Social Welfare Policy Analysis - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

About This Presentation
Title:

Social Welfare Policy Analysis

Description:

social welfare policy analysis a power point presentation featuring the latest in technological wizardry and pedagogical ledgerdemain i must be in the wrong cell block! – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:3676
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 65
Provided by: davidk45
Learn more at: https://www.msu.edu
Category:

less

Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Social Welfare Policy Analysis


1
Social Welfare Policy Analysis
A POWER POINT PRESENTATION FEATURING THE LATEST
IN TECHNOLOGICAL WIZARDRY AND PEDAGOGICAL
LEDGERDEMAIN
I MUST BE IN THE WRONG CELL BLOCK!
ARE WE GOING TO HAVE TO LISTEN TO THIS STUFF FOR
A WHOLE SEMESTER!
SSW GRAD STUDENT TERMINATION SCHEDULE
NEVER THOUGHT ID SEE THE DAY!
A MAGNUM FORCE PRODUCTION
I THOUGHT SOME GUY WAS TEACHING THIS CLASS
WAIT A MINUTE! ISNT THIS STATS 800?
2
NOTA BENE (TAKE HEED!)
  • SLIDES 2-23 CONTAIN INTRODUCTORY MATERIALS.
  • MODULE I BEGINS WITH SLIDE 24.

3
PRODUCTION CREDITS
  • THIS PROJECT HAS BEEN WRITTEN AND PRODUCED BY
    DAVID H. KATZ, PH.D., MSU SCHOOL OF SOCIAL WORK.

4
SW 821/101/588686
  • HOURS MT 8 950
  • PLACE 255 BAKER
  • OFFICE HOURS M 10 12
  • OFFICE 246 BAKER
  • E-MAIL KATZ_at_MSU.EDU

5
PRODUCTION NOTE TECHNICAL HELP
  • ALL TECHNICAL QUESTIONS SHOULD BE REFERRED TO
  • COMPUTER
    CONSULTING

  • _at_

  • 432 - 6200

6
PRODUCTION NOTE EDU-RAMA!
ITS EDU-RAMA!
  • EDU-RAMA!
  • LOOK FOR THE OFFICIAL EDU-RAMA ! LOGO! ITS ON
    SLIDES FEATURING VIDEOS YOU CAN PLAY RIGHT ON
    YOUR DESKTOP! LIKE THE INSERTS, THE VIDEOS ARE
    INTENDED TO COMPLEMENT SLIDE PRINT MATERIALS..
  • EDU-RAMA! IS THE REGISTERED TRADEMARK OF
    EDU-RAMA! CORP. OF TEANECK, N.J.

7
PRODUCTION NOTE INSERTS
  • SLIDES MARKED

KEEP YOUR EYES OPEN FOR
INSERTS
Inserts are what, in newspapers, are
sometimes also called fillers or boxes
They provide information supplementary to the
main text.
8
SEMESTER OVERVIEW (1) MODULE TOPICS
  • MODULE I CRITICAL THINKING
  • (3 CLASS SESSIONS)
  • PURPOSE
  • To familiarize you with opposing perspectives on
    social reality and social welfare policy (swp)
    so as to ensure that you have the conceptual
    overview needed to analyze specific issues.
  • MODULE II SOCIAL WELFARE POLICY (SWP)
  • (2 CLASS SESSIONS)
  • PURPOSE
  • Introduction to swp origins, types, and trends,
    as well as the role of politics in the policy
    making process.
  • MODULE III THE WELFARE STATE (WS)
  • (2 CLASS SESSIONS)
  • PURPOSE
  • Emphasis on types of WSs and the impact of
    globalization. Special attention to American
    exceptionalism as a key to understanding the US
    WS.

9
SEMESTER OVERVIEW (2) MODULE TOPICS
  • MODULE IV POVERTY/INEQUALITY
  • (2 CLASS SESSIONS)
  • PURPOSE
  • Poverty and inequality are the bottom line
    issues for social workers because they are the
    everyday realities confronted by the professions
    traditional clientele. This module explains the
    origins and dimensions of these phenomena and
    relates both to the overall direction of the
    American political economy.
  • MODULE V HEALTH
  • (3 CLASS SESSIONS)
  • PURPOSE
  • As individuals, professionals, and citizens,
    social workers have a special interest in health
    care policy, especially now that managed care has
    transformed their own role as practitioners.

10
SEMESTER OVERVIEW (3) MODULE SCHEDULE
  • MODULE IV POVERTY/INEQUALITY
  • 6/13 19
  • READINGS
  • PART III 13, 16, 20, 21, 23
  • MODULE V HEALTH PHYSICAL MENTAL/YOUNG
    OLD/PAST FUTURE
  • READINGS PART III, 15, 16, 18.
  • 6/20 26 27
  • PAPER TAKE HOME FINAL
  • DUE 6/27
  • INTRODUCTION - 5/15
  • MODULE 1 - CRITICAL THINKNG
  • 5/16 22 - 23
  • READINGS
  • MAINSTREAM
  • LIBERALISM PART II, 8-10
  • CONSERVATISM PART VI, 25 PART II, 11
  • RADICAL (called institutional/critical)
  • PART IV, 24 PART IV, 26 (393-4/397-99
    (TOP)/402-406
  • MODULE II - SOCIAL WELFARE POLICY - 5/30 6/5
  • READINGS PART I, 1, 4
  • MODULE III THE WELFARE STATE 6/6 12
  • READINGS PART I, 2-3 PART V
  • IN-CLASS MID-SEMESTER QUIZ
  • 6/6

11
SEMESTER OVERVIEW (4) THE CUMULATIVE ANGLE
  • SPECIFIC SWPS
  • DETAILED SURVEY OF SOME MAJOR U.S. SWPS.
  • MODULES IV/V
  • THE WELFARE STATE (WS)
  • THE TOTALITY OF ALL SWPS AND THEIR RELATED
    INSTITUTIONAL CONTEXTS WITHIN A GIVEN NATIONAL
    ENVIRONMENT.
  • MODULE III
  • SOCIAL WELFARE POLICY (SWP)
  • INTRODUCTION TO THE CONCEPT AND RELATED ISSUES
  • TYPES AND POLITICS OF SWP
  • MODULE II
  • CRITICAL THINKNG
  • PROVIDES THE ANALYTICAL FOUNDATION AND FRAMEWORK
  • FOR ALL SPECIFIC TOPICS ADDRESSED IN THIS COURSE
  • MODULE i

12
SEMESTER OVERVIEW (5) KEY CONCEPTUAL DIMENSIONS
OF THIS COURSE
  • Theoretical
  • The functions of swps within the overall host
    society. Key question Are swps mere palliatives
    or are they evidence that sustained social
    progress is possible in a competitive,
    individualistically oriented market economy?
  • 2. Political
  • Who are the political motives and forces
    supporting or opposing progressive swps? What are
    their motives? Why are particular policies
    enacted? Who benefits and who loses? Key
    question Which political direction---liberal,
    conservative, or ?----are future policies most
    likely to take?
  • 3. Institutional
  • What are the institutional contexts and mechanics
    within which policy is made. That is, what are
    the actual procedures of policy making and how
    does this process affect actual policy outcomes?
    Key question What have been the major
    institutional changes of recent years and how
    have these impacted swp legislation?
  • 4. Applied
  • Seeks to understand policy specifics for
    practical administrative reasons and to assess
    the ground level impact such specifics have on
    client populations. Key question What are the
    actual contents of specific swps what problems
    are encountered by those seeking to apply them in
    the field?

13
SEMESTER OVERVIEW (6) MID-SEMESTER QUIZ
  • Purpose
  • The 40 minute in-class mid-semester quiz
    (to be completed in bluebooks) will account for
    20 of your final grade. Its main purpose is to
    help acclimate you to the standards expected in
    this course. Most of you should have no problem
    meeting those standards, but for those who do,
    the quiz will alert you to the need to upgrade on
    the final exam and semester paper.
  • YOU WILL CHOOSE 1 OF THE 2 FOLLOWING QUESTIONS
  • Discuss why politics is so important in
    understanding social welfare policy and why one
    variety of politics---the conservative one---has
    been so dominant in shaping policy in recent
    years.
  • The welfare state is being rapidly transformed
    both here and abroad. What are the main factors
    accounting for this change. Also discuss the
    likely direction the welfare state during the
    first quarter of the 21st century?

14
SEMESTER OVERVIEW (7) FINAL EXAM AND FINAL PAPER
  • CHOOSE 1 OF THE FOLLOWING 3 QUESTIONS FOR YOUR
    FINAL EXAM AND 1 FOR THE PAPER. EACH WILL BE
    WORTH 40 YOUR FINAL GRADE UNLESS YOU DECIDE TO
    SUBMIT ONLY ONE, WHICH WILL THEN BE WORTH 80 OF
    YOUR FINAL GRADE.
  • Apply either a mainstream or radical perspective
    to one of the issues addressed in this course.
    (You can also choose an issue not covered in
    class, if you so desire.) Explain why you think
    the approach chosen does a better job than the
    alternatives in analyzing the selected issue.
  • What exactly is American exceptionalism and
    how has it influenced U.S. social welfare
    policies?
  • Discuss in documented detail how the contents of
    this class have affected your thinking as a
    future social worker.

15
FINAL EXAM AND FINAL PAPER SPECIFICATIONS
  1. Both the exam and paper will be completed at
    home.
  2. Each should be 2x spaced, typed, and stapled or
    other- wise securely fastened.
  3. The paper should be no more than 10 pages in
    length the exam, no more than 8 pages.
  4. You may elect to submit only one of these
    assignments, but if you do, its results will
    constitute 80 of your grade.
  5. You cannot use the same question for both.
  6. Please do not ask me to discuss hypothetical
    answers to the exam or paper.

16
WHAT DOES THIS GUY WANT FROM ME?
  • ANSWER
  • RELAX IM YOUR TEACHER, NOT YOUR PERSECUTOR
  • ABOVE ALL, I WANT YOU TO THINK ABOUT WHAT IT IS
    YOU ARE LEARNING. INDEED, IF YOU DO NOT THINK YOU
    ARE NOT LEARNING, AND IF YOU ARE NOT LEARNING,
    YOU ARE WASTING BOTH YOUR TIME AND MINE.
  • LOGICALLY AND COHERENTLY COMMUNICATE WHAT YOU
    THINK ON THE EXAMS/PAPER.
  • CONVINCE ME THAT YOU HAVE REALLY THOUGHT ABOUT
    THE DIFFICULT ISSUES IN THIS CLASS.
  • ANY QUESTIONS?

17
OTHER PRELIMINARY MATTERS

(SLIDES 16-22 CAN BE
SKIMMED)
18
  • THIS VERSION OF SOCIAL WORK 821 IS IN STRICT
    CONFORMITY WITH THE
  • CSWE GUIDELINES ON SOCIAL WELFARE POLICY
    EDUCATION
  • NASW CODE OF ETHICS
  • MSU GUIDING PRINCIPLES

19
  • CSWE GUIDELINES
  • M6.10 SOCIAL WELFARE POLICY/SERVICES
  • THE FOUNDATION SOCIAL WELFARE POLICY AND SERVICES
    CONTENT MUST INCLUDE THE HISTORY, MISSION, AND
    PHILOSOPHY OF THE SOCIAL WORK PROFESSION. CONTENT
    MUST BE PRESENTED ABOUT THE HISTORY AND CURRENT
    PATTERNS OF PROVISION OF SOCIAL WELFARE SERVICES,
    THE ROLE OF SOCIAL POLICY IN HELPING OR DETERRING
    PEOPLE IN THE MAINTENANCE OR ATTAINMENT OF
    OPTIMAL HEALTH AND WELL-BEING, AND THE EFFECT OF
    POLICY ON SOCIAL WELFARE PRACTICE. STUDENTS MUST
    BE TAUGHT TO ANALYZE CURRENT SOCIAL POLICY WITHIN
    THE CONTEXT OF HISTORICAL AND CONTEMPORARY
    FACTORS THAT SHAPE POLICY. CONTENTS MUST BE
    PRESENTED ABOUT THE POLITICAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL
    PROCESSES USED TO INFLUENCE POLICY, THE PROCESS
    OF POLICY FORMULATION, AND THE FRAMEWORKS FOR
    ANALYZING SOCIAL PROCESSES IN LIGHT OF THE
    PRINCIPLES OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC JUSTICE.

20
  • CSWE GUIDELINES
  • M6.7 PROMOTION OF SOCIAL/ECO. JUSTICE
  • PROGRAMS OF SOCIAL WORK EDUCATION MUST PROVIDE AN
    UNDERSTANDING OF THE DYNAMICS AND CONSEQUENCES OF
    SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC INJUSTICE, INCLUDING ALL
    FORMS OF HUMAN OPPRESSION AND DISCRIMINATION.
    THEY MUST PROVIDE STUDENTS WITH THE SKILLS TO
    PROMOTE SOCIAL CHANGE AND TO IMPLEMENT A WIDE
    VARIETY OF INTERVENTIONS THAT FURTHER THE
    ACHIEVEMENT OF INDIVIDUAL AND COLLECTIVE SOCIAL
    AND ECONOMIC JUSTICE. THEORETICAL AND PRACTICE
    CONTENT MUST BE PROVIDED ABOUT STRATEGIES OF
    INTERVENTION FOR ACHIEVING SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC
    JUSTICE AND OR COMBATING THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS
    OF INSTITUTIONALIZED FORMS OF OPPRESSION.

21
  • NASW CODE OF ETHICS
  • SOCIAL WORKERS PRIMARY GOAL IS TO HELP PEOPLE IN
    NEED AND TO ADDRESS SOCIAL PROBLEMS.
  • SOCIAL WORKERS CHALLENGE SOCIAL INJUSTICE

22
  • MSU GUIDING PRINCIPLES
  • PEOPLE MATTER
  • ACTIVE LEARNING ACROSS
  • THE MISSION

IN HOC SIGNO VINCES
23
AD ASTRA ET PROJECT
RECIPIENT SPECIAL MENSCHEN AWARD AMERICAN
ACADEMY OF POWERPOINT PROJECTIONISTS
24
MODULE I CRITICAL THINKING READINGS (IN
ORDER) PARTS II, 8 10 VI, 25 IIPART
II, 11 IV 24, 26 (393-4/ 397-99/402-406)

25
JANE ADDAMS MEMORIAL by MITCHELL SIPORIN ILLINOIS
FEDERAL ARTS PROJECT, WORKS PROJECT
ADMINISTRATIONS (WPA), 1936
26
WHY START A COURSE ON SOCIAL WELFARE POLICY (SWP)
WITH AN ART SLIDE?
  • BECAUSE
  • ITS BEAUTIFUL, AND BEAUTY IS ITS OWN
    JUSTIFICATION.
  • JANE ADDAMS IS THE GREATEST HERO IN THE HISTORY
    OF SOCIAL WORK, AND, LIKE OTHER PEOPLE, SOCIAL
    WORKERS NEED HEROES TO INSPIRE THEM.
  • THE MURAL PROVES THAT THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT ONCE
    SPENT MONEY ON BEAUTIFUL THINGS THAT DENOUNCED
    THE UGLY THINGS WAR, SEXISM, RACISM, AND CLASS
    OPPRESSION.
  • IN POLITICAL ALLIANCE WITH OTHERS, SOCIAL WORKERS
    NEED TO REDOUBLE THE FIGHT AGAINST THOSE UGLY
    THINGS.
  • LEARNING ABOUT SOCIAL WELFARE POLICY CAN HELP TO
    PREPARE YOU TO PARTICIPATE IN THAT STRUGGLE.

27
WHY MODULE I IS IMPORTANT (1)
  • VIRTUALLY ALL SOCIAL SCIENCE/SOCIAL POLICY
    RESEARCH IS STEEPED IN, BUT NOT NECESSARILY
    LABELED AS, EITHER MAINSTREAM OR RADICAL
    THINKING. THAT IS, SOCIAL WORK AND, MORE
    GENERALLY, SOCIAL SCIENCE ARE INHERENTLY
    POLITICAL IN NATURE, INSOFAR AS THEY INVOLVE
    POWER RELATIONSHIPS, AS INDEED DOES ALL OF HUMAN
    LIFE.
  • IT IS THEREFORE ESSENTIAL THAT YOU LEARN TO
    IDENTIFY AND ASSESS THESE DIVERGENT APPROACHES
    AND DECIDE WHICH OFFERS BETTER INSIGHTS INTO THE
    COMPLEX POLICY ISSUES DEALT WITH IN THIS CLASS.
    IN OTHER WORDS, YOU MUST LEARN TO THINK
    CRITICALLY!

28
WHY MODULE I IS IMPORTANT (2)
  • ANOTHER WAY OF STATING THIS SAME POINT IS TO SAY
    THAT.
  • IF CRITICAL THINKING IS A KEY TO UNDERSTANDING
    SOCIAL WELFARE POLICY, THEN UNDERSTANDING THE
    DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MAINSTREAM
  • RADICAL THINKING
  • IS THE KEY TO CRITICAL
  • THINKING.

29
ARE YOU A MAINSTREAM OR OR A RADICAL THINKER?
LETS SEE WHICH OF THESE APPROACHES BEST
REFLECTS THE WAY YOU LOOK AT THE WORLD!
30
THE U.S. POLITICAL SPECTRUM
  • U.S. VIEW OF THE POLITICAL SPECTRUM
  • LEFT RIGHT
  • LIBERAL

    CONSERVATIVE
  • (New Deal/Great Society)
    (Reagan/Bush)
  • THE POLITICAL SPECTRUM VIEWED FROM ABROAD
  • RADICAL
    MAINSTREAM
    RIGHT
  • LEFT MARXIST SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC
    LIBERAL CONSERVATIVE MONARHCHIST FASCIST
  • (CRITICAL)
    (INSTITUTIONAL)
  • THAT IS, VIEWED FROM OUTSIDE THE U.S., AMERICAN
    POLITICAL DIVISIONS SEEM VERY NARROW RATHER THAN
    BEING DIAMETRICAL OPPOSITES, AS AMERICANS
    GENERALLY BELIEVE, LIBERALISM AND CONSERVATISM
    ARE SEEN AS NOT THAT DIFFERENT FROM ONE
    ANOTHER---IN OTHER WORDS, AS BEING TWO FACETS OF
    THE SAME MAINSTREAM. THE MEANING OF THESE
    DISTINCTIONS WILL BECOME CLEARER AS WE LOOK AT
    THESE CONCEPTS MORE CLOSELY.
  • ALTERNATE TERMS USED IN THE ASSIGNED TEXT
    CHAPTERS.

31
WHAT LIBERALS AND CONSERVATIVES SHARE
AMERICAN POLITICAL MAINSTREAM
CONSERVATISM
LIBERALISM
32
MAINSTREAM U.S. POLITICAL THINKING A SUMMARY (1)
  • LIBERALS AND CONSERVATIVES BOTH BELIEVE THAT
    IDEAS ULTIMATELY DETERMINE SOCIAL REALITY. THUS,
    OUR ECONOMIC POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS WERE
    INSPIRED BY AND CREATED TO PRACTICE, PROMOTE,
    DEFEND THE IDEAS OF DEMOCRACY, FREE ENTERPRISE,
    EQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITY.
  • WHILE OUR IDEAS AND VALUES REFLECT OUR NATIONAL
    EXPERIENCE, AND FUEL OUR PERSONAL ASPIRATIONS,
    THEIR VALUE IS REALLY UNIVERSAL. WE AND OTHER
    PEOPLES CHERISH THEM BECAUSE THEY WORK.

33
MAINSTREAM A SUMMARY (2)
  • POPULAR ACCEPTANCE OF POWERFUL IDEAS/VALUES, LIKE
    THOSE JUST CITED, CONSTITUTES SOCIAL PROGRESS.
    SUCH IDEAS ALWAYS EXIST IN THE ABSTRACT, BUT
    THEIR ONGOING INCORPORATION INTO REAL LIFE
    DEMONSTRATES THAT HUMANKIND IS INDEED EVOLVING
    TOWARDS A HIGHER LEVEL.
  • THE U.S. HAS BEEN THE WORLDS MORAL AND POLITICAL
    LEADER BECAUSE ITS IDEAS AND VALUES HAVE
    REPEATEDLY PROVEN TO BE THE CORRECT ONES---THEY
    HAVE BEEN MORE EFFECTIVE IN PROMOTING HUMAN
    BETTERMENT THAN ANY IN HISTORY.

34
MAINSTREAM A SUMMARY (3)
  • On the other hand,
    LEAD TO

UNDEMOCRATIC POLITICAL IDEAS
UNDEMOCRATIC AND ROTTEN RESULTS
35
THE MAINSTREAM CONCEPTIONS OF POLITICS A
NATIONAL DIALOGUE IN IDEAS
  • Political campaigning is ostensibly about ideas
    candidates are supposed to present their ideas so
    that we voters can decide who is better prepared
    to lead the country.
  • That politics has descended into mere
    personality contests is thus widely deplored,
    precisely because it deprives voters of rational
    choices among competing ideas.
  • A further specifically American presumption is
    that liberalism and conservatism are the only
    appropriate idea frameworks (ideologies) for
    policy proposals. (Elsewhere, as noted in slide
    30, the ideological spectrum tends to be wider.)
  • Both ideologies are thus squarely within the
    mainstream by world standards, and both share key
    assumptions about social and political reality.

36
MAINSTREAM POLITICAL IDEAS LIBERALISM AND
CONSERVATISM
  • THE POLITICAL SUBSETS OF AMERICAN MAINSTREAMISM
  • WHILE LIBERALISM AND CONSERVATISM ACCEPT THE SAME
    BASIC GENERAL ORIENTATION, THEY DO DIFFER ON THE
    FOLLOWING SPECIFICS
  • LIBERALISM
  • EXPANDED SOCIAL WELFARE POLICIES
  • GREATER EQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITY
  • ENHANCED GOVERNMENT REGULATION, AS
  • NECESSARY FOR SOCIETY AS A WHOLE
  • REDUCED CORPORATE INFLUENCE VIA CAMPAIGN
  • LAW CHANGES AND OTHER REFORMS
  • PROGRESSIVE TAXATION
  • STRONG ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTIONSIM
  • CONSERVATISM
  • MAXIMUM FEASIBLE SWP PRIVATIZATION
  • SOCIAL MOBILITY VIA INDIVIDUAL EFFORT
  • REDUCED GOVERNMENT REGULATION IN
  • FAVOR OF MARKET MECHANISMS
  • PROMOTION OF CORPORATE PROFITS AND
  • MINIMAL CHANGES IN CAMPAIGN LAWS
  • FLATTER TAXES
  • WEAKER ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTIONS

37
CONSERVATISM
  • CONSERVATIVES BELIEVE THAT ADOPTION OF THEIR
    IDEAS RESULT IN MORE EFFICIENT AND EFFECTIVE
    GOVERNMENT.
  • THEY ARE CONVINCED THAT GOVERNMENT ECO
    INTERVENTION SHOULD BE MINIMIZED, SO THAT EACH
    INDIVIDUAL HAS BOTH THE DISCRETION AND OBLIGATION
    TO PARTICIPATE IN OUR FREE MARKET SYSTEM.

38
LIBERALISM
  • LIBERALS (SOMETIMES CALLED PROGRESSIVES, A
    CATEGORY THAT INCLUDES MOST SOCIAL WORKERS) ARE
    LIKEWISE CONVINCED IN THE MORAL AND LOGICAL
    SUPERIORITY OF THEIR IDEAS.
  • THEY CONTEND THAT GOVERNMENT SHOULD PURSUE EQUAL
    INDIVIDUAL OPPORTUNITY AND SOMEWHAT GREATER
    EQUALITY OF OUTCOME IN OTHER WORDS, THAT
    GOVERNMENT SHOULD HELP TO MAXIMIZE SOCIAL
    MOBILITY, WHILE LIMITING THE GAP BETWEEN RICH
    POOR. CHALLENGING INJUSTICE, AS ADVOCATED BY
    THE NASW CODE, IS THUS A TYPICAL EXPRESSION OF
    THE LIBERAL CREDO.

39
LIBERALISM VERSUS CONSERVATISM SPECIFIC ISSUES
  • LETS LOOK AT SOME SPECIFIC ISSUES IN ORDER TO
    ILLUSTRATE THE COMMON MAINSTREAM WAY OF
    INTERPRETING SOCIAL REALITY. FOR EXAMPLE

40
A MAINSTREAM VIEW OF SOCIAL WORK
  • SOCIAL WORK IS ABOUT
  • 1. HELPING TO EMPOWER INDIVIDUAL PEOPLE
  • SO THAT THEY HAVE GREATER
  • CONTROL OVER THEIR LIVES.
  • 2. PROVIDING THERAPY
  • TO THOSE INDIVIDUALS IN NEED OF SUCH
  • SERVICES.
  • 3. SUPPORTING PASSAGE OF PROGRESSIVE SWPS IN
    ORDER TO PROMOTE DIVERSITY, SOCIAL JUSTICE AND
    EQUALITY.

41
A MAINSTREAM EXAMPLE INDIVIDUALISM (1)
  • The following illustration shows how one key
    mainstream value, individualism, helps to shape
    our institutions. From a mainstream perspective,
    our whole lives are quite appropriately based on
    the individualist ethos, whereby each person
    (individual) is responsible for his/her fate.
    Those who fail accordingly do so because they
    lack the right stuff. This belief necessarily
    obstructs sympathy for the poor, whom many (a
    majority of?) affluent Americans conclude have
    the wrong stuff as individuals. Hence their
    poverty is perceived as merited.

42
MAINSTREAM THINKING AND INDIVIDUALISM (2)
ALL OUR INSTITUTIONS ARE BASED ON THIS BELIEF IN
INDIVIDUALISM
THAT THE INDIVIDUAL IS THE THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT
OF SOCIETY IS THE PIVOTAL IDEA IN
AMERICAN SOCIETY
43
ANOTHER EXAMPLE RACISM (1)
  • Here again, the outlook should be familiar,
    not least because most Americans essentially
    share the same mainstream view on this sensitive
    subject.

44
MAINSTREAM INTERPRETATION OF RACISM (2)
Racism is basically an expression of peoples
ignorance an egregious example of what happens
when they have the wrong ideas about social
reality. To cure it we need to educate the
ignorant, so that they understand that people of
color are no different in any essential respect
from the white majority. Once this truth is
absorbed, then Americans of all colors can stop
hating and start cooperating. In the meantime,
the government needs to pass appropriate laws
banning discrimination. Social workers can do
their part by promoting diversity and doing more
to recruit people of color into the profession
45
SOUND FAMILIAR?
  • IF MAINSTREAM VIEWS, AS PRESENTED THUS FAR, SOUND
    FAMILIAR, THATS BECAUSE THEY ARE INDEED
  • MAINSTREAM!
  • THAT IS, MOST AMERICANS MOST OF THE TIME THINK IN
    MAINSTREAM WAYS---SO MUCH SO THAT IT NEVER OCCURS
    TO MOST OF THEM THAT THERE ARE INDEED OTHER WAYS
    OF UNDERSTANDING REALITY.

46
RADICALISM (1)
  • ALTHOUGH OFTEN SUBTLE AND COMPLEX, THE RADICAL
    VIEW OF REALITY WAS ESSENTIALLY SUMMARIZED BY
    KARL MARX, ITS LEADING EXPONENT, AS FOLLOWS

47
THE RADICAL VIEW OF REALITY (2)
THE IDEAS OF THE RULING CLASS ARE IN EVERY
EPOCH THE RULING IDEAS, I.E., THE CLASS WHICH IS
THE RULING MATERIAL FORCE IN SOCIETY IS AT THE
SAME TIME ITS RULING INTELLECTUAL FORCE. THE
CLASS WHICH HAS AT ITS DISPOSAL THE MATERIAL
MEANS OF PRODUCTION, HAS CONTROL AT THE SAME
TIME OVER THE MEANS OF MENTAL PRODUCTION, SO
THAT THEREBY, GENERALLY SPEAKING, THOSE WHO LACK
THE MEANS OF MENTAL PRODUCTION ARE SUBJECT TO
IT. KARL MARX, THE GERMAN
IDEOLOGY
  • Famous
  • philosopher

48
RADICALISM (3)
  • TRANSLATED AT A RELATIVELY CRUDE LEVEL, MARX WAS
    SAYING SOMETHING SIMILAR TO THE OBSERVATION
    ATTRIBUTED TO, A.J. LIEBLING, AN OLD-STYLE NEW
    YORK NEWSPAPERMAN
  • FREEDOM OF THE PRESS BELONGS TO THOSE WHO OWN
    ONE

49
SO WHO DOES OWN THE MEDIA, ANYWAY?
  • A POPULAR GOVERNMENT WITHOUT POPULAR
    INFORMATION, OR THE MEANS OF ACQUIRING IT, IS BUT
    A PROLOGUE TO A FARCE OR A TRAGEDY, OR PERHAPS
    BOTH.
  • JAMES MADISON (1822)
  • READ ALL ABOUT IT!
  • U.S. BOOK PUBLISHING IS NOW DOMINATED BY 7 FIRMS
  • U.S. NEWSPAPER PUBLISHING IS NOW DOMINATED BY 6
    FIRMS
  • U.S. CABLE TELEVISION IS NOW DOMINATED BY 6 FIRMS
  • IN 1900 THE U.S. SOCIALIST PARTY HAD TWO MILLION
    MEMBERS AND PUBLISHED 325 NEWSPAPERS AND
    MAGAZINE IN 2000 THERE IS NO SOCIALIST PARTY AND
    ONLY A HANDFUL OF RADICAL PUBLICATIONS
  • IN 1989 THE LARGEST SITDOWN STRIKE IN 30 YEARS
    (IN PITTSON, VA.) WAS VIRTUALLY UNREPORTED

50
A WORD FROM AN EXPERT
  • To a large extent, the absence of
    informedpolitics reflects the power of U.S.
    media corporations to control and
    dominatepolitical debate. The corporate media
    may well be the most powerful adversary in the
    ranks of capital. They control what the general
    public sees and reads about the political process
    in the United States. Critical discussion of
    media structure is the last thing they want the
    general public to consider.
  • Robert W. McChesney
  • Leading media analyst

51
RADICALS (4)
  • In other words, radicals believe that the
    creation, selection, and reception of ideas is by
    no means a neutral process, but rather reflects
    the outlook of the political and economic elite,
    whose ownership and/or control of the means of
    mental production---not only the media but the
    schools at all levels, as well as related
    institutions like advertising---assure that their
    views are likely to be accepted by the average
    person.
  • Thus, rather than incorporating universal
    meanings, as mainstreamers believe, ideas such as
    democracy, freedom, and equalityreflect
    and reinforce the specific class relations of
    capitalist society e.g., we only are taught and
    therefore only understand democracy as it
    exists under capitalist conditions, which is in
    turn only one---and, from the Marxian
    perspective, one distinctly limited---form of
    democracy.
  • Alternative understandings of democracy and
    other basic concepts are, as a practical matter,
    simply not provided with much exposure.

52
RADICALISM (5)
  • It is very important to understand, however, that
    bourgeois ideology, whether in its liberal or
    conservative form, is NOT part of some crude
    capitalist conspiracy. Although ideas
    threatening to the status quo are generally
    excluded from the mass media and school system,
    the rich do not secretly get together to put one
    over on the rest of us---such a notion is a
    childish oversimplification of how capitalism
    really works.
  • Instead, most people understand that certain
    ideas are acceptable while others are not. Even
    when familiar with the latter (which is often not
    the case), people who make their living
    communicating ideas are alert to the need to
    censor themselves lest expressions of
    unorthodoxy result in punishments, such as
    firing or, in the case of academics, denial of
    tenure. Power in democratic capitalist
    societies is thus generally wielded in a subtle,
    indirect way. Instead of squelching dangerous
    ideas outright, the powerful depend on their
    underlings to be smart enough not to raise
    awkward issues in the first place. Subversive
    ideas are thereby excluded from everyday
    discourse, so that, as a practical matter, they
    might as well not exist at all! The result is
    that most people most of the time just assume
    that the way they live is the way they must live
    there are no alternatives worth bothering about,
    especially since daily pressures generally
    preclude consideration of such possibilities. It
    is only when the economy goes into crisis that
    people may begin to consider alternatives.

53
MAINSTREAMISM AND RADICALISM A COMPARISON
  • MAINSTREAMISM
  • Ideas like democracy and freedom are
    universals.
  • Ideas are accepted or rejected on the basis of
    reason.
  • Conservatism and liberalism constitute the entire
    range of sensible and acceptable social and
    political discourse anything outside these ways
    of thinking is unacceptable because it is neither
    intellectually sensible nor politically
    practicable.
  • RADICALISM
  • The meaning of such ideas is dependent on
    specific political and historical circumstances.
  • Mass acceptance or rejection depends more on
    power than on reason. Indeed, a group or class
    has power to the extent that ideas reflecting its
    outlook interests (e.g., about what constitutes
    democracy) are widely accepted.
  • Although pervasive in the U.S., conservatism
    liberalism are merely two sides of the same
    capitalist (bourgeois) coin. There are more
    insightful ways of understanding social reality.

54
AN RADICAL VIEW OF SOCIAL WORK
  • SOCIAL WORK IS ABOUT
  • HELPING TO ASSURE POLITICAL NORMALCY BY
  • FACILITATING THE INDIVIDUAL TO ADJUST TO
    RATHER THAN QUESTION AN UNJUST STATUS QUO.
  • 2. ACTING AS THE COERCIVE AGENTS OF AN
    INEQUITABLE SYSTEM WHICH CREATES THE VERY
    PROBLEMS---NOTABLY, POVERTY, RACISM, CRIME,
    ADDICTION, ETC.---THAT SOCIAL WORKERS OSTENSIBLY
    SEEK TO COMBAT. IT FOLLOWS THAT SOCIAL WORKERS
    MUST ATTEND TO THE DISEASE ITSELF RATHER THAN
    MERELY TO ITS SYMPTONS.
  • 3. SUPPORTING PASSAGE OF SOCIAL WELFARE POLICIES
    THAT DO LITTLE OR NOTHING TO ADDRESS THE
    UNDERLYING STRUCTURAL PROBLEM---NAMELY, THE
    OVERWHELMING CAPITALIST ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL
    POWER.

55
A RADICAL DEPICTION OF INDIVIDUALISM
RADICALS CONTEND THAT IN OUR SOCIETY
BOTH PEOPLE AND INSTITUTIONS, ARE SHAPED TO
REFLECT THE ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL INTERESTS OF
SOCIETYS RICHEST AND MOST POWERFUL
ELEMENTS--- FUNDAMENTALLY, THE CAPITALIST CLASS,
WHICH OWNS AND CONTROLS MOST OF THE WEALTH
CREATED BY SOCIETY AS A WHOLE. THE FOLLOWING
TWO SLIDES EXPLAIN RADICAL THINKING IN MORE
DETAIL
56
A RADICAL DEPICTION OF INDIVIDUALISM
Under capitalism, people beliefs about the good
life reflects the values of the capitalist
class, which controls institutional life through
its ownership of the means of production.The
result is that all institutions function in
accordance w/capitalist economic and political
priorities. What Americans call individualism
is thus merely the necessary adaptations we must
make to the conditions of life under capitalism.
These are celebrated by the capitalist media as
invigoratingly competitive and joyfully
consumerist, and are promoted in the schools
as self-reliant individualism. In reality,
however, we have no choice but to accommodate to
the institutional life of this society, since
this is the only way we are able to survive. The
next slide takes a closer look at this process.
57
A RADICAL DEPICTION OF INDIVIDUALISM
Our institutional life is controlled by those who
own and control the productive wealth
(capital) of society. Ultimately, all ideas,
values, and---yes, social welfare
programs--- reflect capitalist interests and
priorities, which are essentially the 1)
maintenance of social order and (2) nurturing
conditions favorable to profit making (a
friendly business climate). It is, for example,
in the interest of the corporations---owned for
the most part by the very rich---see module 4 for
details) to keep labor costs down by
encouraging a massive influx of cheap labor into
the market, thereby depressing wages and keeping
inflation under control. There are other ways to
accomplish the same goal ---for example, a tax on
luxury consumption---but these are opposed by the
rich as threaten- ing to their wealth and
political power. From the radical viewpoint,then,
EVERY SOCIAL POLICY ISSUE FACING AMERICAN
SOCIETY, AND EVERY MAINSTREAM SOLUTION TO THOSE
ISSUES, IN ONE WAY OR ANOTHER REFLECT
THESE REALITIES, EVEN THO MOST OF US
DONTREALIZE THIS TO BE THE CASE. Racism
constitutes a good illustration in this regard.
58
A RADICAL INTERPRETATION OF RACISM
Black people have been ruthlessly exploited ever
since they were brought here as slaves.
Fundamentally, the situation of the black masses
has yet to change. True, many blacks have been
incorporated into the middle class (the black
bourgeoisie), But most are still at the end of
the line when it comes to job opportunities. (La
st hired, first fired.) Thus, radicals calls
attention to the role welfare recipients play in
the economy they are tossed into the labor
market when times are good, so as to dampen
wages, and tossed out when there arent enough
jobs to go around. In short, capitalism breeds
racism, whatever the prevailing ideas may
contend. (For more on racism, see module 4.)
59
RACIAL PREJUDICE ANOTHER LOOK
  • RADICAL VIEW
  • YES, IGNORANCE IS OF COURSE REFLECTED IN RACIAL
    ATTITUDES, BUT SO IS ECONOMICS!
  • FOR EXAMPLE, WHITE RACISM ULTIMATELY DERIVES FROM
    FEARS THAT BLACKS THREATEN JOBS AND REAL ESTATE
    VALUES, AS WELL AS THE SOCIAL STATUS OF
    LOWER-MIDDLE CLASS WHITES, WHO WANT TO BELIEVE
    THEY ARE SUPERIOR TO BLACKS. IT DIVIDES PEOPLE
    FROM ONE ANOTHER, AND THEREFORE HELPS TO SUSTAIN
    THE STATUS QUO.
  • IT FOLLOWS THAT RACIAL PREJUDICE WILL NOT
    DISAPPEAR UNTIL AND UNLESS THERE ARE ENOUGH
    DECENT JOBS FOR EVERYONE OTHERWISE COMPETITION
    FOR THESE POSITIONS WILL CONTINUE TO GENERATE
    FEAR AND SUSPICION.
  • MAINSTREAM VIEW
  • RACISM RESULTS FROM IGNORNANCE PEOPLE WOULD
    CEASE TO BE RACISTS IF THEY WERE PROPERLY
    EDUCATED IN THE MEANING OF BROTHERHOOD AND HAD A
    SCIENTIFIC UNDERSTANDING OF GENETICS AND HUMAN
    EVOLUTION.
  • IN ADDITION TO ITS OTHER BENEFITS, RACIAL
    INTEGRATION GIVES PEOPLE THE CHANCE TO KNOW ONE
    ANOTHER ON A PERSONAL BASIS THEIR IDEAS ABOUT
    RACE WILL CHANGE ONCE THEY INTERACT OVER AN
    EXTENDED PERIOD.

60
STILL NOT SURE WHETHER YOU ARE A MAINSTREAMER OR
A RADICAL?
HERES SOME ADDITIONAL DETAILED STUFF TO HELP
YOU DECIDE!
61
MAINSTREAMISM VS. RADICALISM FURTHER COMMENTS
  • THE PRECEDING EXAMPLES IS JUST THAT EXAMPLES OF
    HOW THE MAINSTREAM-RADICAL DISTINCTION CAN BE
    APPLIED TO VIRTUALLY ALL SOCIAL ISSUES. BECAUSE
    AMERICANS ARE SO ACCUSTOMED TO THINKING IN
    IDEALIST TERMS, IT RARELY OCCURS TO THEM THAT
    THERE IS ANOTHER (I.E., MATERIALIST) WAY OF
    UNDERSTANDING SOCIAL REALITY. YET IF THIS CLASS
    HAS ONE OVERRIDING LESSON, IT IS THE IMPORTANCE
    OF ACQUIRING SUCH UNDERSTANDING FOR REASONS
    PROVIDED IN EARLIER SLIDES.
  • NOTE, HOWEVER, THAT WHILE MAINSTREAM-RADICAL
    PARADIGMS ARE CONCEPTUALLY DISTINCT, THEY ARE, AS
    A PRACTICAL MATTER, INTERRELATED IN COMPLEX WAYS.
    THUS, ALL PEOPLE BELIEVE THEIR IDEAS ABOUT SOCIAL
    REALITY TO BE TRUE, BUT MOST RARELY REFLECT ON
    THE DEEPER ORIGINS OF THOSE IDEAS---THAT IS, WHY
    THEY BELIEVE AS THEY DO.
  • IN SHORT, UNDERSTANDING SOCIAL POLICY/SOCIAL
    REALITY REQUIRES A SUBTLE INTELLIGENCE CAPABLE OF
    GRASPING THE INTERRELATION OF IDEAS AND POWER.
    ACQUIRING SUCH UNDERSTANDING REQUIRES AN ALERT
    MIND INTERESTED IN HISTORY, SOCIAL SCIENCE, AND
    PUBLIC AFFAIRS.

62
DO YOU FIT THE BILL?
63
MAINSTREAMISM VS. RADICALISM A NOTE FOR SOCIAL
WORKERS
  • SOCIAL WORK STUDENTS CAN PERHAPS BETTER GRASP
    THESE DISTINCTIONS IF THEY THINK OF THEM IN
    PSYCHO-SOCIAL TERMS FAMILIAR TO THOSE WITH
    THERAPEUTIC TRAINING.
  • THUS, THE OBJECT OF THERAPY IS TO HELP CLIENTS
    UNDERSTAND THAT THEIR IDEAS ABOUT THEMSELVES
    (THEIR SELF IMAGES) DERIVE FROM THEIR FORMATIVE
    EXPERIENCES. IN OTHER WORDS, SELF-IMAGES HAVE
    CAUSES, AND THOSE CAUSES ULTIMATELY ARE ROOTED IN
    THE CIRCUMSTANCES OF ONES UPBRINGING AND EARLY
    RELATIONSHIPS.
  • IN THE SAME WAY, OUR SOCIAL UNDERSTANDINGS (E.G.,
    WHAT IT MEANS TO BE AN AMERICAN, A SUCCESS, OR A
    MORALLY RESPONSIBLE PERSON) REFLECT THE SOCIAL
    CIRCUMSTANCES OF OUR UPBRINGING THE SOCIAL
    VALUES INCULCATED BY THE FAMILY, MASS MEDIA,
    SCHOOLS, AND WHAT THE SOCIOLOGISTS CALL OTHER
    SOCIALIZING INSTITUTIONS. THE RESULT IS THAT WE
    RARELY REFLECT ON THE ECONOMIC INTERESTS SERVED
    BY THESE IDEAS OR HOW THESE IDEAS HELP TO
    BUTTRESS A HIGHLY INEGALITARIAN STATUS QUO. YET
    TO BE EFFECTIVE POLICY ADVOCATES FOR OUR CLIENTS,
    WE MUST ACQUIRE SUCH UNDERSTANDING---THAT IS, WE
    MUST LEARN TO THINK IN BOTH MAINSTREAM AND
    RADICAL FRAMES OF REFERENCE.

64
A THOUGHTFUL EXERCISE
Use your new knowledge of mainstreamism and
radicalism, to review some social policy or
social welfare policy issue of interest to
you. which viewpoint appears to provide
the stronger case?
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com