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Issues and challenges Empowerment of women in India

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Indian Women-stepping stones. paving their way. through times. Reproductive and productive roles ... The Constitution of India recognises equality of right of women; ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Issues and challenges Empowerment of women in India


1
Issues and challenges- Empowerment of women in
India
  • Ms. Latha Reddy, Ambassador of India

2
Approach to the Presentation
  • Section I Background
  • Section II- Institutional and policy environment
  • Section III- Issues, challenges, strategies and
    way forward

3
Section I
  • Background

4
Indian Women-stepping stones
  • paving their way
  • through times

5
Reproductive and productive roles
Multi-tasking-A balancing act
6
Section II
  • Institutional and policy environment

7
Internationally agreed MDGS
  • Goal 3-Promoting gender equality and empowerment
    of women
  • Goal -5 Improving maternal health

8
Key International conventions on women adopted by
India
  • Beijing platform for Action adopted at the fourth
    world conference on Women in 1995-accepted by
    India
  • CEDAW ratified in 1993

9
National laws and policies on Women
  • The Constitution of India recognises equality of
    right of women
  • one-third of seats reserved for women in the
    urban and local self-government
  • free and compulsory education - a justiciable
    fundamental right for all children between 6-14
    years
  • National Commission for Women- 1992
  • The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence
    Act-2005
  • National Policy for the Empowerment of Women-2001

10
Panchayati rajA system that can get village
communities things that they need
  • drinking water,
  • electricity
  • and teachers in the schools
  • doctors and vets,
  • and get the bridges and culverts repaired
  • and direct the resources to areas of critical
    requirements

11
Women in decision making
12
Women in Civil Service
13
Indian Women in public life
H.E Mrs. PratibhaPatil President of India
Sanya Mirza- Tennis
First woman Officer from Indian police Service
Peace keeping in UN mission
14
Section III
Issues, challenges and strategies Way forward
15
Economic empowerment of Women- Issues
  • Womens work in India
  • Invisible, unrecognised and unremunerated
  • 31 of Indian workers are women
  • 96 of women are in unorganised sector.
  • Feminisation of poverty
  • An estimated 20 of rural households are de facto
    female headed (widowhood, desertion, or male
    out-migration)
  • 36 of women workers are poor

16
Some positive impacts of globalisation
  • Mobile revolution
  • The proportion of women in the IT industry
    constitutes about 20 of total IT work force.

17
Negative impacts of globalisation on women
  • food security and livelihood concerns
  • more migration and illegal trafficking
  • EPZs target women as primary work force
  • relocation of communities
  • informalisation of work- sub-contracting and
    outsourcing
  • Conditions of work in EPZs uncongenial
  • Bio-piracy

18
Strategies towards economic empowerment
  • Dejure to defacto empowerment
  • Macro level
  • WTO negotiations on agriculture
  • Royalty payments for traditional knowledge
    stewarded by women (IPRs)
  • Laws to prevent sexual harassment at workplace
  • to enforce legislation -congenial work
    environment and fair living wages

19
Strategies at meso and micro levels
  • Gender mainstreaming
  • Gender budgeting- partnering with UNIFEM
  • Gender disaggregated statistics
  • Micro level
  • Self-help groups
  • Microfinance

20
Some strategies to tackle challenges of
globalisation
  • Utilize opportunities of improved communication
  • Be change agents
  • Accept life-long learning
  • Create employment programs

21
Social empowerment Women and education

educate a man and you educate an individual
educate a woman and you educate a family
22
Women and education- gender development indicators
23
Impact of globalisation on womens education
  • Privatisation of basic education
  • rising costs of education,
  • Greater drop out rates for girls
  • A skewed labour market unfavourable to women

24
Social empowerment strategies
  • Socio-cultural attitudes
  • Participation of men and not just women
  • Balancing the allocation of expenditure
  • Imparting legal literacy
  • Teachers training
  • Public-private partnerships
  • Improving infrastructure Reducing teacher
    absenteeism
  • Supportive Media- women journalists
  • Ensure that greater resources are allocated for
    education- gender budgeting

25
Women and healthSome indicators
26
Strategies for womens health
  • improving the rate of institutional deliveries
  • Training of primary health care workers
  • Improving health infrastructure
  • assistance for first two live births for women
    below poverty line and above 19 years of age.
  • User charges - above poverty line
  • Universal health insurance schemes
  • Greater allocation of resources
  • Private public partnerships

27
Political empowerment of Women- issues
  • Breaking traditional orthodoxy- A challenge
  • Elected women- proxies ? dummy surrogates?
  • Women left to serve vested interests?
  • lack capacity -illiteracy
  • Power brokering

28
Political empowerment strategiesInstitutional
policies not enough
  • Sensitisation workshops to
  • Negotiate institutional rights
  • Electoral reforms
  • Civil society can help push the way forward
  • International cooperation and partnerships

29
Good governance at all levelsThe way forward
  • demand from women for better governance.
  • Women must become more effective in navigating
    institutional barriers,
  • be skilled in demanding accountability from
    public actors,
  • be able to expose corruption and other
    governance failures and
  • to respond to violations of their rights.
  • a political constituency to negotiate for their
    rights.

30
Tennyson
The old order changeth yielding place to new-
the old order gradually makes way for the new
order
31
Thank you
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