FUNDAMENTALISM, ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALISM AND DIFFERENT TYPES OF JIHAD - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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FUNDAMENTALISM, ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALISM AND DIFFERENT TYPES OF JIHAD

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Title: FUNDAMENTALISM, ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALISM AND DIFFERENT TYPES OF JIHAD


1
FUNDAMENTALISM,ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALISMAND
DIFFERENT TYPES OF JIHAD
2
INDEX
  • What is fundamentalism?
  • How did the term fundamentalism begin?
  • What is Islamic fundamentalism?
  • What is Jihad?
  • What is offensive Jihad?
  • What is defensive Jihad?

3
WHAT IS FUNDAMENTALISM?
  • Fundamentalism is the literal dogmatic
    interpretation of the sacred texts (or their
    equivalent, outside a religious context) that is
    based on these fundamental precepts (typically
    religious, but not limited to) and rejecting any
    contrasting ideology.

4
HOW DID THE TERM FUNDAMENTALISM BEGIN?
  • Historically, the term was born in 1909 with the
    North American Protestantism, which opposed the
    theories of theological liberalism.
  • Initially, the key concepts regarding
    fundamentalism were those of a conservative,
    closed and restricted view of society
    exclusiveness, isolation, antagonism,
    defensiveness, but also, conversely, aggressive
    against anyone who is not aligned. The term was
    also used towards people who belonged to the same
    ideological group but maintained a non radical
    behavior and attitude, were moderate, open to
    compromise or would advocate a non-restrictive
    interpretation of religious truth.
  • The term fundamentalism, which originally
    referred to the Protestant world, was replaced in
    the '50s when the major members of the religious
    sect decided to officially change the name.
  • This term has spread into common usage to
    identify all those points of view - of thought
    and practice in the religious world - who insist
    on a literal interpretation of sacred texts such
    as the Bible or the Koran, and who have
    anti-modernist movements in their respective
    religions.

5
WHAT IS ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALISM?
  • The term "fundamentalism" can be traced to the
    noun used by the militants asasiyyun (from the
    Arabic asas "basis, foundation") since the
    birth of the Shiites in the Islamic Republic of
    Iran.
  • The definition of Islamic "fundamentalism" -
    often used by the mass media - is neither more
    nor less than a tautology, because of the
    difficulty the Islamics have in accepting a way
    of life in which the mixture between religious
    and worldly aspects is not, by definition,
    "fundamental".
  • The Muslims want to give an interpretation of the
    world based on a link between religious precepts
    and social order, the state, and ultimately the
    power, contained in the expression din wa dunya,
    in other words "religion and the world."
  • For a Muslim believer disbelief" means to
    reserve the expression of personal faith in a
    private sphere of his own conscience, without
    influencing and shaping the outside world on it.

6
WHAT IS JIHAD?
  • Jihad is an Arabic word, (gihad in Arabic ????)
    which comes from the root ltg-hdgt that means
    "exerting maximum effort."
  • The word connotes a wide range of meanings, from
    the inner spiritual struggle to draw on a perfect
    faith up to the holy war. The term refers to one
    of the fundamental institutions of Islam.
  • Today, the term is used in many circles as if it
    had an exclusively military dimension. Even
    though this is the most common interpretation of
    Jihad, it is noteworthy that the word is not
    strictly used in this context in the Koran, the
    sacred text of Islam. It is also true, however,
    that the word is used in several Hadith contexts
    in both the military and non-military sense.

7
WHAT IS OFFENSIVE JIHAD?
  • The offensive Jihad is to wage a war of
    aggression and conquer all non-Muslims in order
    to submit them and their territories to Islamic
    rule.
  • According to many interpretations including the
    Encylopedia of the Orient, "the offensive Jihad,
    in other words the attack, is fully accepted by
    Sunni Islam", but unlike the defensive Jihad,
    individual Muslims arent forced to participate,
    while the Muslim community as a whole is.

8
WHAT IS DEFENSIVE JIHAD?
  • Most Muslims consider the armed struggle against
    foreign occupation or oppression by an internal
    government worthy of defensive Jihad. In fact, it
    seems that the Koran demands the military defense
    of the Muslim community under siege.
  • In the colonial era the Muslim population rose up
    against the colonial authorities under the Jihad
    flag Dagestan, Chechnya, the Indian revolt
    against Great Britain (Indian Rebellion of 1857)
    and the Algerian war of independence against
    France.
  • In this sense, the defensive Jihad is no
    different from the right of armed resistance
    against occupation, which is recognized by the UN
    and international law.
  •  

9
CREDITS
  • Bibliography
  • http//www.treccani.it/vocabolario/fondamentalismo
    /
  • http//www.sapere.it/enciclopedia/fondamentalismo.
    html
  • http//www2.bodoni.pr.it/5bareaprogetto/html/fonda
    ment2.htm
  • http//www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/i-fondamentali
    smi-nel-mondo-contemporaneo_(XXI-Secolo)/
  • Group Ciulin Manuel, Ferrari Davide, Ferrazzo
    Michael, Iacumin Jessica, Polonio Giulia
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