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ISLAMIC EXTREMISM

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Title: ISLAMIC EXTREMISM


1
ISLAMIC EXTREMISM INTERNATIONAL
TERRORISM
  • BY
  • GEORGE AKKLEQUIST
  • JOINT TERRORISM TASK FORCE
  • SAN FRANCISCO
  • FBI

2
INSTRUCTIONAL GOALS
  • 1. Upon completion of this block of instruction,
    students will possess a basic understanding of
    the Islamic faith
  • 2. Students will understand how the dynamics of
    Islam effect all aspects of International
    Terrorism today, to include effective
    investigative/intelligence strategies regarding
    interviewing asset recruitment and asset
    development.

3
UNDERSTANDING ARABIC CULTURE
4
Purpose of Presentation
  • To familiarize the student/interviewer with the
    Arabic culture.
  • To suggest communication techniques and effective
    interrogation strategies in dealing with a
    subject from this culture.

5
ARABIC TERMS - discussed in this session
  • Jahilia
  • Barakat - Barakate
  • Jamaat E Tableigh
  • Mahdi
  • Ahl El Beit
  • Sahaba
  • Ansar
  • Shia
  • Sunni
  • Wahabi
  • Muslim Brotherhood
  • Mosque - Masjid
  • Mohammed
  • Ali
  • Abu Bakr

6
Understanding A Culture
To understand a culture, we must first
understand the beliefs and values of the
people. Remember - One of every six people on
this planet is a Muslim!
7
CORRECT PRONUNCIATION
  • Muslim - long S U sound - not a Z sound
    Muslim not Muzlim
  • Islam - the same - Islam not Izlam
  • Mosque - better word is Masjid or Janeh

8
HISTORY OF ISLAM
9
ERA BEFORE MOHAMMAD
  • Paganism - Tribalism
  • Jahilia or al Jahilyya - defined as the
    period of ignorance in the years before the
    Prophet Mohammed
  • Incredible cruelty toward female newborns
  • Other abominations

10
ISLAM - THE ORIGINMECCA
  • The Prophet Mohammad was born in 570 AD -Mecca in
    Saudi Arabia.
  • In 610 AD, Mohammad received the first verses
    (God/Allahs message) now contained in the Koran
    or Quran from the angel Gabriel.
  • Over the course of the following 22 years
    Mohammad received further revelations.
  • Mohammad died in 632 AD.
  • Muhammad received the verses in Arabic.

11
ISLAM - THE ORIGINMEDINA
  • Mohammad and his followers were forced to flee to
    Medina
  • Mohammad continued to receive the Arabic verses
  • However, beginning in Medina the tenor of the
    Koran takes on a more Jihadic/warlike/adversarial
    tone toward the enemies of Islam - Jews and
    Christians

12
ISLAM - HISTORY
  • Second only to the Koran is the Sunnah or Ahadith
  • Composed of Hadiths - Islamic accounts into
    Mohammad's life
  • Provides Muslims with a window into Mohammad's
    life

13
SCHISM IN ISLAM
  • Shia Muslims vs Sunni Muslims
  • Shia Muslims or Shiites are followers of
    Mohammad's cousin/son-in-law Ali.
  • Sunni Muslims follow the teachings of Abu Bakr,
    who died in 634.
  • Alis sons, Husain and Hassan were killed by
    Sunni forces in Karbala, Iraq in 680.

14
SUNNI SUB-SECTS
  • Wahabi - Saudi Arabia - Usama bin Laden is a
    Wahabi Muslim
  • Mahadi - Sudan Libya Algeria
  • Hanafi - Pakistan
  • Hanbali - Pakistan

15
WAHABI SUNNI
  • Traditionalists/Conservative - many terrorists
    evolve from this sect
  • Anything outside Koran is unacceptable.
  • Wahabi Sunnis control the Koran - UBL
  • Saudi Arabia is populated primarily by Wahabi
    Sunni.
  • Jesus, to a Wahabi, is a general who will someday
    come and lead them against the infidels.
  • Christians have elevated Jesus to a god - Muslims
    believe him to be a prophet.

16
SHIAS/SHIITES
  • Also believe strongly in the tenets of Islam
  • More spin room - believe in the ability of the
    Imams to interpret the Koran
  • More gray areas within the teachings of the Koran
    than that which the Sunnis believe
  • Less stringent - more interpretation
  • The Koran says what the clerics say it says.

17
THE ARAB MIND
18
Arabic Values
  • A persons dignity, honor and reputation are of
    paramount importance.
  • It is important to behave at all times in a way
    which will create a good impression.
  • Loyalty to ones family takes precedence over
    personal needs, but not when it comes to Islam,
    the religion and the tasking.

19
Arabic Beliefs
  • All things in life are controlled by God.
  • Children are the jewels of the family.
  • Wisdom increases with knowledge of Koran.
  • Inherent roles/tasking and responsibilities of
    men and women are vastly different.
  • In the Koran, men are tasked to teach daughters
    to swim, ride a horse and handle a weapon. Women
    take care of the next generation of soldier.

20
Understanding Arabic Culture
  • An Arab is a person who speaks Arabic or who
    otherwise identifies with the culture and history
    of the Arab people.
  • Arabic culture and the Islamic faith are
    inseparable.
  • Islam is the most dominating, single influence in
    the Arab world , the second largest religion,
    and the worlds fastest growing religion.

21
THE ARAB MIND
  • Formulated by
  • Language
  • Geography
  • Food lack of water
  • Attire
  • Customs and traditions
  • Family and tribal affiliation
  • Islam

22
ISLAMTHE FIVE PILLARS
  • 1. Testimony/confession or shahadah - recited
    once daily and is the belief in the oneness of
    God and that Muhammad is his prophet
  • 2. Prayer or salat - 5 times a day and must
    face east toward Mecca, Saudi Arabia
  • 3. Charity or zakat - giving of alms. 2.5 of
    assets
  • 4. Fasting or sawm - Behavior during the
    Islamic holy month of Ramadan Ninth month of the
    lunar calender, usually November
  • 5. Pilgrimage or haj/hajj/hadj - all Muslims
    must travel to Mecca once in their lives

23
MUSLIM NATION - 1.6 billion Muslims worldwide
  • ARAB SUNNIS
  • 80 - Saudi Arabia - majority
  • Sunnis - 1 billion - 9 in 10
  • ARAB SHIA/SHIITES
  • 20 of Muslim population
  • Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia
  • Shias - 170 million
  • NON-ARAB SUNNIS/AJAMI
  • Turkey, Pakistan, Afghanistan, other stans,
    Indonesia - huge population
  • NON-ARAB SHIITES
  • Iran, Afghanistan
  • Sufi Muslims - 240 million

24
MUSLIM BREAKDOWN - WORLDWIDE
  • CIA Factbook lists 234 nations
  • Of these, Islam is the majority religion in 48
  • Islam is a significant minority religion in 26
  • Therefore, Islam is a powerful presence in one
    third of the countries in the world
  • 6 million Muslims in the USA

25
21 COUNTRIES COMPOSE THE ARAB WORLD
  • Mauritania
  • Morocco
  • Algeria
  • Tunisia
  • Libya
  • Egypt
  • Sudan
  • Dijbouti
  • Somalia
  • Palestine
  • Lebanon
  • Jordan
  • Syria
  • Iraq
  • Kuwait
  • Bahrain
  • Qatar
  • UAE
  • Oman
  • Yemen
  • Saudi Arabia

26
MIDDLE EAST
  • This refers to a larger area which includes
    Israel - Turkey - Iran - Afghanistan - Pakistan.
  • These are not Arab countries.

27
PROFILE OF THE FUNDAMENTALIST COMBATANT
  • Islam united all Muslims and combined
  • Ideology
  • Law
  • Organizational structure
  • Family and region
  • Theology
  • Under the banner of globalization of Islam.

28
PROFILE OF THE FUNDAMENTALIST COMBATANT
  • Age 8 the combatant begins to read and learn the
    Koran and the place of women
  • Age 12 he reads the Koran several hours per day -
    father indoctrinates him into the faith
  • Age 18 he has memorized the entire Koran
  • After age 18 - he comes to USA - a member of the
    Islamic Brotherhood

29
PARAMILITARY MINDSET
  • Fundamentalist/extremists interpretation of the
    Koran
  • General operational plans
  • Operational goals
  • Organizational structure
  • Sharia (legal) justification for all deadly
    actions

30
PARAMILITARY MINDSET
  • Typical extremist
  • Attends a Friday sermon at a Masjid
  • Recruited by Jamaat E Tableigh
  • Travels to Pakistan-indoctrinated into extremist
    views
  • Travels to Afghanistan to receive military and
    paramilitary training
  • Prepares for his Jihad and his TASKING

31
JIHAD
  • Basic Definition
  • Act in a paramilitary or military fashion against
    the enemies of Islam, foreign or domestic, and if
    dying in the process, the combatant will ascend
    to heaven with all his sins forgiven.
  • Islamic/Muslim Brotherhood (MB)
  • Family obligations

32
MAJOR BELIEF OF ALL MUSLIMS
  • MAHDI - will come before Jesus to liberate
    Lebanon, Syria, Iraq in route to Saudi Arabia.
    2 million man army and await Jesus
  • MAHDI is described in a Hadeth tall, thin,
    bearded with angular features, large forehead,
    olive color and pointy nose - who will come out
    from deep hiding - sound familiar ??????

33
USAMA BIN LADEN
  • Wahabi Sunni Muslim
  • Born in Yemen - raised in Saudi Arabia
  • Followed the teachings of two radical,
    fundamental Saudi clerics
  • Ben Outheimeen
  • Ben Baz
  • Every major IT subject will have studied under
    these two men - both died last year.
  • They believe that Jihad is to kill Christians.

34
FEMALES IN ISLAM
  • Great debate on this topic.
  • Orthodox Muslims argue that women gain true
    freedom in Islam.
  • Critics argue that women are in bondage in Islam
    Mohammad was a chauvinist and pedophile
  • In many chapters in the Koran women are referred
    to as equals but in many others they are not

35
FEMALES IN ISLAM
  • Women come of age at 14 - stated in the Koran.
  • A man will always look at a female after age 14
    in a sexual nature, according to Koran.
  • Mothers are the exception.
  • Thus the burqas

36
MAINSTREAM MUSLIMS VS EXTREMIST MUSLIMS
37
MAINSTREAM MUSLIMS
  • Mainstream Muslims
  • Totally disagree with extremists philosophy
  • All people of the world are Muslims
  • Non-Muslims are simply lost
  • Believe that non-Muslims will flock back to
    Islam Surah Al-Fatah - spoken to once
  • Historically, mainstream Muslims have been the
    silent weak majority of Islam
  • Vulnerable to teachings of extremists

38
FUNDAMENTALISTS/EXTREMISTS
  • Use scripture in the Koran to justify terror
    campaign
  • Use the Koran to serve their political views
  • Rely on Sharia Law
  • Ben Outhiemeen Ben Baz
  • Typically not vulnerable to the mainstream-Shia
    ideology

39
TERRORIST GROUP STRUCURE AND CELL STRUCTURE
40
FUNDAMENTALIST MOSQUESTRUCTURE
  • 1. Cleric/Sheik-highest religious authority
  • 2. Imam-not a constant position
  • 3. Theologist/Oulamaa-interpret the Sharia
  • 4. Politicos-PR representatives
  • 5. Financiers-show me the money!!!!
  • 6. Paramilitary
  • 7. Non-Government Organizations (NGOs)

41
TERRORIST GROUP CELL STRUCTURE
  • Muslim Brotherhood - all terrorists will belong
    to the MB
  • Large pool of recruits for NGOs
  • NGO-Jamaat E Tableigh Jamaat Egatha Jamaat
    Dawa Lashkar E Taibe
  • Loosely connected - command and control
  • No real identified leader or figurehead
  • Koran and the strict guidelines guide the
    terrorist activities of the MB

42
CELL STRUCTUREakas used
  • 1. Al Awlani - the leader
  • 2. Al Jare - Currier Infantryman
  • 3. Al Kannas - Sniper/killer with one shot
  • 4. Al Mukabir - Communications/Intelligence
  • 5. Al Hakeem - Medic/doctor

43
ASSET RECRUITMENT
44
ASSET RECRUITMENT
  • Identification
  • examine last name for
  • country of origin
  • brotherhood affiliation
  • tribal affiliation
  • sect affiliation

45
ASSET RECRUITMENTcont.
  • Other identification considerations
  • family
  • job
  • motivation
  • finances
  • criminal history
  • Vetting a Sunni Muslim should include a polygraph
    to gage the lack of loyalty to the MB

46
VETTING A SUNNI MUSLIM
  • A Sunni may not have or exhibit any loyalty to a
    country or entity except the MB
  • Should include a polygraph to gage his lack of
    loyalty to the MB
  • Polygrapher may need to explain that the MB is an
    organization to LEO
  • Displacement of blame

47
INTERVIEWING AND INTERROGATION
48
INTERVIEWING VIOLENT TRUE BELIEVERS (VTB)
  • Greatest mistake made by interviewers of these
    types is the absence of preparation
  • 1. Selecting the interviewer
  • 2. Gathering data before the interview
  • 3. Defining the approach and direction of the
    interview
  • 4. Choosing the place for the interview
  • 5. Use the analysts

49
INTERVIEWING AND INTERROGATION
  • Sunni Muslim
  • Individual profile based on attachment to MB
  • An Al Qaeda suspect will have the MB commonality
    with Hamas suspect, but will have different
    strategic disciplines
  • Sunnis draw their collective strength from the
    Koran and the organization to which they belong

50
VTBs
  • Motivated by deeply held beliefs that are rigid
    and completely justified in his eyes
  • Beliefs based solely on religion - Islam
  • He will believe that he is an agent of his god.
  • His killing/terroristics acts are sanctioned by
    his god.
  • Quite certain of his destiny

51
INTERVIEWING THE VTB
  • He has memorized the Koran from cover to cover.
  • Especially passages and phrases that justify his
    suicidal/homicidal intent
  • He will ignore any passages that are
    contradictory to his beliefs.
  • His tightly held rationalizations are not open to
    debate or questioning.
  • Critical thinking is forbidden - absolute belief
    in righteousness of his cause.

52
VTBs cont.
  • There should be no more than two interviewers.
  • If translator is needed, should be only other
    person in the room.
  • Translator should be directed to translate the
    exact words.
  • No observers in the room.
  • Interviewer - knowledge or no knowledge of
    Arabic/Islam culture????

53
VTBs
  • Male - female ? GITMO examples
  • Al-Qaeda Training Manual, 17th lesson teaches the
    VTB to expect psychological warfare and
    intellectual combat.
  • Harsh words and torture are also expected.
  • Manual, the room is ordinary, containing one or
    more desks, chairs and torture devices as needed

54
VTBs
  • Manual - directs the brother to memorize the
    appearance of the interrogation building and the
    officers.
  • Concentrate on the route and try to memorize
    signs in order to benefit future operations and
    plan development.
  • Always counts step, measures distances from cell
    to interrogation room
  • Always collecting

55
VTBs
  • Cognitive dissonance
  • Behaving in ways quite different from that which
    the VTB expects from his manual
  • May confuse and disorient him
  • Will exert pressure on the VTB
  • Asking to see a medical examiner and that
    evidence of the torture be entered in any
    official report. - - Stall - - classic
  • Manual familiarity

56
VTBs
  • Establish rapport? Pros and cons--Lets
    discuss!!!!!!!!
  • Gitmo experiences
  • Smile
  • Listen carefully
  • Find something in common
  • Mirror the interviewee

57
VTBs and MUSLIMS IN GENERAL
  • Avoid interview blunders
  • Soles of shoes considered great insult
  • Cold and unfriendly demeanor considered an insult
  • Showing impatience - watch, tapping fingers
  • Disrespect Islam and argue religion
  • Interviewing the female

58
VTBs - INTERVIEW TECHNIQUES
  • Patience and flexibility
  • Conducted in 2 to 3 hour time increments over
    several days
  • Do not be predictable - change times.
  • Stare down if necessary.
  • Key to interviewing VTB is to get him to talk
    about anything - Islam.
  • With these folks it is all about Islam/Israel.

59
VTBs/SUNNI/WAHABI
  • Ask the VTB/Sunni, Are you Muslim?
  • If he answers yes, and thank God and places his
    hand on his chest, he is very far to the right,
  • Likely a fundamentalist and very likely an
    extremist - Where do you pray?
  • Anywhere - alone - 5 times a day - attend Mosque
    to stay within Islamic community

60
INTERVIEW TECHNIQUES
  • 3RD pillar of Islam can be important in
    interviewing VTB - Charity/Zakat.
  • Interviewee is allowed by the Koran to tell you,
    if asked, how and where he contributed to the
    cause.
  • Use Islam against him - show him his actions have
    hurt Islam.
  • His honor lies in defeating you during interview.

61
TECHNIQUES
  • Small talk about family with a VTB Muslim will be
    superfluous.
  • A martyr will have already tended to his family
    as directed by the Koran.
  • He will have made arrangements to provide money
    for his family for 2 years and to provide a
    residence for 2 years.

62
VTB COUNTERMEASURES(taught during Al Qaeda
training)
  • Reveal some secrets
  • Ask to see doctor
  • Ask that evidence of torture be entered in record
  • Raise one voice, curse the interrogator
  • Be patient, resistant, silent and prayerful
  • Proudly take a firm and opposing stance
  • Overreact to pain
  • Pretend to be naïve and ignorant
  • Take advantage of visits to communicate with
    brothers outside prison
  • Shout slogans from prison
  • Be steadfast

63
COUNTERMEASURES
  • The most common countermeasure appears to be a
    cover story that the individuals behaviors
    and/or travels are only to teach or study Islam.

64
MODIFICATION OF INTELLIGENCE CYCLE
65
CLASSIFICATION OF INTELLIGENCE
  • Every interview will yield 2 types of
    intelligence
  • Strategic
  • Tactical
  • Strategic collection is critical for analysts
  • Tactical collection is critical for security
  • Align all intelligence into the larger framework
    of IT investigations

66
ARABIC WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS OF HIGH
INVESTIGATIVE VALUE
67
NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS
  • Jamaat E Tableigh - the group that reforms
  • Jamaat Dawa - the group that calls someone to
    their cause
  • Jamaat Eghatha - the group that assists and
    rescues
  • Lashkar E Taibe - specific to Pakistan - similar
    to above

68
OTHER CRITICAL TERMS
  • 1. Bayaat - allegiance to
  • 2. Barakat - Blessings
  • 3. Barakate reference to UBL at Gitmo
  • 4. Ahl El Beit - The Core, trace their descent
    to Mohammed
  • 5. Sahaba - The trusted company, lesser that
    Ahl El Beit
  • 6. Al Ansar - The supporters, mostly Sunni,
    non-Arabs

69
SUMMARY
  • Islam was created beginning in 610 AD. The
    values, attitudes and beliefs demanded by Islam
    then and now continue to be the foundation for
    all that is occurring with regard to terroristic
    acts.
  • A terrorist views himself as a loyal soldier for
    Allah.
  • He will never give up in his attempt to install
    Islamic values worldwide.
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