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Human Reproductive System

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Title: Human Reproductive System


1
Human Reproductive System
2
Male Reproductive System
urinary bladder
seminal vesicles
prostate gland
urethra
penis
rectum
epididymis
Cowpers gland
testis/testes
vas deferens
scrotum
3
Male Reproductive System (frontal view)
See p. 62 in Review book
4
Male Reproductive System
  • Scrotum sac of skin that holds testes. Hangs
    below body to keep testes cool. Sperm cannot be
    produced if body is too warm. Testes move into
    scrotum just before birth.
  • Testis/testes male gonads. Made up of small,
    coiled tubes seminiferous tubules. 300-600 per
    testis. Immature sperm made here.
  • Secrete testosterone

5
Male Reproductive System
  • Epididymis storage area in upper rear of
    testis. Immature sperm move here to mature
    takes 18 hours.
  • Vas deferens tube that leads upwards from each
    testis into lower part of abdomen from
    epididymis.
  • Cowpers gland produces fluids that nourish
    sperm and protect them from the acidity of
    female.
  • Combination of sperm and fluids - semen

6
Male Reproductive System
  • 6. Seminal vesicles same job as Cowpers gland
  • 7. Prostate gland same job as Cowpers gland
    and seminal vesicles
  • 8. Urethra passageway for excretion of urine
    and for sperm to leave body. Vas deferens
    empties into urethra

7
Male Reproductive System
  • 9. Penis male reproductive organ. Facilitates
    internal fertilization
  • Ejaculation muscular contractions force semen
    through urethra. Before, during and after
    ejaculation reflex actions keep outlet of bladder
    closed

8
Hormones and Negative Feedback in Males
  • Negative Feedback change that leads to a
    response that causes something to counteract that
    change
  • Testosterone stimulates development of sperm.
    Once there is a large number of sperm, puberty is
    complete.

9
Female Reproductive System
oviduct
ovary
Urinary bladder
uterus
urethra
rectum
cervix
vagina
10
Female Reproductive System (frontal view)
See p. 61 in Review book
11
Female Reproductive System
  • Ovary female gonads. Secrete estrogen
    produces secondary characteristics, menstrual
    cycle
  • Produces eggs 2 ovaries 4cms long, 2 cms
    wide

12
  • Follicles each ovary contains 200,000 egg sacs
    called follicles. In each follicle is an
    immature egg.
  • All the eggs are present at birth. During the
    womans lifetime 500 eggs mature
  • When an egg matures, follicle moves to surface
    of ovary.
  • Follicle breaks releases the egg ovulation
  • Egg can be fertilized for about 24 hours after
    ovulation

13
Female Reproductive System
  • 2. Oviduct (fallopian tube) Each ovary is near
    but not connected to oviduct. Tube with
    funnel-like opening. Cilia line it to create a
    current that draws the egg into the tube. Egg is
    fertilized in the oviduct
  • 3. Uterus thick, muscular, pear-shaped organ.
    Once egg is fertilized it finishes its
    development in uterus attached to uterine wall

14
Female Reproductive System
  • 4. Urethra passage of urine to outside of body
  • 6. Vagina (birth canal) leads to outside of
    body
  • 7. Cervix narrow neck of uterus

15
The Menstrual Cycle
  • What is the menstrual cycle?
  • Cycle during which an egg develops and is
    released from the ovary and the uterus is
    prepared to receive a fertilized egg
  • Menarche first menstrual period usually occurs
    between 11 and 12
  • Menopause time when a woman stops menstruating,
    usually between 45 55 and is no longer able to
    conceive.

16
The Menstrual Cycle
  • 1. Menstruation Loss of egg and uterine tissue
    via vagina if fertilization does not occur
  • 2. Follicle Stage (follicular stage) lasts 10
    days, FSH LH levels increase, egg matures,
    follicle secretes estrogen to prepare uterus

17
The Menstrual Cycle
  • 3. Ovulation High level of estrogen detected by
    hypothalamus, increased LH, decreased FSH,
    follicle bursts egg released

18
Hormones of Menstrual Cycle
  • What happens if fertilization occurs?
  • Corpus luteum keeps producing progesterone to
    maintain pregnancy. After 5 weeks the embryo
    produces progesterone this inhibits LH FSH so
    no menstrual cycle
  • What happens if fertilization does not occur?
  • There is no implantation the corpus luteum
    breaks down. Progesterone level drops, uterine
    lining breaks down menstruation.
  • FSH LH are produced again new cycle
  • Average Menstrual Cycle is 28 days long

19
Ovulation to Implantation
oviduct
uterus
egg from ruptured follicle
ovary
cervix
follicle
vagina
sperm
20
Ovulation to Implantation
  • Ovary produces estrogen progesterone
    meiosis occurs egg develops
  • Egg matures in follicle of ovary
  • Ovulation egg released from follicle may live
    for 24 hours
  • - egg moves into fallopian tube by cilia

21
Ovulation to Implantation
  • Events in fallopian tube
  • Fertilization occurs here. Sperm lives 4-5 days
    (egg lives 1 day)
  • Zygote undergoes mitosis travels down fallopian
    tube within 6-10 days. Zygote is ready to
    implant into uterus.

22
Ovulation to Implantation
  • Events in uterus
  • Implantation embryo implants/embeds into
    uterine lining secretes hormone HCG to signal
    its arrival
  • Cell Differentiation cells divide by mitosis
    become different due to gene expression.
    Different embryo parts will form.

23
  • Menstrual Cycle Animation
  • To Review
  • http//www.brainpop.com/health/bodysystems/reprodu
    ctivesystem/
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