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Title: Software in Far East Asia - A Personal Perspective -


1
Software in Far East Asia - A Personal
Perspective -
  • Kouichi Kishida
  • Technical Director, SRA-KTL
  • Tokyo, Japan
  • k2_at_sra.co.jp
  • http//www.sra.co.jp/people/k2/

2
Agenda
  • This talk will not give a formal or systematic
    view.
  • But a personal perspective based upon speakers
    experience in Japanese software industry and also
    various international activities.

3
Self Introduction
  • I have entered into computing world in first as
    a technical translator / freelance programmer in
    1960 after dropping out from University of
    Tokyo.
  • My major at the university was astrophysics, but
    Ive lost my interest in science.At first, I
    wanted to be a painter.
  • Here is one of my works as a young abstract
    artist.

4
(No Transcript)
5
What Im now?
  • After working for a few computer-related
    companies, Ive started a small software house
    called SRA in 1967.
  • Now Ive half-retired from the business and
    directing SRA-KTL, a RD subsidiary of the
    group.
  • And devoting most of my time for various
    volunteer activities in domestic and
    international software community.

6
My Volunteer Activities
  • Fellow of JUS Japan Unix Society (1983 )
  • Secretary General of SEA
  • Software Engineers Association (1985 )
  • Chairman of SMSG
  • Software Maintenance Study Group (1990 )
  • President of JASPIC Japan SPI Consortium (2000
    )
  • Connection with China (1986 )
  • Annual International Symposium/Workshop
  • ICSE2006 in Shanghai
  • Chair of Far East Experience Track

7
My Contact Points in China
  • Prof. Dehua Ju (ASTI Co., Shanhai)
  • IEEE Software Editorial Member
  • Prof. Xichang Zhong (SEC of CAS, Beijing)
  • Beat Bill Gates with set-top box OS named Hopen
  • Prof. Kegang Hao (NW Univ, Xian)
  • Former president of the University
  • Prof. Huawong Chen (NUDT, Changsha)
  • Designed of Chinese supercomputer
  • Prof. Fuqing Yang (Pekin Univ, Beijing)
  • Top lady in Chinese software community

8
ICSE2006 Far East Experience Papers
  • Weve got 32 submissions from 12 countries (117
    co-authors in total)
  • Accepted 9 papers for regular presentation and 10
    papers for poster session.
  • The topics of these papers represent current
    concerns in the Far East.

9
Titles of 9 Accepted Papers
  • Development Technique
  • Reengineering Standalone C Legacy Systems into
    the J2EE Partition Distributed Environment
    (China)
  • UML-Based Service Robot Software Development
    (Korea)
  • Analysis of the Interaction between Practices for
    Introducing XP Effectively (Japan)
  • Quality / Testing
  • Experiments on Quality Evaluation of Embedded
    Software (Japan)
  • Procurement of Enterprise Resource Planning
    Systems (Hong Kong)
  • Detecting Low Usability Web Pages Using
    Quantitative Data of Users' Behavior (Japan)
  • Software Process
  • Experiences of Applying SPC techniques to
    Software Development Processes (Japan)
  • BSR A Statistic-based Approach for Establishing
    and Refining Software Process Performance
    Baseline (China)
  • Practical Approach to Development of SPI
    Activities in a Large Organization (Japan)

10
Titles of 10 Poster Papers
  • Efficiency Analysis of Model-based Review in
    Actual Software Design (Japan)
  • Overseas Development for a Major U.S. eCommerce
    Website (China)
  • A Series of Development Methodologies for a
    Variety of Systems (Korea)
  • A Research Framework for Empirical Software
    Engineering Environment Reflected from Software
    Industry Structure (Japan)
  • Estimation of Project Success Using Bayesian
    Classifier (Japan)
  • Trust in Software Outsourcing Relationships An
    Analysis of Vietnamese Practitioners Views
    (Australia)
  • Improving Requirements Engineering Process for
    Complex System Development through RIM
    (Thailand)
  • Software Practices in Five Asian Countries An
    Exploratory Study (Philippine)
  • University and Industry in Synergy A Research
    Journey Towards Product Lines (Singapore)
  • An Experimental Comparison of Four Test Suite
    Reduction Techniques (China)

11
Some Keywords Observed
  • Software Process Improvement
  • Outsourcing
  • Embedded System Development
  • Free/Open Source Software
  • Government

12
Keyword 1 Software Process Improvement
  • Bottom-Up Movement in Japan
  • JSPW in late 1980s
  • SEA-SPIN from 1996
  • Translation of SEI TR24 25 (1998)
  • Creation of JASPIC (2000)
  • Top-Down Style in Korea and China
  • Why ?

13
Strange Matching between SPI Paradigm and
Confucian Principle
  • Confucius said
  • If names are not rectified, then language will
    not be in accord with truth.
  • If language is not in accord with truth, then
    things cannot be accomplished.
  • If things cannot be accomplished, then rites
    and music will not flourish.
  • If rites and music do not flourish, then the
    punishment will not be just.
  • If punishment is not just, then the people will
    not know how to move their hands or feet.

14
Table for Interpretation
  • Names
  • Language
  • Things
  • Rites Music
  • Punishment
  • People
  • Hand or Feet
  • Concepts
  • Process Model
  • Project
  • Method/Tools
  • Management
  • Programmers
  • Development Activities

15
Pitfall in Beautiful Logic
  • Principle of Confucian Management has a
    beautiful logical structure. But it seems to be
    easy to collapse.
  • Look at the current status of bureaucracy and
    also political situation in those countries
    based upon Confucian principle (China, Japan,
    and Korea).

16
Quotation from Sorai Ogyiu (1666 - 1728)
  • The fundamental concept of Tao (Confucianism)
    is too abstract and difficult to understand.
  • So, legendary sacred kings invented
    Rites-and-Musics as examples, which people easy
    to understand and practice.
  • We should only inherit this spirit and think
    about to make our own version of
    Rites-and-Musics.
  • Is Watts Humphrey the Sacred King for us ?

17
Keyword 2 Outsourcing
  • Software outsourcing seems to be easy.
  • Large number of engineers in developing countries
    and they are eager to get business.
  • Gap of labor costs.
  • Success stories of Indian software companies.
  • But in reality, there are several difficulties.
  • Language and cultural barrier.
  • Rapid change of specs.
  • Needs for close interaction with customers.
  • High liquidity of programmers.

18
Outsourcing Case of China-Japan
  • Chinese software companies are now heavily
    relying on outsourcing business.
  • They are eager to have strong connection with
    Japan.
  • Needs for bridge engineers to paraphrase and fix
    changing user requirement.
  • Many failure stories rather than success.

19
Outsourcing SRAs case
  • Not for cost saving, but to develop prototypes
    for advanced software engineering tools.
  • Project tracking system to trace troubles in
    development.
  • Open Web New development environment using open
    source component tools.
  • SOA system architecture prototype.

20
Problem of High Liquidity of Chinese Human
Resource
  • Observed tendency of young Chinese software
    engineers
  • Always looking for high salary.
  • Also want to do something technically new.
  • Switching job at every few months.
  • So, it is necessary to have project-oriented
    management.

21
Keyword 3 Embedded System Development
  • It is one of the hot topics in Japan and Korea
    because governments are eager to push.
  • Growing demands for new real-time applications
    in telecommunication, vehicle control, etc.
  • Needs for appropriate methodology for
    hardware-software co-design development.
  • Too many troubles caused by ad-hoc technical
    management.

22
Two Interesting Movement in Japan
  • TEF Testing Engineers Forum
  • Active discussion over the mailing list
  • Annual Symposium JaSST since 2003
  • SESSAME Society of Embedded Software Skill
    Acquisition for Managers and Engineers
  • Providing training materials and semimars
  • Annual Workshop since 2003

23
Promotion of S/W Industry in Korea
  • Embedded S/W Engineering Center (KIPA)
  • Linux Engineering Center (KIPA)
  • Qplus Embedded Software Toolkit (ETRI)
  • Best Practice (MOST Korea Embedded S/W
    Industry Council)
  • Support Program for Linux Migration Service
    Development using Linux for Public Organizations

24
Situation in China
  • Chinese people are very much concerned about the
    certification of software testing engineers or
    organizations.
  • Maybe because of historical tradition of
    examination system for selecting talents.
  • So, seminar business is now growing up, and some
    Indian organizations are trying to enter this
    market.

25
Growing Concern about Product Line Software
Engineering
  • New approach for modularization, reuse, and
    domain engineering
  • Driving force is
  • Prof. KC Kang of Postech (Korea)
  • Conducted a number of University-Industry joint
    projects in Korea and also in Japan
  • SRA-KTL are cooperating in Japan.

26
PLSE and SRA-KTL
  • We have been cooperating with Prof. Kang to
    produce an environment for embedded software
    development called ASADAL-OBJ.
  • It is a combination of Prof.Kangs system called
    ASADAL and SRA-KTLs 3D Graphics library called
    Jun.
  • http//selab.postech.ac.kr/ASADAL-Simple_Overview
    .pdf

27
Keyword 4 Free / Open Source Software
  • Market is still dominated by Microsoft Windows,
    but there are growing concerns and also growing
    market for Free/OSS.
  • In Japan, there are many active grass-root
    movements such as FSIJ, etc., but international
    contribution from Japan is still low level.
  • Government is now somehow pushing the movement.
  • Many companies including SRA are now trying to
    make business but not yet successful.

28
Some Industry Statistics in Japan
  • Linux Server Shipment
  • 2004 68,420 servers (13.9 share)
  • 2007 (estimation) 140,000 servers (20 share)
  • Distribution for server market (2004)
  • Red Hat Linux 53
  • Miracle Linux 22
  • Turbolinux 13

29
Eclipse Downloads in China
30
SRA and Free/OSS
  • The first contact was a telephone call from
    Richard Stallman to me in 1987.
  • The trigger was an interview article on Unix
    Review Magazine, which was set by Les Belady.
  • I was just in the political trouble with
    government about SIGMA project and winning the
    battle with SONY News workstation.
  • I had a meeting with Richard and started to
    support his GNU project.

31
SRA and Free/OSS (continued)
  • We were the first commercial user of Unix in
    Japan. So, made a bid contribution to the
    community by providing many useful free tools.
  • Two major product we are now providing are
  • Jun Multimedia application library in Smalltalk
    and Java http//www.srainc.com/Jun/Main_e.h
    tm
  • http//www.sra.co.jp/public/sra/technical/jun/li
    nk.html (Japanese)
  • PostgreSQL especially multi-byte application
    features
  • http//www.postgresql.org/
  • http//www.postgresql.jp/ (Japanese)

32
Free / OSS Different Concerns of Government
  • Japan Enterprise Server
  • Mission Critical Server
  • Korea Embedded Linux
  • China Desktop Linux

33
Keyword 5 Government
  • We had a working group discussion at IWFST last
    year.
  • We discussed about What is the desirable
    government action?
  • Here are my presentation slides

34
My Own Closed Encounter with Government
  • PPDS - 1975-80 (CASE Development)
  • SMEF - 1981-85 (Unix Environment)
  • Walking out from SIGMA (1986)
  • CMM - Long debate about What is SPI?
  • DynC First Experience with MOE

35
Basic Tendency of Government Officials
  • No Long-Term Policy
  • Ad hoc style of decision making
  • Weak interest in technology
  • 3 Major Concerns
  • Budget
  • Chairs in satellite organizations
  • Relation with big companys

36
Tentative Strategy in My Hands
  • Make effective use of budget
  • Use at least 10 for real technology development
  • Strong push for some hidden (real) project behind
    the scene

37
Long Term Strategy
  • Needs for Global Perspective
  • Do not to be too much sensitive about
    international competition
  • But to focus on global needs for technology
  • Be careful about rapid evolution of social
    environment

38
What We Need Now
  • Long term funding for
  • - Very fundamental research in software
    engineering for future
  • Targeting 5-10 years ahead
  • Technical infrastructure for future society
  • Conceptual foundation of software engineering in
    relation to sociology and/or linguistics

39
Neuraths Boat
  • We are like sailors, who on the open sea, must
    reconstruct their boat,but are never able to
    start afresh from the bottom.

40
What Kind of Boat We Are Now on ?
  • OK.
  • Time flows in direction to the past on the same
    speed I hour per hour.
  • Lets looking back into the history of human
    thinking.

41
The Book of Great Learning edited by Zhu-Xi
(16th century)
  • If you want to conquer the world,
  • at first you must govern your state properly.
  • To govern a state,
  • at first you must regulate your family.
  • To regulate your family,
  • at first you must cultivate yourself.
  • To cultivate yourself,
  • at first you must rectify your mind.

42
Strange Matching with Current SPI Paradigm
  • World
  • State
  • Family
  • Ones Self
  • ISO Standard
  • CMM/CMMI
  • Team Software Process
  • Personal Software Process

43
Great Learning (Continued)
  • To rectify your mind,
  • at first you must make your will sincere.
  • To make your will sincere,
  • at first you must expand your knowledge.
  • To expand your knowledge,
  • at first you must study various objects around
    you.
  • Object Orientation!

44
What is Software Engineering?
  • Is it a version of Confucianism adapted to
    computing ?
  • If so, Far East Countries have a conceptual
    advantage !?
  • But, Western philosophy has a same kind of frame
    of thinking also.
  • For example Max Weber.

45
Who Is the Father of OO? Pointed out by
Prof.Reenskaug (Norway)
  • Ideal bureaucracy of Max Weber
  • (1) emphasis on form,
  • (2) concept of hierarchy,
  • (3) specialization of tasks,
  • (4) specified sphere of competence, and
  • (5) established norm of conduct for each layer .
  • This is also the spirit of OO!

46
One Step Beyond
  • Nakamoto Tominaga (1715 - 1746)
  • Front runner of Kaitokudo scholars.
  • A private school on philosophy in Osaka,18th
    century
  • He was a son of the one of the founding members
    of the school.
  • Died very young, wrote a number of philosophical
    notes, but most were lost, only two of them
    remain.
  • Very good bibliographer, but rather
    controversial.
  • His name was long time forgotten, re-evaluated as
    a unique thinker recently (200 years after his
    death).

47
Add-on Principle
  • To authorize their own theory, people add-on some
    new features to attack weak-points in fore-going
    theories.
  • Nakamoto observed this principle thorough his
    careful study of Buddhism scriptures and
    Confucian classics.
  • It is a useful tool for bibliographical study of
    human discourses.
  • It is also applicable when we look into various
    theories/methods in software engineering.

48
3 Characteristics of Human Discourses
  • Trends of the time
  • Ethnic taste
  • Style of representation
  • Nakamoto found these 3 characteristics in his
    study in history of oriental religion or
    philosophical discourses.
  • It will be also useful when we look into
    software engineering theories or methods.

49
Taste of Discourse
  • Nakamotos Observation
  • Buddhism has a taste of magic, Confucianism has
    taste of rhetoric, and Japanese Shinto has a
    taste of simplicity
  • My Observation
  • Structured method has a flavor of abstract art,
    OO has a taste of poetical metaphor, and formal
    people prefer beauty of mathematical notation.
  • It is Just a matter of taste. No strong
    relationship to the contents of discourses.

50
From Thinking to Practice
  • Nakamoto died very young. His dying message in
    his last book Okina-no-Fumi was as follows
  • - Tao (the Way) is the way of sincere
    practice, that's all.
  • This message overrides Sorai. There is no
    sacred king. It is important to pursue your own
    way of sincere practice.

51
Thank you!
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