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Title: Author

Authors Purpose
Authors Purpose
  • argue
  • condemn
  • describe
  • enlighten
  • entertain
  • explain
  • express
  • illustrate
  • inform
  • instruct
  • investigate
  • narrate
  • persuade
  • report
  • teach
  • warn

Authors Tone
  • arrogant
  • compassionate
  • critical
  • cynical
  • defensive
  • humorous
  • impartial
  • inspirational
  • ironic
  • moralizing
  • nostalgic
  • patriotic
  • perplexed
  • pessimistic
  • reflective
  • reverent
  • satirical
  • sentimental
  • serious

Ask yourself these questions to help determine
the authors attitude.
  • What is the author's purpose in writing?
  • Has the author presented all sides of an
  • If so, is the article balanced toward all
    positions or biased toward one?
  • Is there enough evidence to support each side?
  • Is the evidence reliable and convincing?'
  • Does the author use words that convey emotion?
  • Does the article seem to present propaganda?

  • Conserving water is important for our
    environment, future generations, and your
    wallet. Most people don't realize this, but water
    is a finite resource. All the water we will ever
    have is on the planet right now. It is important
    to consider this when thinking about the
    importance of water conservation. If we are not
    good stewards of water, our future generations
    will suffer for it. Fresh drinking water
    resources are limited for people, but also
    remember that animals and water species also
    depend on it for life. It is important for us to
    think about and facilitate their survival in
    addition to our own. Cutting back on the water
    used during showers or for watering plants
    outdoors can also help save you money.

Study Islands Answer
  • The author's purpose for writing this passage is
    to convince readers that water conservation is
    important. He or she presents the argument by
    discussing reasons why saving water is
    important. The author's attitude in this passage
    is serious.

Writing Purpose
  • Describe Some writing describes something or how
    to do something. For example, the directions that
    come with a cell phone have the purpose of
    describing how set up voice mail, check text
    messages, and so forth.
  • Inform Some writing has the purpose of
    informing. Most news articles in the newspaper
    are written to inform. A biography usually has
    the purpose of informing the reader about the
    person's life.
  • Persuade Some writing is written for the
    purpose of persuasion. A good example of
    persuasive writing is the writing found in
    advertisements. Advertisements are designed to
    persuade you to buy a certain product. Speeches
    by politicians are also examples of persuasive

Writing Purpose
  • Narrate Narration has the purpose of telling a
    story. The narrator relates a series of events.
  • Entertain Some writing has the purpose of
    entertaining. The comic strips in the newspaper
    are there to entertain the readers with humor. A
    mystery novel and a fairy tale are also good
    examples of writing that have the purpose of

Authors Technique
Word Choice
  • Authors choice of words to show how something
    feels, looks, or acts. These words give the
    reader a better idea of what is happening in the
    story. They can show you how exciting something
    is or how happy/unhappy a person feels.

  • The ivory towers pointed cap rose in the
    distance as we walked through the olive green
    grass. I looked to my right and a palm tree
    loomed. Its emerald green leaves strained toward
    the sky and the ground all at once. The trees
    tan trunk was a pineapple-like scaffold.
  • What do the descriptive words add to the passage?

Language Sets Mood
  • The long, dark road unwound before Chris like a
    serpent striking its prey. The cars windshield
    was continuously covered in a fine spray of water
    as the wipers swung back and forth like a
    pendulum. Through the blurry grass, Chris could
    just make out a figure in the darkness.
  • Chris was driving in the rain. It was dark
    outside. She could barely see in front of her.

Authors Style
  • Style is the manner of presenting material,
    including usage, punctuation, organization, and
    tone. By manipulating these stylistic factors,
    different meanings are achieved.

How to Achieve Style
  • Authors use quotations, questions, or visual
    formatting of a text to add meaning.
  • The hours
  • shorter
  • than
  • a
  • second
  • when you are near.
  • The minutes
  • longer than centuries when you are gone.

How is the effectiveness of the poem changed?
  • The hours shorter than a second
  • when you are near.
  • The minutes longer than centuries
  • when you are gone.

Main Idea
  • And Supporting Details

Main Idea
  • The idea that most of the passage covers.
  • Supporting details The sentences that explain,
    describe, or support the main idea

What Should I Look For?
  • Why did the author write this passage?
  • What is the point he/she is trying to make?
  • What is the passage mostly about?
  • What idea is conveyed in the passage?

  • Once winter is gone and spring officially
    arrives, it is time to enjoy longer days, warm
    weather, and new seasonal produce. During the
    spring, many vegetables and fruits are at their
    peaks. This includes green beans, corn, sweet
    onions, peas, greens, and squash. On the fruit
    front, apples, citrus fruits, and pears have made
    way for juicy stone fruit, like peaches,
    nectarines, and plums. Melons and berries are
    also available in the spring.
  • What is the main idea of this passage?

  • Many seasonal fruits and vegetables hit their
    peak during the spring.

  • A shorter way to tell about the events or details
    of a passage.
  • It includes only the most important details or

  •  A new zoo in Louisiana has many of the usual zoo
    attractions. Its goal is even similar to most
    zoosto preserve wild animals and educate the
    public. However, the Louisiana Audubon Nature
    Center is more than just a wildlife center. It
    has a planetarium, a forest, and special frozen
    zoo.       The primary goal of the Nature Center
    is to save species from extinction. The real work
    in this zoo is behind the scenes. While tourists
    visit the different animals in the zoo,
    scientists are working to prevent
    extinction. They hope the frozen zoo will protect
    all the animals and birds on Earth.      

  • The frozen zoo does not have live animals in
    cages. Instead, it has live cells of different
    animals in liquid nitrogen tanks. Liquid nitrogen
    preserves these tiny building blocks safely. The
    cells should be safe for hundreds of years. The
    zoo has the cells of over 1,000 species saved. If
    one species becomes endangered or extinct,
    scientists can defrost the cells and bring the
    species back.      The future is promising for
    the different animals struggling to survive. More
    zoos are getting involved in the frozen zoo
    project. Environmentalists are working to save
    habitats. Hopefully, animals will be saved from
    extinction and given a safe place to live.

Practice Questions
  • 1. Which sentence shows an idea that would be
    important to include in a summary of this
  • A. "The zoo has the cells of over 1,000 species
  • B. "While tourists visit the different animals
    in the zoo . . ."
  • C. "Hopefully, animals will be saved from
    extinction . . ."
  • D. "More zoos are getting involved in the frozen
    zoo project."

  • 2. Which of the following is the best summary of
    the story above?
  • A. A zoo is freezing animal cells to preserve
    the species. They have saved cells from over
    1,000 different animals. These cells are frozen
    in liquid nitrogen by scientists who are working
    to prevent extinction. These cells can be
  • B. The Louisiana Audubon Nature Center preserves
    wild animals from extinction by freezing the
    cells of its animals in liquid nitrogen. The hope
    is that should the animals become extinct, the
    zoo will have their cells on hand to bring them
  • C. In Louisiana, a zoo has animal cells frozen
    in liquid nitrogen. Scientists are preserving
    these cells to prevent animal extinction. There
    are no cages to see in the frozen zoo. A zoo's
    goal is to preserve animals while also educating
    the public.
  • D. The Louisiana Audubon Nature Center consists
    of a planetarium, forest, and frozen zoo. Many
    tourists visit the zoo, while scientists are hard
    at work. The frozen zoo, unlike other parts of
    the zoo, is not a display of cages or habitats
    for animals.

Conclusions, Inferences, and Generalizations
Inferences and Conclusions
  • Making guesses about things not directly stated
    in the passage.
  • Use details as clues to help you figure things

Tips for Making Inferences
  • Read a passage carefully.
  • Look for details about what a person does. What
    do the persons actions tell you? What can you
    conclude about the persons traits?
  • Look for details that describe a place or event.
    Based on real life, what do those details tell
  • Look for facts given in a nonfiction passage.
    What do those facts mean overall?
  • Analyze why the author discusses and describes
    the topic. What can you tell about the author
    from his or her writing? How does he/she feel
    about the topic?
  • Make an inference or conclusion about something
    in the passage. Find the details that led you to
    that conclusion.

Practice Story A Coffee Complication
  • Based on her behavior, what can be inferred about
    Lanes character?
  • Lane is disorganized.
  • Lane is constantly alert.
  • Lane likes structure.
  • Lane is very laid back.

  • The correct answer is C. Lane likes structure.
    Notice how Lane dismisses several different
    answers to her problem when she realizes that it
    will mess up her schedule. She also has a routine
    for getting up and moving each morning that she
    follows without thinking. The speaker even says,
    if nothing else, she could follow a routine.

Practice Question
  • What can the reader infer will most likely happen
  • A. Lane will go through the day without coffee.
  • B. Lane will go to a coffee shop to buy a cup
    of coffee.
  • C. Lane will run to the store to buy what she
    needs to make coffee.
  • D. Lane will ask to go into the teachers
    lounge to grab a coffee.

  • The correct answer is A. Lane runs through
    several different options for what she could do
    about her coffee situation but dismisses them all
    for one reason or another. She is even described
    as feeling hopeless about the situation as she
    desperately tires to think of a possible
    solution. This suggests that Lane will
    begrudgingly forgo caffeine for the day.

  • A general rule drawn from looking at facts and
    figuring out what they have in common.
  • A reasoning is formulated about something
    specific where some observations are made and
    then conclusions are drawn concerning the larger
    category of that specific instance.
  • If a generalization is valid, it is well
    supported by facts, experience, and logic.
  • If a generalization is invalid, it is not

Examples of Generalizations
  • All the ducks weve seen have feathers.
    Therefore, it is likely that all ducks have
  • George prefers to use back roads to drive around
    the Monroeville Mall area. He often makes it to
    the mall quicker by taking Monroeville Road to
    James Street than by driving on William Penn
    Highway, even though the routes are about the
    same distance from his house. He rarely gets
    caught in heavy traffic on his alternate route.
  • Based on this text, one could generalize that
    William Penn Highway is often too crowded. The
    generalization is demonstrated by the fact that
    George does not get caught in traffic on the back
    roads and is able to make his trip more quickly.

  • Connections between Texts

Compare and Contrast
  • A concept that is used to examine information in
    order to show the similarities and differences
    between two or more thoughts or ideas.

Words to Make Connections
  • Compare
  • Contrast
  • Similar
  • In the same way
  • Likewise
  • Just like
  • As well
  • In addition
  • Different
  • In contrast
  • On the other hand
  • However
  • On the contrary
  • Instead
  • Although
  • But

Places That Make Connections
  • Main idea
  • Point of view
  • Purpose
  • Characters
  • Setting
  • Problems/conflict
  • themes

Life on the Bayou
  • Passage 1 purpose
  • Passage 2 purpose
  • Similarities?

  • Different types of writing
  • Fiction
  • Nonfiction
  • Poetry

Types of Fiction
  • Prose Does not use meter or rhyme which is
    characteristic of poetry or verse
  • Common types
  • Novel fictional piece usually of considerable
    length, typically having a plot that is unfolded
    by the actions, speech, and thoughts of the
  • Short story fictional prose narrative that is
    shorter and less complex than other pieces,
    usually under 10,000 words.

  • Literary work in which the content is based on
  • Types
  • Biography account of a persons life written,
    composed, or produced by another person.
  • Autobiography piece of writing that a person
    writes about his or her own life (Using first
    person pronouns)
  • Diary written account of events or circumstances
    in a persons life where each entry is dated.
  • Journal includes a dated record of daily events.
  • Essay relatively short literary composition in
    prose on a single subject, usually presenting the
    personal view of the author. Usually tries to
    persuade the reader about a view.
  • Newspaper Article gives information about
    current events that happen locally or around the

  • Type of writing designed to convey experiences,
    ideas, or emotions in a vivid and imaginative
  • Characterized by literary techniques such as
    rhyme and rhythm.
  • Usually (but not always) written in short lines,
    and the lines often rhyme.
  • A poem may tell a story, create images, or just
    share a feeling or thought.

Technical Documents
  • Provide directions to do something. (Manuals or
  • Used for practical purposes
  • Ex. A college application instructs a student how
    to provide information needed on the form.

  • Has characteristics of more than one genre
  • Ex. Some poems may read like a cross between a
    story and a biography

Character Analysis
  • Trait a special quality or something special
    about someones personality (hair color, eye
    color, height, weight, age, beliefs, likes,
    dislikes, opinions, behavior).
  • Motivation what causes someone to act in a
    certain way. It can be an emotion, desire, need,
    etc. It is the reason we do something.
  • Tripping over his untied shoes, Mario dragged
    himself to the coffee machine because he was
    desperate to wake up.

Character Analysis
  • Conflict When characters have different
    interests or goals.
  • Ben told the cashier that he didnt agree with
    how much money the store charged for CDs. The
    cashier told Ben that he needed to pay the money,

Character Analysis
  • Point of View
  • The side from which a story is told. It can
    affect how facts are shown and how we look at

Character Analysis
  • A characters traits or relationships might
    affect his or her point of view.
  • Motivation affects action and changes.

  • Action Charlie stuck his foot out to trip
    Bridget as she walked by. He laughed when she
    dropped her books and fell on the floor.
  • Dialogue I can give you some money, Linda said
    from behind her line. How much do you need?

Settings Main Components
  • Time, place, and circumstances in which a story
    takes place.
  • Place (geographical location)
  • Time
  • Weather
  • Social conditions
  • Mood (atmosphere)

Where am I?
  • The setting is not always directly stated.
  • I closed my eyes and listened to the waves
    brushing back and forth across the wet sand.
  • Amy felt dizzy as she looked over the railing of
    the Eiffel Tower.
  • No matter what, I am determined to stay awake to
    see the first man walk on the moon.

Setting Affects Mood or Theme, Characters, and
  • Winterstories about loss or death
  • Dark, secluded places suspenseful or scary
  • Outer space or another planetfuturistic stories
  • The setting is part of the conflict when a
    character becomes shipwrecked on a desert island.
  • The setting affects characters when a historic
    event such as a war changes their lives.
  • The setting influences characters when they
    travel to a place that is foreign to them and
    must learn new customs.

  • The storyline or sequence of events that take
    place in a story. All plots have conflict and a

  • The beginning of the plot. It starts off the
    story and lets the reader know any important
    information before the action starts. It
    introduces the characters, setting, and basic
    conflict of a story.

Rising Action
  • Occurs after the main conflict is introduced.
    Includes details about what the character does to
    solve his or her problem. Smaller problems,
    obstacles, or crises may occur before the climax
    is reached.

  • Occurs right after the rising action. It is the
    most intense or exciting event in the story
    because the character deals with the main
    conflict. It can also be the turning point in the

Falling Action
  • Occurs after the climax and before the
    resolution. It is everything that happens because
    of the climax. The characters respond to what
    happens in the climax. This leads the reader to
    the conclusion of the story.

  • The conclusion of the story where the conflict is

  • A central or recurring idea that is explained in
    a piece of writing, sometimes in the form of a
    life lesson or moral.
  • A message that makes the reader think about life,
    human nature, or the world.
  • Theme is determined by extracting it from the
    events that occur in a story.

Some Common Themes
  • Man is mans worst enemy.
  • Good is stronger than evil.
  • A person grows by facing obstacles.
  • Enjoy life now because we all die too soon.
  • Love conquers all.
  • Treat others the way you want to be treated.

The Wolf and The Goat
  •   A wolf saw a goat grazing at the edge of a high
    cliff. The wolf smacked his lips at the thought
    of a fine goat dinner.      "My dear friend,"
    said the wolf in his sweetest voice, "aren't you
    afraid you will fall down from that cliff? Come
    down here and graze on this fine grass beside me
    on safe, level ground."      "No, thank you,"
    said the goat.      "Well, then," said the wolf,
    "aren't you cold up there in the wind? You would
    be warmer grazing down here beside me in this
    sheltered area."      "No, thank you," said the
    goat.      "But the grass tastes better down
    here!" said the exasperated wolf. "Why dine
    alone?"      "My dear wolf," the goat finally
    said, "are you quite sure that it is MY dinner
    you are worrying about and not your own?"

  • Which of the following best describes a theme of
    the passage?
  • A. You cant change who you are.
  • B. Honesty is not always the best policy.
  • C. Be cautious if an enemy is being kind.
  • D. A good friend is hard to find.

  • The wolf is trying to trick the goat into coming
    down from the cliff. The wolf wants to eat the
    goat for dinner, but the goat knows to be
    cautious around its enemies. He or she does not
    fall for the wolfs tricks. Therefore, Be
    cautious if an enemy is being kind is the
    correct answer.

Tips for Identifying Theme
  • Look closely at the title.
  • Look for ideas that are repeated more than once.
  • Look for lessons that the character learns.
  • Think about what happens in the story and how it
    can apply to life. (For example if the main
    character must survive an approaching tornado,
    the theme may be nature is at war with mankind.)

Tone, Mood, and Style
  • The reflection of an authors attitude toward his
    or her subject.
  • Word choice and attitude are hints that help you
    figure out what the tone is.

What is the tone of this passage?
  • The schools decision to add four more vending
    machines shows that it thinks the health of its
    students is unimportant. Instead of working to
    make needed changes, like adding better computers
    to the school, it decided that students need
    sugar, caffeine, fat, and empty calories instead.
    It is ridiculous! What kind of message does it
    send to the students? We are taught in our health
    classes to avoid sugary, fatty foods, but now,
    students have four more chances to swell up on
    junk food. The so-called food sold in these
    vending machines will make the student body grow,
    but it will be measured in pounds.

  • Uses junk food instead of snacks
  • ridiculous instead of wrong
  • Sugar, fat, caffeine, empty calories
  • student body to comment on weight gain instead
    of a way to talk about the population of a school.

  • The atmosphere that a writer creates for a reader
    that plays on the readers imagination and
    emotion through the use of descriptive adverbs or

What is the mood here?
  • I rose from bed with a noise ringing in my ears
    so loudly that I almost lost my balance. The
    noise sounded like the screeching moan of claws
    being drug against glass. The sharp, squeaking
    sound cut through the darkness of the night and
    woke me from my dream. My first thought was that
    a bear was trying to get inside of the cabin, but
    a bears claws would have shattered the glass. As
    I happened on the window, the full moon shined
    against whatever was making the noise from
    behind, like a giant spotlight. I saw behind the
    curtain the shape of something tall and lanky
    with long arms reaching out to the window. I
    immediately yanked the curtain aside as a long
    squeal bleated out against the window pane.
    Filling the pan outside was a dying willowits
    branches pushing against the glass with a gust
    from the winds outside.

S C A R Y ! !
  • Screeching moan of claws
  • I saw behind the curtain the shape of something
    tall and lanky with long arms reaching out to the
  • I immediately yanked the curtain aside as a long
    squeal bleated out against the window pane

Point of View
Point of View
  • Refers to the way a story is told, the
    perspective or angle of vision or position from
    which the events are narrated for the reader.

First Person
  • Uses I or we or my or me or us
  • Often used when someone is stating an opinion or
    sharing a feeling.
  • I went to the store today. When I was in the
    cereal aisle, I bumped into an old friend and had
    a nice conversation.

Second Person
  • Uses the word you
  • Used when giving directions or anytime youre
    speaking directly to someone
  • Almost never used to tell a story
  • You should work on getting your room cleaned.
    First, pick up the clothes on the floor. Then,
    you need to run a vacuum and dust the tables.

Third Person
  • Uses he, she, or they and sometimes it
  • When studying the history of the Earth, it
    becomes evident that dinosaurs existed far longer
    than human beings have so far. One would be
    impressed to learn how many millions of years
    these great creatures survived and thrived on

Third Person Limited
  • The narrator is a non-participant, but only knows
    the thoughts and feelings of a single character
    (LIMITED to only one character)
  • Zoe had seen the building of the Great Wall, the
    fall of the Berlin Wall, and everything in
    between. She wondered if humans would ever really
    learn how to live in peace. Zoe wasnt on Earth
    to be a teacher. She was there to observe and
    document what she learned about humans. But it
    was so hard for Zoe not to get involved.

Third Person Objective
  • Writer is a non-participant, and tells the story
    from an objective point of view.
  • The narrator cannot enter the mind of any
  • The high school students were waiting for their
    buses to arrive as the snow started to fall
    intensely. They had been there for 30 minutes,
    throwing snowballs and shivering in the cold.
    Finally, they cheered when someone received the
    phone call that school was cancelled for the day.
    They all went home and went back to bed.

  • Writer is a non-participant but is able to see
    into and have unlimited knowledge about any or
    all of the characters.
  • The author can roam anywhere, see anything, and
    comment on or interpret events at will.
  • Nick was acting like his happy self. Nothing
    seemed to bother him. Nick was always ready to
    entertain an audience. But on the inside, he
    struggled severely with self-doubt.

  • The narrator as a characteris experiencing the
    action of the story.
  • When the narrator is a character, it gives the
    reader a close connection to the events.
  • The Unnamed narratorSometimes because the story
    is told from the point of view of someone all
  • Can be a part of the story, or just be telling
    the story.
  • Look for the narrator to act or speak. If this
    doesnt happen, he/she is unnamed.

Cultural and Historical Significance
  • See Handout!!!!

Literary Devices
  • A form of extended metaphor in which all of the
    elements of the story have meanings that lie
    outside the narrative itself. The story is
    symbolic of another story. The underlying
    meaning has moral, social, religious, or
    political significance, and characters are often
    personifications of abstract ideas as charity,
    greed, or envy.
  • The Wizard of Oz?

  • A reference to a real or fictitious person,
    event, place, work of art, or another work of
    literature within writing. In order for an
    allusion to be effective, the reader must be
    familiar with the original work.
  • My uncle proved that he was a scrooge because he
    would not lend me money to buy the new iPod I

Common Allusions
  • Roman/Greek mythology
  • the Bible
  • Shakespearean plays
  • Fairy tales
  • Ex. David and Goliath, Romeo and Juliet,
    Armageddon, Cinderella, Odyssey, Sleeping Beauty,
    Cupids arrow, Mars, etc.

  • The language of a particular region or group of
  • Includes the sound, spelling, and diction used by
    that group.
  • Use dialect to show differences in characters, to
    refer to a specific location or time period, or
    to help the reader know how a character sounds.
  • Considered informal and inappropriate for formal

  • Figure of speech in which the author uses
    exaggeration for emphasis or effect. Not meant to
    be taken literally!
  • Sometimes called overstatement.
  • It took an eternity for her to return my call.
  • She nearly drowned in her tears.

Irony and Its Many Forms
  • Irony is the difference between what appears to
    be and what actually is.

Situational Irony
  • Occurs when a reader or character expects one
    thing to happen, but something entirely different
  • Used to make stories interesting or humorous and
    sometimes to force their readers to think about
    their own thoughts and values.
  • Situational irony would occur if a cunning and
    lawful police officer fails to catch a reckless
    and lawless thief.

Dramatic Irony
  • The contrast between what a character thinks to
    be true and what we, the readers, know to be
    true. It occurs when the meaning intended by a
    characters words or actions is opposite of the
    true situation.
  • Honest Iago in Othello

Verbal Irony
  • When someone says one thing but means something
    different. Very similar to sarcasm.
  • Cheesy Study Island example
  • Are you doing anything fun tomorrow, Carol?
    Janet asked.
  • Nothing except getting my wisdom teeth pulled
    out! Carol replied with a fake smile.

Historical Irony
  • Irony throughout history. Most easily identified
    when we compare the way historical figures saw
    the world and the way we see it today.
  • During most of the 1920s, The New York Times
    criticized crossword puzzles as utterly futile
    and said they were a craze that was fading fast.
    Today, The New York Times crossword puzzle is
    one of its most popular features.

Simile and Metaphor
  • Simile compares things that share a common
    feature. Uses either like or as to make the
  • Metaphor compares two things without using
    like or as.

  • A literary work in which the writer tries to
    point out human vices in order to scorn or
    ridicule them. The writer can do so by using
    irony, wit, or sarcasm.
  • Satirical authors are intent on making fun of the
    absurdity, pretension, and corruption of the
    respective worlds they are portraying.
  • Have a strong element of irony or sarcasm.
  • Saturday Night Live use skits to point out
    peoples flaws.

  • A literary device that uses certain objects or
    images to represent other ideas.
  • Symbol is usually tangible or visible, but the
    idea it symbolizes may be something abstract or
  • A caged bird could be used as a symbol to mean

Flashback and Foreshadowing
  • Flashback interrupts the plot of a story and
    goes back to a past event.
  • Foreshadowing When future events in a story, or
    sometimes the outcome, are suggested or hinted at
    by the author before they happen.
  • Method used to build suspense.

Elements of Poetry
  • Characterized by literary techniques such as
    meter and rhyme and often use language, meaning,
    sound, and rhythm to evoke a specific response.

Different Types of Poetry
  • Ballad? poem that tells a story. Often of folk
    origin and intended to be sung. Often consist of
    simple stanzas and usually have a refrain (a
    repeated phrase or stanza).
  • Stanza? division in poetry shown by a line break.
    Equivalent of a paragraph.

Types of Poetry
  • Blank verse? poem written in iambic pentameter.
    (Each line has 10 syllables, which have a pattern
    of unstressed, stressed, unstressed, stressed,
    etch). Lines do not have a rhyme scheme.
  • But do not let us quarrel anymore,
  • No, my Lucrezia bear with me for once
  • Sit down and all shall happen as you wish.
  • You turn your face, but does it bring your heart?

Types of Poetry
  • Couplet? pair of lines that usually rhyme. Can
    appear in sonnets.
  • Elegy? traditionally written in response to the
    death of a person or group. Focuses on the loss
    or grief itself.
  • Epic poem? long poem narrating the heroic
    exploits of an individual in a way central to the
    beliefs and cultures of the society. Typical
    elements fabulous adventures, superhuman deeds,
    majestic language, and a mythical setting.

Types of Poetry
  • Lyric poems? do not tell stories. Addresses the
    reader directly, portraying the speakers
    feelings, states of mind, and perceptions. Often
    written with a specific rhyme scheme and meter.
  • Haiku? Consists of three unrhymed lines of five,
    seven, and five syllables.

Types of Poetry
  • Narrative? poems that tell a story. Have
    characters and plot, and sometimes dialogue,
    themes, and conflicts. The Raven is an example.
  • Ode? poem that focuses on one subject and finds
    an original way to express what is good and
    unique about it. Traditional odes follow a
    ABABCDECDE rhyme scheme.

Types of Poetry
  • Free verse? poetry written without regard to
    form, rhyme, rhythm, meter, or line breaks. Has
    no traditional form.
  • Sonnet? written in 14 lines and ending in a
    couplet. Written in iambic pentameter.

Rhyme Scheme
  • The pattern of rhyme in a poem.
  • AABB or every two lines rhyme.
  • ABCB or the second and fourth line of each stanza
  • ABAB or every other line rhymes.

  • The regular pattern of stressed and unstressed
    syllables that make up a line of poetry. Gives
    rhythm and regularity to poetry.
  • Poetic meter is measured in feet. Each foot is a
    specific sequence of syllable type, such as
  • Iambic pentameter? da-DUM da-DUM da-DUM da-DUM da
    DUM 5 iambic feet in a row

  • Slant rhyme? also called half rhyme, imperfect
    rhyme, near rhyme, oblique rhyme, off rhyme, or
    almost rhyme. IT is a rhyme in which either the
    vowels or the consonants of stressed syllables
    are identical.
  • Eyes, light
  • Years, yours

  • Internal rhyme? rhyme that occurs within a line
    of verse.
  • In the grey grains of sand
  • The dark veins of dropping rain
  • Consonance? the repetition of consonants or of a
    consonant pattern, especially at the ends of
  • Blank, blink
  • Strong, string

  • Assonance? also called vowel rhyme. The same
    vowel sounds are used with different consonants
    in the stressed syllables of the rhyming words.
  • Penitent, reticence
  • End rhyme? rhyme that occurs in the last
    syllables of verses.
  • On the train
  • She left again
  • And I remain
  • In the rain!

  • Alliteration? the repetition of the same sounds
    or of the same kinds of sounds at the beginning
    of words or in stressed syllables.
  • Kara cried her karaoke tears.
  • She could not mask her fake fears.
  • Onomatopoeia? use of words such as buzz or
    moo that imitate the sounds associated with the
    objects to which they refer.

  • Personification? figure of speech in which things
    are endowed with human qualities or are
    represented as possessing human form.

Elements of Drama
Terms You Should Know
  • Comedy? play which consistently features humor
    and light-hearted events.
  • Tragedy? deals with humans as victims of destiny,
    character flaws, moral weakness, or social
  • Cast? the characters needed for the play.
  • Dialogue? the words spoken by characters in a
  • Soliloquy? narrative spoken by a single actor in
    which his or her thoughts are revealed to the

Terms You Should Know
  • Dramatic Monologue? a long speech by a single
    character. The actor can either be lone on stage
    or interacting with other performers.
  • Character foil? a character whose traits are in
    direct contrast to those of the main character.
    The foil highlights the traits of the opposing
  • Scene Design? the creative process of developing
    and executing aesthetic or functional designs in
    a production, such as costumes, lighting, set,
    and makeup.

Terms You Should Know
  • Aside? a speech or comment made by an actor
    directly to the audience about the action of the
    play or another character. The audience is to
    understand that this comment is not heard or
    noticed by the other characters in the play.
  • Stage Directions? tell actors how to move and
    speak. Most are in parentheses or italics. Can
    also tell you where the play is taking place or
    give information about how to make the stage look
    to set up the scene.

Terms You Should Know
  • Prop? article or object that appears on the stage
    during the play.
  • The different types of irony are also stressed in

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