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Part 5. Social Development

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Title: Part 5. Social Development


1
Part 5. Social Development
2
Development of Basic Emotions
  • General pattern of basic emotional development
  • Newborn startle, disgust (bitter taste),
    distress (pain), indigenous smile
  • 2-3 months anger, interest, surprise, sadness,
    social smile
  • 6-7 months fear of heights, fear of strangers

3
Development of Basic Emotions
  • Crying
  • hungry cry
  • vocalization, pause, intake air, pause,
  • angry cry
  • stronger vocalization, pause, intake air, pause,
  • pain cry
  • longer vocalization, longer pause, ...
  • Factors affecting crying
  • full stomach
  • room temperature
  • being naked
  • violent, sudden stimulation
  • locked into an object
  • too exciting
  • noise, music

4
Development of Basic Emotions
5
Development of Basic Emotions
  • Social stimuli
  • peek-a-boo
  • Visual stimuli
  • disappearing toy
  • sticking out tongue
  • Tactile
  • blowing on hair
  • Auditory
  • horse-whinnying sound

6
Development of Basic Emotions
  • Factors affecting basic emotional development
  • biological factors
  • evolution
  • brain

7
Development of Basic Emotions
  • Factors affecting basic emotional development
  • social factors
  • social referencing (about 6 months)
  • the intentional search for emotional information
    from an adult to help determine how to act in an
    uncertain situation

8
Attachment
  • Postpartum depression (first few months)
  • evolutionary function
  • Fear of strangers
  • about 7 months
  • Attachment to caregivers
  • from 7 months
  • a close relationship between two persons,
    characterized by mutual affection and a desire to
    maintain close proximity

9
Attachment
  • Phases of attachment development
  • preattachment (0-2 months)
  • indiscriminate social responsiveness
  • attachment in the making (2-7 months)
  • recognition of familiar people
  • clear-cut attachment (7-24 months)
  • separation protest, fear of strangers
  • goal-corrected partnership (24 months on)
  • mutual relationships (children understand
    parents need

10
Attachment
  • Attachment to caregivers
  • stranger situation (8 episodes)
  • introduction (30 seconds)
  • mother baby (3 min.)
  • mother, baby, stranger (3 min.)
  • baby stranger (3 min.)
  • mother baby (first reunion, 3 min.)
  • baby alone (3 min.)
  • stranger baby (3 min.)
  • mother baby (second reunion, 3 min.)

11
Attachment
  • Types of attachment
  • secure attachment (70)
  • explore with mother
  • upset when mother leaves
  • greets contacts mother when she returns
  • outgoing with stranger when mother is present

12
Attachment
  • Types of attachment
  • insecure resistant attachment (10)
  • reluctant to explore the stranger environment,
    anxious about it
  • very upset when mother leaves
  • continues to be upset when mother returns
  • do not seek contacts when mother returns
  • wary of stranger when mother is present

13
Attachment
  • Types of attachment
  • insecure avoidant attachment (20)
  • uninterested in exploring the stranger
    environment
  • little distress when mother leaves
  • avoid contacts when mother returns
  • not wary of strangers, ignore them

14
Attachment
  • Critical period of attachment
  • between 7 and 24 months of age
  • imprinting
  • high stability
  • long-term impact
  • family relationship
  • romantic relationship
  • friendship

15
Attachment
  • Factors affecting attachment
  • Harlows animal studies
  • warmth versus food
  • developmental studies
  • parental depression
  • social support and anxiety-prone infants

16
Attachment
  • Factors affecting attachment
  • developmental studies
  • mothers own attachment history
  • autonomous mother-secure child
  • mother has no unresolved concerns and thus is
    sensitive to childs need
  • dismissing mother-insecure avoidant child
  • mother reluctant to acknowledge her own
    attachment needs and thus insensitive and
    unresponsive to those of children
  • preoccupied mother-insecure resistant
  • mother confused about her own attachment history
    and thus inconsistent in her interaction with her
    child

17
Development of Self
  • Emergence of self concept
  • The rouge task
  • By about 2 years of age, children begin to
    recognize themselves in the mirror and become
    self conscious about their image and behavior in
    public

18
Development of Gender Concept and Gender Role
  • Gender concept role
  • Phase 1
  • ability to identify oneself
  • Phase 2
  • the knowledge that gender remains stable over
    time
  • gender stereotypical and typical behaviors
  • Phase 3
  • gender constancy
  • more strict gender typical and stereotypical
    behaviors

19
Gender Issues in Child Development Factors
  • Biological factors
  • Neurological factors
  • Bio-chemical factors
  • Social factors
  • Parental, Peer/Teachers, Media

20
Development of Morality
  • Kohlberg's theory
  • Assumptions
  • Children move to higher stages as age increases
  • Invariant sequence
  • Each stage forms a structural whole
  • The stages are universal
  • Measurements
  • Moral dilemmas

21
Kohlberg's Theory
  • Preconventional level
  • Stage 1 obedience punishment orientation
    (motivated by avoidance of punishment and
    conscience is irrational fear of punishment)
  • Stage 2 reward orientation (motivated by desire
    for reward or benefit. Possible guilt reactions
    are ignored and punishment is viewed in a
    pragmatic manner)

22
Kohlberg's Theory
  • Conventional level
  • Stage 3 good boy morality (social approval)
  • Stage 4 authority social order (motivated by
    anticipation of dishonor or institutionalized
    blame for failure of duty)

23
Kohlberg's Theory
  • Postconventional level
  • Stage 5 moral principles (concern about
    maintaining respect of equals and of the
    community based on reason, not emotion)
  • Stage 6 individualized conscience (concern about
    self-condemnation for violating ones principles)

24
Development of Morality
25
  • Thats it, folks. Good luck with your exam.
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