength warrant such

5. Centrifuge Safety
  • Always inspect the centrifuge prior to use. This
    will ensure that you are not harmed and equipment
    is not damaged.
  • Always follow the manufacturers instructions for
    operation and maintenance.

Centrifuge Safe Operating Procedures
  • Lids shall be closed at all times during
  • The operator shall not leave the centrifuge until
    full operating speed is attained and machine
    appears to be running safely without vibration.
  • If vibration occurs the centrifuge should be
    stopped immediately and load balances checked.
    Swing-out buckets should be checked for clearance
    and support.
  • Rooms where potentially hazardous biological,
    radioactive materials, toxic or other hazardous
    chemicals are centrifuged must be identified by
    the appropriate warning signs.

Centrifuge Safe Operating Procedures Continued
  • Plastic centrifuge tubes should be discarded
    after one cycle of ultracentrifugation.
  • Nitrocellulose tubes should be used only when
    transparent and flexible (fresh). They must never
    be heated because of explosive possibility.
  • Rotors and cups should be cleaned and disinfected
    after each use with non-corrosive cleaning
    solutions (mild detergent and distilled water are
    recommended). Test tube brushes must not be used
    for cleaning the cup cavities. All traces of
    detergents should be removed prior to air drying.

6. Housekeeping
  • By maintaining a neat, orderly work area, you
    will greatly reduce hazards in the lab.

Good Housekeeping Practices
  • Put items back where they originated from
    promptly when you are done using them.
  • Stay organized! Do not let papers and materials
  • Maintain clean counters and floors.

Lab Hygiene
  • There is a definite relationship between
    housekeeping and safety!

Lab Hygiene
  • Individual Items to Look For
  • 1.Excessive amounts of chemicals in work areas -
    Hoods and bench tops.
  • 2. Old, outdated, unused equipment and chemicals
    cluttering up the work area
  • 3. Floor Storage
  • 4. Blocked exits / equipment / controls
  • 5. Visual assessment of hoods and other safety
  • 6. Are special hazards marked?

7. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
  • Anything that is used to protect a person from
  • Latex or Nitrile gloves, goggles, CPR mouth
    barriers, aprons, respirators

PPE Rules to Remember
  • Always check PPE for defects or tears before
  • If PPE becomes torn or defective remove and get
  • Remove PPE before leaving a contaminated area
  • Do not reuse disposable equipment

8. Cryogenic Liquids
  • Because of the extremely low temperatures of
    cryogenic liquids and their vapors, direct skin
    or eye contact can result in severe damage to
    tissues similar to burn injuries.

Handling Procedures for Cryogenic Liquids
  • Face shield and/or safety goggles to protect
  • Suitable dry gloves to protect hands. Gloves
    should be loose fitting so that quick removal is
    possible if liquid should splash into them. Even
    with gloves, contact with cold liquids should be
    for a very brief time.
  • Suggested protective clothing may consist of,
    depending on hazard, rubber aprons, overalls
    without pockets or cuffs, and hightop shoes to
    protect against skin contact in the event of a
    splash or spill.

Cryogenic Liquid Ventilation
  • Cryogenic liquids should be stored and handled in
    well- ventilated areas to prevent excessive
    buildup of gas concentration. These should never
    be used in closed environmental chambers.

Transfer of cryogenic liquids from storage vessel
  • Attach a 1 to 3 foot length suitable hose that
    has a phase separator in place to the control
    valve located on the top of the storage vessel.
  • All transfers must be made into an appropriate
    container. Any funnelsused must be stainless
    steel. If the receptacle is glass, it should
    beshielded to protect the person making the
    transfer from possible implosive fragmentation of
    the flask.

Transfer of Cryogenic Liquids from Storage Vessel
  • Do Not Use A Household Thermos. They are not
    designed for holding cryogenic liquids and will
  • Withdraw liquid slowly at first because the
    interior of the flask may still be at room
    temperature and rapid boil off will occur.

Disposal of Cryogenic Liquids
  • Evaporation in a well-ventilated area, from a
    well-anchored and approved container is the best
    method of disposal of cryogenic liquids.

Oxygen (b.p. -183oC)
  • Oxygen can be condensed out of the air by
    cryogenic fluids which boil at a sufficiently low
    temperature (e.g. nitrogen, b.p. -195oC). For
    this reason care must be exercised in disposing
    of the final residue of an open container of
    liquid nitrogen since it may be oxygen rich.

Emergency/First Aid Procedures for Cryogenic
  • Rapidly rewarm contact area by immersion in warm
    water (100-110oF), with body heat, or warm air.
    this procedure is the opposite of the procedure
    for a burn injury which is to rapidly cool the
    contact area).
  • Do not rub or massage the affected area.
  • Prevent infection by cleansing with mild soap and
  • Notify supervisor and then proceed to the
    Emergency Room.

Hey, Jeff, wheres your lab coat and whats in
the mystery beaker?
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