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Title: Purpose, Tone,


1
Unit 9
  • Purpose, Tone,
  • and Making Inferences

2
Why Think About Purpose?
  • Helps you recognize when informative writing has
    turned persuasive
  • Even when authors primary intention is to inform,
    sometimes personal bias creeps in
  • Remember, there are many ways to think about a
    topic other than the one the author is presenting
  • Of course, knowing from the very beginning that
    the purpose is to persuade is just as important

3
Find Purpose in Meaning (main idea)
  • An author write to express a point about a topic.
    When the author states or implies a main idea,
    the purpose is directly related.
  • Main Idea is made up of a topic and the authors
    controlling point. The controlling points are
    identified by looking for patters and biased
    words.
  • A lot can be learned when you are able to
    identify an authors main idea.

4
3 General Purposes
  • 1. To Inform
  • Purpose is to share information or instruct
  • Tone words such as objective, matter-of-fact, and
    straightforward describe this type of writing
  • Facts and descriptions
  • Textbooks are written in this format
  • Topic Sentences
  • The main causes of road rage are stress and
    anxiety.
  • A healthful diet includes several daily servings
    from each of the major food groups.

5
3 General Purposes
  • 2. To Persuade
  • Author tries to convince the reader to agree with
    him/her.
  • Tone words such as argumentative, forceful,
    controversial, supportive are used to describe
    the main idea.
  • Combination of facts and emotional appeals to
    sway the readers point of view.
  • Topic Sentences
  • Violence that arises from road rage must be
    harshly and swiftly punished.
  • How to achieve should be a part of public school
    education from elementary through high school

6
3 General Purposes
  • 3. To Entertain
  • Author sets out to captivate an audience
  • Grab interest and described as amusing, lively,
    humorous.
  • Creative and expressive language, vivid images,
    strong details that insight emotion.
  • Main Idea is often implied and rely heavy on tone
    words.
  • Topic Sentences
  • Think of our highways as a place to study how
    operating a powerful machine can turn normal
    people into four types of maniacs the bully, the
    loudmouth, the speed demon, and the exterminator.
  • I am zealously committed to eating a balanced
    diet from the four basic food groups
    low-calorie, low-carbohydrate, low-fat, and
    low-taste.

7
Try itInform, Persuade, Entertain???
  1. Cloning human beings should be banned.
  2. Bulimia and anorexia are two serious eating
    disorders.
  3. Age is strictly a case of mind over matter. If
    you dont mind, it doesnt matter.
  4. Rely on Denta-Fresh toothpaste to stop bad breath
    just as millions of others have.
  5. Spanking as a way to discipline a child has a
    long history in many cultures.

8
Purpose vs. Tone
  • Purpose the reason the author writes about a
    topic
  • inform, persuade, entertain
  • Check out page 463 for a list of purposes
    (theres more than one way to say inform (or
    entertain!).
  • Tone the authors attitude toward a topic
  • objective unbiased, neutral, formal
  • subjective biased, emotional, informal
  • Check out page 454 for a list of example words

9
For example
  • Diet Pepsi is light, crisp, and refreshing.
  • Subjective (the adjectives)
  • Four score and seven years ago, our forefathers
    brought forth on this continent a new nation
  • Formal (higher level words and avoidance of
    pronouns)
  • The gangs known as the Crips and Bloods formed
    during the late 1960s in California they still
    exist today.
  • Neutral (just the facts) (also formal, unbiased,
    and objective)

10
a deeper understanding
  • sad
  • emotional, depressed, blue, poignant,
    heartrending
  • mad
  • angry, serious, boiling, crazy, foolish, nuts
  • glad
  • happy, elated, joyful, thankful, relieved
  • light
  • fresh, airy, tender
  • heavy
  • grave, profound, important
  • Just like multiple meanings, how you describe
    tone depends on the context.

11
Describe the Tone
  • 1. You can do anything if you put your mind to
    it. Come on! You can do it!
  • 2. The best days were growing up on the farm
    before life became so fast-paced.
  • 3. Animals can be divided into three groups
    based on the way they maintain body temperature.
  • 4. Tone can be expressed visually as well! Look
    at the picture on page 455. What is the tone (use
    from the word bank)?

12
Inferences
  • An inference (or conclusion) is an idea that is
    suggested by the facts or details in a passage.
  • An author suggests, or implies an idea, and the
    reader comes to a conclusion and makes an
    inference about what the author means.
  • A valid inference is a logical conclusion based
    on evidence.
  • An invalid inference is a false inference that is
    not based on the details, or facts in the text or
    on reasonable thinking.

13
VALID thinking process
  • The VALID approach is made up of 5 steps.
  • Step 1 Verify and value the facts
  • Step 2 Assess prior knowledge
  • Step 3 Learn from the text
  • Step 4 Investigate for bias
  • Step 5 Detect contradictions

14
Step 1 Verify and Value the Facts
  • Keep a sharp eye out for facts
  • Beware of false facts
  • See the facts among the opinions
  • Do not be tricked and misread the facts
  • Once you have all the facts, only then can you
    begin to interpret the facts by making inferences

15
Step 2 Access Prior Knowledge
  • Once you are sure of the facts, you then draw on
    your prior knowledge.
  • What you already know can help you make correct
    inferences

16
Step 3 Learn from the Text
  • Value and verify the facts
  • Valid inferences are always based on what is
    stated or implied in the details.
  • Learn to rely on the evidence in the textinvalid
    inferences go beyond the evidence.
  • Skills pile up onto each other. A skill you
    learned in a previous chapter may help you make
    valid inferences.
  • Identifying stated and implied main ideas train
    you to look at the details. You make inferences
    to determine implied MI.
  • Authors purpose and tone are often inferred
    based on the authors word choice.

17
Step 4 Investigate for Bias
  • Personal views are often based on prior
    experiences. Our personal views influence the way
    we process information.
  • We may become suspicious and stereotype things we
    associate with a negative experience.
  • Our bias can shape our reading of the authors
    meaning. Note biased words and replace them with
    factual details as you form conclusions.

18
Step 5 Detect Contradictions
  • Dont be mislead or misjudge an initial
    impression.
  • Consider other explanations that could logically
    contradict your first impression.
  • There may be a better explanation for the set of
    facts than the first one that comes to mind.

19
Inferences in Creative Expression
  • Textbooks contain clear and unambiguous language.
  • Many other types of writing contain creative
    expressions that suggest deeper meaning.
  • There are known as literary devices (pg. 517)
  • Connotation of words emotional meaning
  • Metaphor a direct comparison
  • Personification giving human traits to things
    that are not human
  • Simile an indirect comparison using like or as
  • Symbol something that stands for or suggests
    something else.

20
Practice
  • Page 505 Practice 1
  • Page 516 Practice 2
  • Page 519 practice 3

21
KU 120 in Review
  • Pre-reading Strategies
  • Context Clues
  • Main Idea Supporting Details
  • Thought Patterns
  • Time order
  • Space order
  • Compare/Contrast
  • Cause Effect
  • Generalization/Example
  • Definition
  • Fact Opinion
  • Tone, Purpose, Inferences

Graphic Organizers K-W-L Venn
Diagram Two Column Notes SQ3R Analytical
Summaries Learning Styles Transition Words
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