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Unit 4: Social Institutions


Unit 4: Social Institutions Ch 11: The Family Ch 12: Education Ch 13: Political and Economic Institutions Ch 14: Religion Ch 15: Sport – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unit 4: Social Institutions

Unit 4 Social Institutions
  • Ch 11 The Family
  • Ch 12 Education
  • Ch 13 Political and Economic Institutions
  • Ch 14 Religion
  • Ch 15 Sport

Ch 11 The Family
  • Family
  • A group of people related by marriage, blood, or
  • The family were born into is our family of
    orientation. It provides children w/ a name,
    identity, a heritage. It directs (orients) a
    child into their community society. It also
    gives them an ascribed status in the community.
  • The family of procreation is established by
    marriage. Marriage is a legal union based on
    mutual rights obligations.
  • The family of procreation becomes the family of
    orientation for the children created from the
  • The nuclear family is a family structure composed
    of one or both parents children.
  • The extended family consists of 2 or more adult
    generations of the same family whose members
    share economic resources live in the same
    household. It includes grandparents,
    aunts/uncles, cousins, etc

  • Patterns of family structure
  • Patterns of behavior w/in a family relate to
    inheritance, authority, place of residence.
  • Who inherits?
  • Patrilineal descent inheritance are passed
    from the father to his male descendants.
  • Matrilineal descent inheritance are passed
    from the mother to her female descendants.
  • Bilateral descent inheritance are passed
    equally through both parents.
  • Who is in authority?
  • Patriarchy the oldest man living in the
    household has authority over the rest of the
  • Matriarchy the oldest woman living in the
    household has authority over the rest of the
  • Equalitarian authority is split evenly b/w
    husband wife.
  • Where to couples live?
  • Patrilocal Lives w/ or near the husbands
  • Matrilocal Lives w/ or near the wifes parents.
  • Neolocal Establishes a residence of their own.

  • Marriage arrangements
  • Marriage ceremonies take many forms, but they are
    all a ritual designed to communicate that a new
    family has been formed that any children born
    to them can legitimately inherit the family name
  • Monogamy is the marriage of one man to one woman
    (although increasingly this can include a
    monogamous gay/lesbian couple). This is the most
    widely practiced form of marriage in the world
  • Polygamy is the marriage of a male or female to
    more than one person at a time.
  • Polygyny is the marriage of one man to 2 or more
    women at the same time.
  • Rare, occurs legally in parts of Africa, India,
    the Middle East.
  • Polyandry is the marriage of one woman to 2 or
    more men at the same time.
  • Men are usually brothers.
  • Only known to have been common in 3 societies
    Tibet, Polynesia, the hill peoples of India.

  • Choosing a mate
  • All cultures have norms laws about who may
    marry whom.
  • Exogamy refers to the mate-selection norms
    requiring individuals to marry someone outside
    their kind or group (Exo means outside).
  • Ex. The incest taboo is a norm forbidding
    marriage b/w close relatives. What qualifies as
    incest varies from one society to another.
  • Endogamy refers to the mate-selection norms
    requiring individuals to marry someone w/in their
    own kind (Endo means inside).
  • Ex. Norms laws requiring someone to marry w/in
    their own race, though these norms are becoming
  • If by free-choice not a social norm other terms
    are used
  • Homogamy refers to the tendency to marry someone
    similar to oneself.
  • Ex. Same race, religion, socioeconomic status,
  • More common
  • Heterogamy refers to a marriage b/w people w/
    different social characteristics.
  • Ex. Different race, religion, socioeconomic
    status, etc
  • Less common, but due to more integration
    media exposure.

End Section 1
  • Sociological views of the family
  • Functionalism Focuses on the benefits provided
    by families.
  • Socializes children
  • Provides socioemotional maintenance (providing
    acceptance support). W/o this, children would
    not develop normally may develop low
    self-esteem, inability to express emotions, etc
  • Provides an orderly means for reproducing
  • Regulates sexual activity all societies have
    rules norms governing sexual behaviors (incest,
    age limits, etc) which are usually enforced by
    the family
  • Transmits social status provides economic
    resources to enter desired occupations as well as
    the values common in each social status
  • Provides economic benefits they take care of
    what is needed to survive.

  • Conflict Theory Focuses on male dominance. B/c
    most family structures throughout history have
    been patriarchal patrilineal, women have been
    considered the property of men. So most families
    have a built-in gender inequality. Traditionally
    women provide free cooking, cleaning,
    child-rearing, making it possible for men to work
    outside the home for wages thus controlling the
    family finances. Women are kept dependent
  • Symbolic Interactionism Focuses on family
    interactions they contribute to childrens
    socialization development of a self-concept.
    Our 1st interactions are w/ our family these
    interactions help children acquire personality
    social characteristics. These relationships are
    constantly changing (ex. w/ marriage, having
    children, divorce, retirement, etc).

End Section 2
  • The nature of the American family
  • Although there are many exceptions most families
    in America (no matter of what race or ethnicity)
    have the following characteristics
  • Nuclear (only one set of parents children in a
    single home).
  • Bilateral
  • Democratic (partners share in the decision
  • Neolocal
  • Monogamous

  • Marriage
  • The marriage rate is the of marriages per yr
    for every thousand members of the population.
  • Why do people marry?
  • Love
  • To enter a powerful family
  • Advance a career
  • Conformity/pressure from family /or friends
    (over 90 of people in America get married)
  • Arranged marriages
  • Partners chosen will be based on attributes such
    as class/caste, wealth, family reputation,
    appearance, etc
  • Etc

  • The divorce rate is the of divorces per yr for
    every thousand members of the population.
  • Causes of divorce at the individual level
  • The age of people when they get married (the
    it is, the less likely they are to get divorced).
  • How many yrs the couple has been married (the
    it is, the less likely they are to get
  • The nature quality of the relationship. The
    more respect flexibility that exists b/w the
    partners the the chance of divorce
  • Divorce

  • Notes from psychology (YES, you need to know
  • About ½ of marriages end in divorce.
  • Success or failure of a marriage basically stems
    from 2 things
  • How often they share intimate happy moments.
  • How couples handle conflicts.
  • Happy couples argue, but they
  • - LISTEN to each other.
  • - Show RESPECT.

  • Causes of divorce at the societal level include
  • Economic prosperity (people are more likely to
    get divorced when times are good less likely
    when times are bad probably b/c theyre more
    willing to take chances in good times, or can
    afford to).
  • Changing values about divorce. Americans are
    less likely to stigmatize people who get
  • The financial independence of women no
    longer have to stay w/ a male provider.

  • Domestic violence
  • Early research on domestic violence made it
    appear limited mostly to lower classes. This
    research was distorted b/c it came from police
    public hospital records (wealthier people are
    more likely to avoid the police go to private
  • Almost ¼ of adults in the US report having been
    physically abused as children. Abuse includes a
    slap, shove, kicking, punching, biting, severe
    spanking, or threatening w/ a weapon.
  • Estimates are that ¼ girls 1/10 boys are
    victims of sexual aggression (in the home or
  • At least 4 million women are beaten by their
    husbands each yr. This is underestimated
    partly b/c ¾ of spousal abuse takes place when a
    couple is separated most research is done on
    married couples.

  • Husband abuse is much more common than most
    people realize. Physical violence against
    husbands is almost equal to that against wives
    HOWEVER, much of the violence committed by women
    involves self-protection or retaliation.
  • Verbal psychological abuse, like neglect, are
    also problems.
  • Sibling violence seems to be the most common form
    of domestic violence.
  • Elder violence hasnt been studied long, but is
    expected to as people begin living longer.

End Section 3
  • Types of families
  • Today, the traditional American family (working
    dad, homemaker mom, 2 kids) accounts for less
    than ¼ of all American families compared to
    over 60 in 1950.
  • Current families are increasingly likely to be
  • Blended families
  • Single-parent families
  • Childless marriages
  • Dual-employed marriages
  • Cohabitation
  • Same-sex domestic partners
  • Singles only
  • Have boomerang kids

  • Blended families
  • A family formed when at least one of the partners
    in a marriage has a child or children from a
    previous relationship.
  • About 40 of households in the US contain
    biologically unrelated individuals (besides the
    married couple).
  • Half-siblings are brothers or sisters who share
    EITHER the same biological mother or father.
  • Step-siblings are related by marriage of one of
    each of their parents, have no biological
  • Major problems facing blended families
  • 1. Financial often have to pay alimony /or
    child support.
  • 2. Stepchildrens antagonism may resent new
    marriage new siblings
  • 3. Unclear roles Power struggles may occur b/w
    stepparents stepchildren, especially if
    children are teenagers.

  • Single-parent families
  • s come from the 2010 Census
  • Over ¼ of American families is a single-parent
  • Only 10 of these children live in a male-headed
    household. Why?
  • Women in all social classes are still more likely
    to win custody of their children (although this
    has been ).
  • Unwed mothers mothers abandoned by their
    childrens fathers make up a large part of poor
    single-parent households these women
    marry/remarry at a very low rate.
  • Although much fewer, an of well-educated
    professional women head single-parent households
    by choosing to have a child alone. This is
    largely due to the single parent stigma .
  • Adolescents (youths 12-17 yrs old) in
    single-parent families or w/ step-parents are
    more likely to have delinquency problems, often
    due to single parents lack of time /or .

  • Childless marriages
  • In the past, married women w/o kids were pitied
    looked down upon. Today, more married women are
    choosing not to have kids. Why?
  • stigma about being childless
  • To pursue personal /or career goals
  • Wait too long no longer able
  • Incapable of having kids
  • Are these marriages happier than those w/ kids?
  • Typically, if the couple wants kids, but cant
    have them, theyre less happy. If they chose not
    to have kids, than theyre usually happier.

  • Dual-employed marriages
  • Marriages in which both spouses work outside the
  • Disadvantages
  • Less time for kids
  • Often places a disproportionate amount of
    work/stress/guilt on the wife
  • Women still typically do more of the household
    child-raising duties
  • Some men may feel conflicted if their wife earns
    more than they do.
  • Advantages
  • Greater feelings of control, independence,
    self-esteem for women who choose to work.
  • More
  • Men dont have the stress of being the
  • Happier wives means happier husbands ?

  • Cohabitation
  • Living w/ someone in a marriage-like arrangement
    w/o the legal obligations responsibilities of a
    formal marriage.
  • has been
  • Only about ¼ cohabitating couples stay together
    more than 4 yrs
  • If they do marry, they tend to be less satisfied
    in that marriage more likely to divorce later.

  • Same-sex domestic partners or marriages
  • Singles
  • B/c there is still a stigma attached to
    homosexuality, its impossible to know how many
    Americans are gay. The has been estimated to
    be around 10.
  • More homosexual couples are living together
    openly some states are now allowing them to
    marry or have civil unions.
  • Currently 35 states DC allow gay marriage.
  • More Americans are choosing to remain single.
  • stigma on being single
  • Pursuing career /or personal goals

  • Boomerang kids
  • Adult children who return to the home of origin
    or who continue to live w/ their parents.
  • American adults 18-34 yrs old are more likely to
    live in the parents home now than they were 30
    yrs ago.
  • About ¼ adults lived w/ their parents in 2004.
  • Why are more people becoming boomerang kids?
  • Continuing education
  • Cant afford to live alone
  • Marrying later
  • Divorcing
  • Consequences for parents can be a financial
    burden, lack of privacy, /or marital
  • Consequences for children besides circumstances
    that caused them to move in can be a lack of
    freedom feelings of guilt/shame.

End Section 4
Ch 12 Education
  • The bureaucratic nature of schools
  • In the early 1900s, school administration was
    based on a factory model. Educators believed
    education should be mass produced. Although
    schools now attempt to be more personalized, they
    are still highly bureaucratic in nature, based
    heavily on specialization, rules procedures,
  • Why follow a bureaucratic model?
  • Teachers, guidance counselors, librarians,
    administrators, etc are specialized which allow
    for more efficiency.
  • Its also more efficient to group students by age
    /or ability.
  • Teaching similar content allow materials to be
    purchased in bulk testing can be standardized.
    Also allows students to transfer schools
    continue learning the same things.

  • Challenging formal education
  • Formal schooling (education that is provided
    regulated by society) is criticized as not
    meeting the expressive, creative emotional
    needs of all children.
  • Reforms to education began in the 1920s w/ the
    humanistic movement has 3 main ways of
    democratizing education
  • 1. The Open Classroom is a non-bureaucratic
    approach education based on democratic
    relationships, flexibility, non-
    competitiveness. They avoid the sharp
    authoritarian line b/w teachers students.
    It also abandons standardized curriculums
    the use of graded report cards as it
    believes competition isnt a good motivator.

  • 2. Cooperative Learning takes place in a non-
    bureaucratic classroom structure where
    students study in groups w/ teachers as
    guides instead of controlling agents.
    Emphasizes cooperation, not competition.
  • Benefits include
  • - Uncooperativeness stress among students
  • - Academic performance .
  • - Students have more positive attitudes
    toward school.
  • - Racial ethnic antagonism .
  • - Self-esteem .
  • 3. Integrative Curriculum is an approach to
    education based on student-teacher
    collaboration in determining the
    curriculum. Subject matter is selected
    organized around certain real-world
    themes. Emphasizes a hands-on approach.

  • Back-to-basics movement
  • Began in the 1990s, alongside the cooperative
    learning integrative curriculum. Started by
    people worried by low scores on achievement tests
    who wanted a return to traditional curriculum
    based on more bureaucratic methods.
  • Started due to a 1983 report entitled A Nation at
    Risk which claimed Americas schools were
    deficient the US was in danger of being
    overtaken by some economic competitors.
  • Encouraged more bureaucratic solutions tougher
    requirements at school (more core classes, longer
    school days/years, more achievement tests, more
    homework for high-schoolers, tighter

  • Alternatives to the public school system
  • A current debate in education is over school
    choice. The idea is that competition among
    schools will improve schools overall.
    Students/parents choose the schools they believe
    best fits their needs. There are several ways of
    accomplishing this goal
  • The Voucher System
  • Charter Schools
  • Magnet Schools
  • For-Profit Schools

  • The Voucher System
  • A system in which public school funds may be used
    to support public, private, or religious schools.
  • Families w/ children attending public school
    continue to pay nothing. Families w/ children
    attending religious or other private school would
    receive a voucher from the gov.t to help pay a
    portion of the tuition equal to the amount the
    gov.t spends per child in the public school
    system w/ the remaining amount to be paid by the
  • Has had a mixed reaction. Only 6 states allow
    it. 36 states prohibit it in their
  • Some courts reject it as unconstitutional (due to
    public going to religious institutions) but
    some cases of vouchers have been upheld.
  • Some favor it for choice forcing schools to
  • Some oppose it for draining public school funds
    potentially leading to racial class segregation.

  • Charter magnet schools
  • Charter schools are publicly funded schools
    operated like private schools by public school
    teachers administrators.
  • They dont have to answer to local school boards
    have more freedom to design their own
    curriculum use different teaching methods.
  • Magnet schools are public schools that focus on a
    certain area such as fine arts or science.
  • The are designed to enhance school quality
    promote desegregation. They have been shown to
    be a significant factor in improving urban

  • For-profit schools
  • Schools run by private companies on gov.t funds.
  • They borrow from modern business practices to try
    to be more efficient, productive, cost
  • The belief behind these schools is that gov.t is
    too wasteful ineffective so a capitalistic
    approach would allow the best schools to survive
    weak schools would fail.
  • Lack public oversight critics argue that these
    schools may put profits above student needs.

End Section 1
  • The functionalist perspectives view of education
  • According to functionalists, social institutions
    exist b/c they meet one or more of societys
    basic needs.
  • A manifest function is an intended recognized
  • Some manifest functions of education are to teach
    academics, transmit culture, create a common
    identity, select screen talent, promote
    personal growth.
  • Schools help transmit culture by instilling the
    basic values norms of the society.
  • They create a common identity by teaching a
    common language, sharing national history w/
    patriotic themes, teaching similar content.
  • They select screen talent through intelligence
    achievement tests. Their results can be used
    for tracking (placing students in programs
    according to academic ability levels).
  • They promote personal growth by exposing students
    to various activities experiences (ex.
    assemblies field trips).

  • A latent function is an unintended unrecognized
  • Some latent functions of education include
  • Day-care facilities
  • Making friends finding dates
  • Training grounds for athletes
  • A dysfunction is an unintended negative result.
  • Some dysfunctions of education include
  • Can perpetuate unequal social-class structure
  • Delinquents can meet commit various crimes

End Section 2
  • The conflict perspectives view of education
  • The conflict perspective attempts to show that
    the popular conceptions about the relationship
    b/w schools society arent entirely accurate.
  • In a meritocracy, social status is based on
    ability achievement instead of parental status.
    In theory, all individuals have an equal chance
    to develop their abilities for the benefit of
    themselves their society.
  • Meritocracy is based on competition (the social
    process that occurs when rewards are given to
    people on the basis of how their performance
    compares w/ the performance of others doing the
    same task or participating in the same event).
  • Although the US claims to be a meritocracy, some
    barriers for certain people have been identified
    to true merit-based achievement such as gender,
    race, ethnicity socioeconomic status.

  • Why the inequalities?
  • Minorities are more likely to live in poorer
    areas w/ lower quality schools. In turn, they
    score lower on the SAT/ACT cant get into
    higher level universities. Thus, they tend to
    get into lower-paying careers keeping them
    their children in a lower socioeconomic status
    which repeats the cycle.
  • Cognitive ability is the capacity for abstract
  • Cultural bias is the unfair measurement of the
    cognitive abilities of people in some social
  • B/c some tests measuring cognitive ability have a
    cultural bias, some groups of students score
    lower than their actual abilities.
  • So why are tests culturally biased?
  • Language of the test some students may not know
    certain words due to lack of exposure or having
    learned it as a 2nd language.
  • Lack of comfort in the testing environment.
  • Lack of understanding of the importance of the
  • Lack of nutrition for impoverished children.

  • Educational equality exists when schooling
    produces the same results of achievement
    attitudes for lower-class minority children as
    it does for less disadvantaged children.
  • Research has shown that even the best teachers
    often evaluate students on the basis of their
    social class their racial/ethnic
  • 2 methods of promoting educational equality are
  • School desegregation is the achievement of a
    racial balance in the classroom. W/o adequate
    support, desegregation can harm students of all
    races. W/ support, minority students get better
    jobs not just b/c of the education but b/c they
    get exposed to behavior, dress, language often
    required by employers.
  • - Exposure to different groups of people can
    lead to better racial relations. This is the
    basis for multicultural education (an
    educational curriculum that emphasizes
    differences among gender, ethnic, racial
  • Compensatory education refers to the specific
    curricular programs designed to overcome a
    deficiency (ex. Head Start).

End Section 3
  • The symbolic interactionist perspectives view of
  • Symbolic interactionists are interested in how
    schools transmit culture through the
    socialization process. They are particularly
    interested in the hidden curriculum (the
    nonacademic agenda that teaches children norms
    values of their society).
  • Schools socialize children to transition from
    their families to the competitive adult
    occupational world.
  • Conformity achievement are emphasized through
    testing grading.
  • Patriotism a sense of civic duty are
    transmitted though a view of history that favors
    the US.
  • Textbooks convey values by what they exclude as
    much as by what they include. Examples include
    past treatment of women minorities.
  • Teachers can unintentionally effect a students
    performance based on his/her expectations of the
    students ability. This creates a
    self-fulfilling prophecy (a prediction that
    results in behavior that makes the prediction
    come true). When teachers expect children to do
    well, they are more likely to do so, when they
    expect them to do poorly, they are more likely to
    do so as well.
  • Teachers can also unintentionally foster sexism.

End Section 4
Ch 13 Political and Economic Institutions
  • The link b/w economics politics
  • The economic institution is the set of functions
    that concern how goods services are produced
    distributed for a society.
  • B/c economic decisions affect how resources are
    shared b/w organizations the general public,
    conflicts arise. The political institution is the
    institution through which power is obtained
    exercised. It has the responsibility for
    handling the conflicts that come from certain
    economic decisions.
  • Think of economics as the distribution of
    resources politics as the exercise of power.

  • Power authority
  • Power is the ability to control the behavior of
    others even against their will.
  • Power takes different forms.
  • Ex. political, , fame, personality, etc
  • Coercion is control through the use or threat of
  • A political system based on coercive power is
    inherently unstable the people will want to
    rise against it.
  • Authority is power accepted as legitimate by
    those subject to it.
  • Ex. teachers grade students, gov.ts collect
    taxes, etc
  • Forms of authority
  • Charismatic authority comes from the personality
    of an individual.
  • - Leaders have strong personalities can
    often inspire trust.
  • - Temporary - gone as soon as leader dies.
  • Traditional authority is authority w/ legitimacy
    through custom.
  • - Kings pass their kingdom to sons.
  • Rational-legal authority is the authority of
    gov.t officials based on the offices they hold.
  • - The power is w/ the office, not the
    individual. They still have to obey laws.

  • Types of political systems
  • Democracy type of gov.t in which the supreme
    authority rests w/ the people (majority rules).
  • In a representative democracy individuals are
    elected to represent the people.
  • Assumes not everyone in modern society can be
    actively involved in all political decision
    making that elected officials who dont satisfy
    the wishes of the majority wont win reelections.
  • Totalitarianism a political system in which a
    ruler w/ absolute power attempts to control all
    aspects of a society. Characteristics of a
    totalitarian gov.t include
  • One political party usually controlled by 1
  • A monopoly over military resources.
  • A planned economy directed by the state.
  • Police terror crush opposition, spy
  • Indoctrination instruction in the gov.ts
  • Propaganda censorship gov.t controls media.
  • Religious or ethnic persecution often create
    enemies of the state (someone to blame for
    gov.t failures).
  • Authoritarianism a political system controlled
    by elected or nonelected rulers who usually
    permit some degree of individual freedom. In b/w
    democracy totalitarianism.

End Section 1
  • Voting in the US
  • The US has one of the lowest voter turnout rates
    in the industrialized world w/ usually around ½
    of eligible voters voting.
  • This is partly due to a low level of confidence
    in political leaders.
  • The choice voters have is limited by several
  • The power of political parties to get elected
    to a high office, a person usually must have the
    support of one of the major parties. To get
    party support, a candidate must appeal to the
    most voters possible, which means candidates
    resemble each other in many ways.
  • The cost of running a political campaign. No ,
    no campaign.

  • Political socialization is the informal formal
    process by which a person develops political
    opinions. The major agents of political
    socialization are
  • The family about 2/3 Americans follow the same
    party as their parents
  • Education the more educated the person, the
    more likely they are to being politically
    knowledgeable active.
  • Mass media - draws attention to various topics,
    emphasizes some problems while downplaying or
    ignoring others. Determines what people talk
    about forces politicians to take notice.
  • Economic status occupation we tend to vote
    based on how issues affect our wallets.
  • Age gender younger people tend to be more
    liberal. Women tend to be more concerned w/
    womens issues.
  • Race religion are also factors

  • 2 models of political power
  • Democratic societies have 2 models of political
  • Pluralism is when political decisions are the
    result of bargaining compromising among special
    interest groups. No one group holds the majority
    of power.
  • Power is widely distributed throughout a society.
  • Functionalists focus on pluralism how decisions
    are made based on the goals values shared by
    the general public.
  • Interest groups (groups organized to influence
    political decision making) help advance their

  • Elitism is when a society is controlled from the
    top by a few individuals or organizations.
  • Power is concentrated in the hands of a few w/
    common interests backgrounds w/ the masses
    having little political power.
  • Conflict perspective followers focus on elitism
    how the key economic, political, military
    leaders overlap to form a unified group known as
    the power elite.
  • - In the US, the power elite is said to be
    educated in select boarding schools, military
    academies, Ivey League schools. They belong
    to the Episcopalian Presbyterian churches.
    They also come from upper-class families, have
    many mutual acquaintances, share many values,

End Section 2
  • The 4 factors of production
  • The basic resources required to make all goods
  • These are necessary in every economy

They take the risks doing
something new arent considered part of labor
The only factor that assists in
production is a result of earlier
  • Economic systems
  • These 3 systems each answer the questions of
    production (What, how, for whom to produce?) in
    different ways. They also have different beliefs
    on how the factors of production should be used.

  • Characterized by private (or corporate) ownership
    of property the pursuit of profit.
  • Consumers, workers, entrepreneurs have freedom
    of choice.
  • Minimum of gov.t interference they should
    protect citizens from abuses.
  • Capitalism

  • Inadequate competition
  • Over time, mergers acquisitions have led to
    larger fewer businesses dominating various
    industries. This has led to a in
    competition which has several important
  • 1. Inefficient resource allocation including
    (instead of investing in the company, executives
    may get big bonuses benefits).
  • 2. prices output artificial
  • 3. Economic political power
  • Monopoly - A market structure w/ only 1 seller of
    a particular product. They control production
    distribution of a product or service.
  • It is a price maker.
  • Ex Utilities determined by the gov.t
  • Mostly illegal
  • Oligopoly A market structure in which a few
    very large sellers dominate the industry.
  • The product may be exactly the same or different.
  • Ex Coke Pepsi
  • Sometimes the businesses may take part in price
  • Illegal.

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  • Communism (Your book calls this socialism DO
  • Is an economic system which calls for the
    collective, or state, ownership of land other
    productive property.
  • Karl Marx observed the plight of the workers
    during the Industrial Revolution wrote The
    Communist Manifesto (along w/ Friedrich Engels)
    in response.
  • He believed that history was an ongoing struggle
    b/w the classes.
  • He believed that the workers (proletariat) would
    rise up against the capitalists (bourgeoisie) in
    a violent revolution. These violent revolutions
    would continue until eventually the capitalist
    system would by overthrown everyone would work
    for the benefit of society share in its rewards
  • Marx would become known as the father of
    communism ( socialism).

  • How countries implement communism
  • Failures of communism lack of profit motive,
    poor central planning, corruption, etc.

  • Socialism (Your book calls this Mixed economic
  • An economic political philosophy based on the
    idea that the benefits of economic activity
    (wealth) should be fairly distributed throughout
    a society.
  • This is achieved through the principle of
    collective (meaning public or gov.t) ownership
    of the most important means by which goods
    services are produced distributed, as well as
    some other major industries.
  • In other words, the public controls the centers
    of economic power.
  • Instead of emphasizing competition for profit
    (like many capitalist nations), socialists tend
    to emphasize cooperation social responsibility.
  • A major socialist movement began during the
    Industrial Revolution as the gap b/w the rich
    the poor .

  • How countries implement socialism
  • Welfare states are countries that provide
    extensive social services at little or no cost.

Around 50-60 of income goes to taxes - middle
upper classes pay a higher
End Section 3
  • Corporations
  • A form of business controlled by shareholders,
    who have limited liability limited control,
    recognized by law as a separate legal entity
    having all the rights of an individual.
  • Gives it the right to buy sell property, enter
    contracts, to sue/be sued.
  • Shares of stock (certificates of ownership) are
    sold to shareholders (or stockholders) who own
    the company.
  • If the company is profitable, they get a of its
  • If it goes into debt, they may lose their
    investment, but no more.
  • Top corporate officials can influence gov.t
    decisions by using their wealth power to punish
    or reward elected officials. They may donate to
    campaigns or leave if they disagree w/ the
    gov.ts economic policies taking jobs w/ them.
  • A corporation is run by its board of directors.
    Interlocking directorates occur when the heads of
    corporations sit on one anothers boards. This
    magnifies their power/influence greatly.

  • Conglomerates
  • Multinationals
  • A firm that has at least 4 businesses that each
    make unrelated products, none of which make up a
    majority of its sales.
  • The idea is to avoid
    putting all your eggs
    one basket.
  • Makes it difficult to
    know who owns
  • Corporations that make goods /or provide
    services in different countries (can also be
  • Some of the most powerful multinationals have
    sales volumes greater than the economic output of
    some countries (p. 447).
  • Able to move resources, goods, services,
    across national borders.
  • Can be beneficial b/c they transfer new
    technology, create new jobs, generate more tax .
  • Can be detrimental b/c they may be too powerful,
    pay low wages to workers, export scarce natural
    resources, /or interfere w/ the development of
    local businesses.

End Section 4
  • The 3 economic sectors
  • The primary sector is the part of the economy
    producing goods from the natural environment.
  • Ex. Farmers, miners, ranchers, fishermen, etc
  • The secondary sector is the part of the economy
    engaged in manufacturing goods.
  • Ex. Factory workers, often called blue-collar
  • The tertiary sector is the part of the economy
    providing services.
  • Ex. Teachers, cops, doctors, actors, mechanics,
  • Before the Industrial Revolution, most workers
    were in the primary sector. Afterwards, more
    were in the secondary sector. W/ more recent
    technological advances occurring post-WWII
    requiring less manufacturing, most workers now
    work in the tertiary sector (77 of Americans).

Furniture maker
  • Occupational structure
  • Occupations are categories of jobs that involve
    similar activities at different work locations.
  • Ex. Teacher, cop, electrician, dental assistant,
    etc - all involve similar training no matter
    where they work.
  • While manufacturing jobs have been going
    overseas, the US has been gaining some jobs in
    high-tech industries. However, there are two
  • Many of the jobs being gained offer lower pay.
  • The new jobs require different skills then those
    people have who used to work in manufacturing.
  • Since the 1970s many major corporations have been
    downsizing (the process by which companies
    their full-time workforce). To save , they then
    their contingent employment (hiring of
    part-time, short-term workers). Contingent
    workers receive lower pay no benefits. Some
    believe that this trend is the gap b/w the
    haves the haves nots is causing workers to
    have less confidence in their management.

End Section 5
Ch 14 and 15 Quiz
Ch 14 Religion
  • Religion sociology
  • A religion is a unified system of beliefs
    practices concerned w/ sacred things.
  • Sacred means holy or set apart given a
    special meaning that goes beyond immediate
  • Secular (or profane) refers to the non-sacred
    aspects of life. Not unholy, just commonplace.
  • What is sacred in one culture can be secular in
    others vice versa.
  • What is sacred can become secular over time
    what is secular can become sacred.
  • Sociologists approach religion as a human
    creation focus on the social aspects of
    religion that can be observed measured.
  • Read p.492-93 Indias Sacred Cow

End Section 1
  • Functionalism religion
  • Religion exists in some form in almost all
  • Evidence of religion can be traced back to 50,000
  • Emile Durkheim was the 1st sociologist to look at
    religion scientifically wonder why religion can
    be found in so many societies. He concluded that
    societies used sacred symbols as a mirror for
    themselves, that through religious rituals,
    people worship their societies remind
    themselves of their shared past future
  • Other social functions of religion include
  • Gives approval to the current social arrangements
    justifies social norms/ attitudes makes them
    legitimate (to give official authority to). It
    explains why some should have power or not, why
    we should do some things not others, etc
  • Encourages a sense of unity provides a social
    order causes us to work together (but can also
    divide a society).
  • Provides a sense of understanding gives us a
    sense of place in the world eternal
    significance to our short existence.
  • Promotes a sense of belonging helps us feel
    connected to others.

  • The conflict theory religion
  • The conflict theory focuses on how religion works
    to discourage or encourage social change.
  • Karl Marx believed religion was the opiate of
    the masses. People believed they shouldnt do
    anything to go against their faith even if it
    kept them bad circumstances. He believed that
    religion was a tool for those in power to keep
    their power that the workers should abandon
  • He saw religion as working against social
  • Max Weber explained how the of
    Protestantism helped the of capitalism. He
    noticed that capitalism emerged in NW Europe in
    the US. Some Protestant sects saw work as a
    moral obligation which led to what Weber called
    the Protestant ethic (a set of norms attitudes
    stressing hard work, thrift, self-discipline).
    This came in large part from John Calvins
    beliefs that God rewards his chosen ones in this
    life, consumption beyond necessity is sinful,
    that life material goods should be used to
    glorify God. This led to the spirit of
    capitalism (the obligation to reinvest in
    business rather than spend it) the growth of
  • He saw religion as possibly helping to cause
    social change.

  • Symbolic interactionism religion
  • Peter Berger believed that when humans create
    religious traditions they are providing a cover
    of symbolic meanings to lay over the secular
    world. They use these meaning to guide everyday
    social interaction.
  • They give people a way to identify what is sacred
    what is not.
  • They provide stability security.
  • People are more likely to become religious in
    uncertain times b/c religion can help provide
    them w/ a sense of certainty relief (like the
    idea of an afterlife or affirmation that a
    decision made is the morally correct one).

End Section 2
  • Religious organization
  • In Western societies, most people practice
    religion through some organizational structure.
  • So religions can be organized by church,
    denomination, sect, cult.
  • Sociologists consider a church to be a
    life-encompassing religious organization to which
    all members of a society belong.
  • Exists when a religion the state are closely
  • Ex. Italy centuries ago under the Catholic Church
    or England under the Church of England.
  • When Americans talk about a church we are
    actually referring to a denomination, which is
    one of several religious organizations that most
    members of a society accept as legitimate.
  • Denominations arent tied to the state, so
    membership is voluntary competition for
    membership is socially acceptable.
  • A sect is a religious organization formed out of
    a desire to reform an existing religious
    organization. They believe the current
    denomination has strayed from important beliefs
    or traditions.

  • A cult is a religious organization whose
    characteristics dont come from existing
    religious traditions w/in a society.
  • They either get their views from outside the
    society or create them from w/in.
  • Many people associate cults w/ radical beliefs
    behavior but many cults arent.
  • So why do people join cults? B/c they
  • Provide a supportive community to help overcome
    loneliness provide emotional ties. They often
    use family terms when talking about members.
  • Emphasize immediate experience emotional
    gratification. Religion is felt rather than
    just being thought about.
  • Claim to offer something authentic natural in
    an artificial world.
  • Extremist cults emphasize security through strict
    authority. Provides converts w/ feelings of
    certainty safety.
  • Indicators of cults are if they require
    separation from family friends, use of drugs,
    severe punishment or psychological conditioning,
    /or claims of special knowledge only insiders
    can know.

  • Religiosity
  • Ways in which people express their religious
    attitudes behaviors in their everyday lives.
  • There are 5 dimensions of religiosity
  • Belief what a person believes to be true.
  • Rituals religious practices people are expected
    to perform. They may be private or public.
  • Intellectual dimension knowledge of holy or
    sacred scripture.
  • Experience certain feelings attached to
    religious expression (ex. feeling close to the
    deity when praying).
  • Consequences are the decisions commitments
    people make due to their religious beliefs.
    These consequences may deal w/ private or public
    issues (ex. abstaining from sex before marriage
    opposing abortion).

End Section 3
  • Development of religion in the US
  • The 1st settlers to colonize what would become
    the US were looking for religious freedom for
    themselves the Puritans believed that they
    would be a religious example to the world. This
    has led to the idea of American exceptionalism
    the belief that the US is a special unique
    example of liberty democracy for the rest of
    the world to follow.
  • Despite this the founding fathers believed in
    separation of church state.
  • However, certain religious minorities have
    persecuted in Americas history.
  • Religion has also influenced periods of American
    history (ex. Antislavery Prohibition
  • Today, slightly less than ½ of Americans are
    Protestant (particularly Baptist 16 Methodist
    8). Catholics are 24 Jews are 2. The
    unaffiliated (atheist, agnostic, no opinion) make
    up about 20 of the population.

  • Secularization in the US
  • Secularization is the process through which the
    sacred loses influence over society.
  • Ex. Education used to be provided primarily
    through clerics.
  • Although its widely believed that religion is
    losing its importance in the US, it is still
    highly religious when compared to other
    industrialized nations.
  • There are now over 300 recognized
    denominations/sects thousands of independent
    congregations in the US.

  • Fundamentalism in the US
  • Fundamentalism is the resistance of
    secularization the rigid adherence to
    traditional religious beliefs, rituals,
  • It has been on the in the US for the last
    30 or so yrs.
  • It exists in all religions Christian (including
    Catholics, Protestants, Morons), Muslims, Jews.
    However, in the US it mostly involves
  • Fundamentalists are politically conservative.
  • Protestant fundamentalists in the US believe in
    the literal truth of the Scriptures.
  • Protestant fundamentalists arent all the same.
    Denominations fundamentalism is predominately
    found in include Mormons, Baptists, Jehovahs
  • Why is fundamentalism on the ?
  • They offer absolutes in an uncertain world.
  • They tend to be less formal impersonal than
    mainline churches.
  • They claim to offer a more purely sacred
  • The internet has helped spread their message.

  • Religion, social class, politics
  • Social class on average, Presbyterians,
    Episcopalians, Jews are likely to be at higher
    social classes Catholics, Methodists,
    Lutherans are likely to be in the middle
    Baptists are more likely to be at the lower
    social classes.
  • Upper classes tend to express their religiosity
    through church membership, church attendance,
    observance of rituals. Lower classes tend to
    express their religiosity through private prayer
    emotional religious experiences.
  • Political affiliation Jews Catholics are more
    likely to be Democrats, while most Protestants
    denominations are more likely to be Republicans.
  • Jews Catholics have been discriminated against
    are more likely to favor stronger separation of
    church state. Protestants being in the
    majority are more likely to want to allow
    religion into public
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