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Women and Work


Women and Work 1880s-Present Day Women and work before World War One The largest group of women workers were in domestic service. They often worked long hours and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Women and Work

Women and Work
  • 1880s-Present Day

Women and work before World War One
  • The largest group of women workers were in
    domestic service. They often worked long hours
    and lived in the homes of their employers.

  • A large number of women worked in the textile

  • Many women were employed in 'sweated industries'
    like shirt making, nail making and shoe
    stitching. Working hours were long and pay was
    very low

  • Women began to find work in offices. The
    invention of the typewriter and the telephone
    played an important part in this.

  • A growing number of women went to university.
    More women began to enter the professions e.g.
    there were 477 female doctors by 1911.

  • Working women were paid less than men even if
    they did the same jobs.
  • It was rare for middle and upper class women to
    work. They were expected to marry then look after
    their children and their home.

  • Women and The First World War

  • Women did the jobs of men who were fighting in
    the war.
  • Women did important work in munitions factories

  • Women worked in service jobs e.g. public
    transport, farm work, nursing and the Civil

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  • Women's pay increased during the war.
  • Many women lost their jobs when the war ended and
    men returned home.

Inter-War Period
  • Women were better educated as a result of the
    Education Acts of 1902 and 1918. There were more
    job opportunities for women in the 1920's and
    1930's due to better education. Many women found
    work as clerks, teachers and nurses.
  • Industries changed. Many women found work in the
    new light industries e.g. making electrical
  • The Sex Disqualification Act of 1919 made it
    easier for women to go to university and enter
    the professions. Middle class women benefited
    from increased job opportunities.
  • .

  • The Marriage Bar prevented many women from
    staying at work after marriage. The civil service
    did not allow women to work after marriage.
  • Working conditions in the home remained very
    hard. Cleaning, washing and cooking took up a
    great deal of time. New electrical appliances
    such as washing machines and vacuum cleaners
    slightly improved the working conditions of
    housewives in the 1930s.
  • By the 1930s about one third of women in Britain
    worked outside the home. One tenth of married
    women worked

  • Women and work
  • After World War Two

  • Women carried out vital war work during World War
    Two. Many women learned skills which helped them
    to find work after the war was over.
  • Light industries such as electronics continued to
    grow and provided many job opportunities for
  • Service industries such as banking grew and
    provided many jobs for women.

  • Many women were employed in shop work.
  • Many women found work in the new welfare services
    set up in the 1940s. Large numbers of women found
    jobs in the National Health Service.
  • By the 1960s, 38 of married women worked.
  • Women were paid less than men even if they did
    the same jobs

  • Women and work - the fight for equality

  • Many employers were against equal pay for women.
    They were afraid of losing money.
  • Many trade unions were against equal pay for
    women. They believed that equal pay would lower
    mens wages.
  • Some jobs introduced equal pay for women before
    others. Women's wages in the civil service and
    teaching matched mens wages by 1961.

  • The Equal Pay Act was passed in 1971. Men and
    women were to be paid the same wage for doing the
    same work.
  • The Sex Discrimination Act was passed in 1975.
    Women were to treated in the same way as men in
    education, housing and employment.
  • Despite changes in the law women in Britain are
    still employed in less skilled and lower paid
    jobs than men. Many women are expected to work
    and look after a home at the same time.
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