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Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders

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Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders


1
Somatoform and Dissociative Disorders
2
Somatoform Disorders
  • Somatoform disorders Psychological problems
    appearing in the form of bodily symptoms or
    physical complaints
  • Conversion disorder Somatoform disorder marked
    by paralysis, weakness, or loss of sensation, but
    with no discernable physical cause

3
Somatoform Disorders
  • Glove Anesthesia

4
Somatoform Disorders
  • Hypochondriasis Somatoform disorder involving
    excessive concern about health and disease

5
Dissociative Disorders
  • Dissociative disorders Group of pathologies
    involving fragmentation of the personality

Dissociative amnesia
Dissociativefugue
Depersonalization disorder
Dissociative identity disorder
6
Dissociative Disorders
Dissociative amnesia
  • A psychologically induced loss of memory for
    personal information

Dissociative fugue
Depersonalization disorder
Dissociative identity disorder
7
Dissociative amnesia
  • A 29-year-old female experienced the onset of
    dissociative amnesia during an academic trip to
    China.2 She was found in a hotel bathroom
    unconscious, with no signs of structural or
    neurologic abnormalities or alcohol or chemical
    consumption. The woman was sent home but could
    not remember her name, address, family, or any
    facts about her home life. The amnesia persisted
    for nearly 10 months, until the feeling of blood
    on the woman's fingers triggered the recollection
    of events from the night of onset of dissociative
    amnesia, and, subsequently, other facts and
    events. The woman finally remembered having
    witnessed a murder that night in China. She
    recalled being unable to help the victim out of
    fear for her own safety. She came to remember
    other aspects of her life however, some memories
    remain unretrievable.

8
Dissociative Disorders
Dissociative amnesia
Dissociative fugue
  • Dissociative amnesia with the addition of
    flight from ones home, family, and job

Depersonalization disorder
Dissociative identity disorder
9
Dissociative fugue
  • Commonly, individuals who experience the onset of
    dissociative fugue are found wandering in a dazed
    or confused state, unable to recall their own
    identity or recognize their own relatives or
    daily surroundings. Often, they have suffered
    from some post-traumatic stress, as in the case
    of a 35-year-old businessman who disappeared more
    than 2 years after narrowly escaping from the
    World Trade Center attack in 2001, leaving behind
    his wife and children. The man was missing for
    more than 6 months when an anonymous tip helped
    police in Virginia identify him.

10
Dissociative Disorders
Dissociative amnesia
Dissociative Fugue
  • Abnormality involving the sensation of mind and
    body having separated

Depersonalization disorder
Dissociative identity disorder
11
Depersonalization disorder
  • Depersonalization disorder generally leads to
    observable distress in the affected individual.
    It often occurs in individuals who are also
    affected by some other psychological
    nondissociative disorder, as in the case of a
    19-year-old college student who was suffering
    from sleep deprivation at the onset of
    depersonalization disorder. The young man
    experienced increased anxiety as he struggled to
    meet his responsibilities as a scholarship-depende
    nt student athlete. Teammates expressed concern
    about his apparent distress to their coach who
    arranged for the young man to speak with a
    therapist. The young man described feeling as
    though he were observing the interactions of
    others as if it were a film. The young man's
    anxiety was determined to contribute to severe
    sleep deprivation, which triggered episodes of
    depersonalization.

12
Dissociative Disorders
Dissociative amnesia
Dissociative Fugue
Depersonalization disorder
  • Condition in which the individual displays
    multiple identities

Dissociative identity disorder
13
Dissociative identity disorder
  • In a case of dissociative identity disorder, a
    woman who had been physically and sexually abused
    by her father throughout her childhood and
    adolescence exhibited at least 4 personalities as
    an adult. Each personality was of a different
    age, representing the phases of the woman's
    experience a fearful child, a rebellious
    teenager, a protective adult, and the woman's
    primary personality. Only one of the
    personalities, the protective adult, was
    consciously aware of the others, and during
    therapy sessions was realized to have been
    developed to protect the woman during the abusive
    experiences. When one of the secondary
    personalities took over, it often led to episodic
    dissociative amnesia, during which the woman
    acted out according to the nature of the
    dominating personality. During intensive therapy
    sessions, each personality was called upon as
    necessary to facilitate their integration.
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