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Environmental Science Unit 9 Resource Management


Environmental Science Unit 9 Resource Management 9A Forestry (Chp. 11) 9B Soil & Agriculture (Chp. 12) 9C Minerals & Mining (Chp. 13) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Environmental Science Unit 9 Resource Management

Environmental Science Unit 9 Resource Management
  • 9A Forestry (Chp. 11)
  • 9B Soil Agriculture (Chp. 12)
  • 9C Minerals Mining (Chp. 13)

Unit 9 ABC Vocabulary (34)
  • Acid drainage
  • Adaptive management
  • Aquaculture
  • Bedrock
  • Clear cutting
  • Contour farming
  • Crop rotation
  • Deforestation
  • Desertification
  • Ecosystem based management
  • Genetic Engineering
  • Genetically modified organism (GMO)
  • Irrigation
  • Maximum Sustainable Yield
  • Mineral
  • Open Pit Mining
  • Ore
  • Organic agriculture
  • Pesticide
  • Placer mining
  • Prescribed burn
  • Rock
  • Rock cycle
  • Salinization
  • Salvage logging
  • Seed tree approach
  • Selection system
  • Smelting
  • Soil degradation
  • Strip mining
  • Subsurface mining
  • Terracing
  • Tilling
  • Weathering

Unit 9A Forestry (Chp. 11)
  • Page 323 Battling over Clayoquots Big Trees
    Central Case
  • Decision Making Analysis
  • What is the problem?
  • What is your proposed solution?
  • Analyze your solution 3 Pros, 3 Cons, 3
    Short-term consequences, 3 Long-term consequences
  • Conclusion was your solution a good one? Why or
    Why not?

Unit 9A Objectives
  • Explain the importance of managing specific
    renewable resources such as water, soil, animals
    and timber
  • Describe 3 different resource management
    approaches their goals
  • Identify methods used to strike a balance between
    the ecological economic values of our resources
  • Identify explain methods used to harvest timber

11.1 Resource Management
  • How can we manage renewable resources for
    sustainable use?

Renewable Resource Management
  • To manage resource harvesting so that resources
    are not depleted.
  • Soil made by natural processes, but fertile
    topsoil can take can take hundreds of years to
    form major topsoil erosion concerns
  • Fresh water maintaining clean, adequate
    supplies for drinking agriculture pollution
  • Wild animals animals hunted legally are called
    game fishing has caused numbers to dwindle
    (cod) poaching, CITES, problems with enforcement
  • Timber harvesting timber is essential to our
    standard of living forests are disappearing

How We Use Land
  • Non-urban lands include
  • Forests (harvest timber for paper and lumber)
  • Grasslands (support livestock and farmlands)
  • Other (mineral resources)

Resource Management Approaches
  • Maximum Sustainable Yield harvest the maximum
    amount of a resource without reducing the amount
    of future harvests quicker growth at
    intermediate size well below carrying capacity
    could result in changes of other populations
  • Ecosystem-Based Management harvest resources in
    ways that minimize impact on the ecosystems
    ecological processes that provide the resources
    challenging for managers
  • Adaptive Management scientifically test
    different approaches then customize an approach
    based on the results can be time consuming

11.1 Review
  • Define resource management. Why is it important?
  • Describe the goals of maximum sustainable yield
    management, ecosystem-based management, and
    adaptive management. List a drawback of each.
  • How may managing a resource for maximum
    sustainable yield sometimes conflict with what is
    best for its ecosystem?
  • Besides answering the above 3 questions, complete
    the 11.1 review packet.

11.2 Forests their Resources
  • How can resource managers strike a balance
    between the ecological and economic value of
    forest resources?

Forest Resources
  • Ecological value different habitats,
    biodiversity (mature forests have more), prevent
    soil erosion, slow water run-off, reduce
    flooding, take in C02 release 02 (moderate

Forest Resources
  • Economical value provide timber for many
    products, fuel for fires, building houses
    ships, paper, food medicine (fruit, nuts,
    spices, herbs come from forest plants), cancer
    treating drugs (Paclitaxel yew, rosy

Timber Harvesting
  • There are costs benefits to every method of
    timber harvesting
  • 2 categories
  • Even-aged stands result from regrowth of trees
    that were mostly cut at the same time
  • Uneven-aged stands result from regrowth of
    trees that were cut at different times

  • Uneven stands typically have more biodiversity,
    offering more diverse habitats
  • All methods of logging disturb forest
    communities, changing forest structure and
    composition as larger trees forming
    canopies/subcanopies are removed
  • Most methods increase soil erosion, leading to
    muddy waterways and degrade animal habitats
  • Most methods increase runoff, causing flooding

  • The process that involves removing ALL of the
    trees from a land area
  • Results in even-aged stands
  • Destroys wildlife habitats
  • Increases soil erosion
  • Diminishes beauty
  • Cost efficient
  • Increases light to ground
  • Begins secondary succession

Seed Tree Approach
  • Small numbers of mature and healthy
    seed-producing trees are left standing so that
    they can reseed the logged area
  • Leads to regrowth that is mostly even-aged.

Shelterwood Approach
  • Small numbers of mature trees are left in place
    to provide shelter for seedlings as they grow.
  • Leads to regrowth that is mostly even-aged.

Selective Cutting
  • Involves cutting only middle-aged or mature trees
  • Has less impact on the forest than any other
  • Maintains wildlife/ecosystems

Selection Systems
  • Only some of the trees in a forest are cut at
  • Result in uneven-aged stands
  • Single-tree selection trees spaced widely apart
    are cut one at a time
  • Group selection small patches of trees are cut
  • Roads compact soil, more expensive, more dangerous

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  • Involves clearing trees from an area without
    replacing them
  • Helps nations develop, but it can be ecologically
  • Provides warmth, shelter, trade, but causes
    soil degradation loss of biodiversity
  • Negative effects are greatest in the tropical
    regions (loss of biodiversity) arid regions
    (loss of soil productivity)
  • Adds CO2 to the atmosphere

Deforestation in the US
  • By 1850s, we deforested our vast deciduous
    forests to expand, making way for small farms
  • Timber built the cities of the East Coast and
  • With the Industrial Revolution, logging moved to
    Texas, Florida and the Carolinas. Then the timber
    companies moved west for the bigger
    trees/old-growth forests

  • Most of the redwoods, oaks and maples are no
    longer old-growth trees in North America, leading
    to a concern for old-growth ecosystems
  • Deforestation is rapid in the Tropical Rain
    Forests of developing nations, leading to loss of
    biodiversity on a large scale and worsening
    global warming due to CO2 from burning as well as
    fewer trees

Quick Lab Page 334 A Trees History
  • Turn to page 334 in your textbook, read the
    directions (1-3 in blue) and then answer
    questions 1-4 with your partner.

11.2 Review
  • What is one way a forest is ecologically
    valuable? What is one way a forest is
    economically valuable?
  • How are clear-cutting and the shelterwood
    approach similar? How are they different? How do
    both differ from select systems?
  • What, generally, is the current level of
    deforestation in the U.S.? In developing nations?
    How would you expect deforestation in developing
    nations to change in the next 100 years? Explain.
  • Also, do 11.2 review packet.

Forest Management 11.3
  • What steps toward sustainable forestry have been
    taken in the last 100 years?

US National Forests
  • Logging in national forests is managed by the
    Forest Service, but profits go to timber
  • Public lands set aside to grow trees for timber
    and to protect watersheds.
  • Established in 1905 after deforesting our
    deciduous forests caused a fear of timber

National Forest Logging
  • Timber is harvested by private timber companies.
  • Forest Service plan manage timber sales build
    roads to provide access, but the logging
    companies receive the profits
  • Taxpayers money is being used to help private
    corporations harvest publicly held resources for
  • Recreation, wildlife, and ecosystem health are
    being urged

National Forest Management Act 1976
  • Multiple use forests were to be managed for
    recreation, wildlife habitat, mining and other
    uses in addition to timber
  • NFMA requires plans for renewable resource
    management be drawn up for every national forest
    and to be consistent with multiple use and
    maximum sustainable yield.

NFMA, continued
  • Success stories logging has declined in
    national forests since the 1980s, and in 2006,
    tree regrowth outpaced tree removal on these
    lands by more than 111.
  • Challenges in 2004, Bush passed regulations
    that weakened the NFMA repealed the roadless
    rule that had limited building new roads. In
    2009, Obama reinstated the roadless rule.

Private Land
  • Most logging in the US today takes place on tree
    plantations owned by timber companies
  • Most harvesting is fast-growing tree species in
    the NW and South
  • These plantations are mostly monocultures
    single crop, even-aged stands cut in rotation
    time and the land is replanted with seedlings
  • Low biodiversity due to little variation

Fire Policies
  • Suppression of all wildfires can endanger
    ecosystems, property, and people.
  • Many ecosystems depend on fire, and diversity
    abundance of species decline without it
  • Jack pine seeds germinate only after a fire, and
    Kirtlands Warbler (songbird) nest in 5-7 year
    old jack pines

Future Fire Potential
  • Suppression of small, natural fires can lead to
    larger, more dangerous fires by allowing limbs,
    sticks leaf litter to build up
  • Prescribed burns burning areas of forest under
    carefully controlled conditions, which ultimately
    lowers the risk of injury, property damage, and
    ecosystem loss from catastrophic wildfires.

Healthy Forest Restoration Act
  • Goal make forests less fire-prone
  • Primarily promotes the removal of small trees,
    underbrush, and snags by timber companies
  • Salvage logging removal of snags/dying trees
    following a natural disturbance
  • Snag value insect food, holes provide
  • Removing timber from recently burned land can
    cause erosion soil damage, and slow forest

Sustainable Forestry Products
  • Sustainable forestry certification certifies
    products produced using methods they consider
  • The Forest Stewardship Council has the strictest
    certification process, carry logos (FSC)
  • 70 of annual timber harvest in British Columbia
    Canada is certified
  • More costly, but consumers demand

11.3 Review
  • What are the roles of the Forest Service timber
    companies in logging US National Forests? What
    are the requirements of the NFMA?
  • Generally, how does a tree plantations
    biodiversity differ from that of a natural
    forest? Give 2 reasons for your answer.
  • Suppose you lived very close to a fire-prone
    forest where there had been no fire for many
    years, the Forest Service wanted to have a
    prescribe burn there. What are 2 questions you
    would ask the Forest Service?
  • How do organizations such as the FSC decide
    whether to certify a product?
  • Also, do 11.3 review packet.

Unit 9B Soil Agriculture Chapter 12
  • Page 351 Chp. 12 Case Study Possible Transgenic
    Maize in Oaxaca, Mexico
  • Analyze using Decision Making Model
  • What is the problem?
  • What is your proposed solution?
  • Analyze your solution 3 Pros, 3 Cons, 3
    Short-term Consequences, 3 Long-term Consequences
  • Conclusion Is your solution a good one? Why or
    Why not?

Unit 9B Soil Agriculture Objectives
  • Explain how soil forms, the horizons that make up
    a soil profile, the characteristics used to
    classify soil.
  • Describe the practices that can lead to soil
    erosion, desertification, pesticide pollution
    and their resulting impacts economically
  • Describe the development of agriculture from its
    beginnings to the green revolution.
  • Understand the increasing need to increase food
    production in a sustainable way.
  • Explain how biotechnology may be the key to
    future food production, but it is not without

12.1 Soil
  • We use about 38 of Earths land surface for
    agriculture, which depends on fertile soil
  • Soil a complex plant-supporting system made up
    of disintegrated rock, remains wastes of
    organisms, water, gases, nutrients, and
  • Soil is a renewable resource, it could take 100s
    or 1000s of years to make 1

Factors that Influence Soil Formation
  • Climate forms faster in warm, wet climates
  • Organisms worms mix aerate soil, add organic
  • Landforms runoff, erosion, leaching, exposure
    to sun
  • Parent material chemical physical attributes
    influence soil
  • Time soil formation takes time

Soil Formation
  • Soil is a complex substance that forms through
    weathering, deposition decomposition.
  • Soil is roughly 45 mineral matter 5 organic
  • Parent material the base geological material in
    a particular location lava, glacier rock, sand
    dunes, river sediment, bedrock
  • Bedrock continuous mass of solid rock that
    makes up the crust

  • Physical chemical processes that break down
    rocks minerals into smaller particles, 1st
    process in soil formation
  • Physical anything that touches a rock, ex.
    Wind, rain, temperature
  • Chemical water other substances chemically
    break down the parent rock warm, wet conditions
    increase chemical weathering

Deposition Decomposition
  • Deposition the drop-off of eroded material at a
    new location erosion may help form soil in one
    area by depositing material eroded from another
  • Decomposition activities of living formerly
    living things help form soil organisms deposit
    waste or die decompose, incorporating nutrients
    into the soil leaf litter, humus

Soil Horizons
  • A soil profile consists of layers known as
  • Soil profile a cross-section of all the soil
    horizons in a specific soil, from surface to
  • Simplest way to categorize
  • A topsoil
  • B subsoil
  • C weathered parent material

Top soil
  • Crucial horizon for agriculture and ecosystems
  • Consists mostly of mineral particles with
    organic matter and humus
  • Is the horizon that has the most plant nutrients
  • Its loose texture, dark color, and ability to
    hold water come from its humus content
  • Topsoil is fragile, eroding or being depleted

Lower Horizons
  • Generally, particle size increases and organic
    matter decreases as you move down the profile
  • Minerals leach downward as water filters through
    the soil
  • If leaching occurs too quickly and plants are
    deprived of nutrients
  • Iron, aluminum, and silicate clay are commonly
    leached out

Soil Characteristics
  • Soils can be classified by their color, texture,
    structure and pH
  • Color darker soils are usu. richer in humus
    (nutrients) fertility
  • Texture clay/silt/sand influences its
    workability and how porous it is
  • Structure arrangement of soil particles,
    clumpiness is richer but may compact hinder
  • pH affects plant growth acid rain

12.1 Review
  • Describe 3 major processes that contribute to the
    formation of most soils.
  • What is a soil profile? Describe the A, B, and C
  • What do each of the 4 characteristics of soil
    indicate about its ability to support plant life?
  • Recall the analogy between soil coffee grounds
    (bottom page 355) in the section called Lower
    Horizons. In this analogy, what do you think the
    soil coffee consists of?
  • In addition to the 4 questions above, complete
    the 12.1 packet.

12.2 Soil Degradation Conservation
  • Soil degradation deterioration of soil
    characteristics needed for plant growth or other
    ecosystem services
  • Farmers have shown that the most productive soil
    is loam with a neutral pH that is workable,
    contains nutrients, and holds water.
  • Human activities cause erosion, desertification
    pollution making soil less productive.

  • Certain farming, ranching and forestry practices
    can erode soil, but other practices can protect
  • Erosion deposition are natural processes that
    can create soil flood-plains are excellent for
  • Erosion usu. occurs faster than soil is formed
    erosion tends to remove top-soil and erosion can
    be hard to detect
  • Erosion occurs from leaving soil bare after
    harvests, overgrazing rangeland clearcutting
    forests on steep slopes

Farming Practices
  • Plant cover protects soil from erosion by slowing
    wind water, roots hold soil in place and absorb
  • Intercropping planting different crops in mixed
    arrangements gives more crop cover
  • Crop rotation alternate crops in a field to
    return nutrients to the soil break disease
  • Shelterbelts windbreaks, rows of trees
  • No-till method plant between the rows
  • Terracing staircase the plants, labor intense
  • Contour farming plant sideways across a
    hillside, perpendicular to the hills slope

Ranching Practices
  • The raising and grazing of livestock affects
    soils and ecosystems.
  • Livestock mostly feed on grasses.
  • As long as livestock populations stay within a
    ranges carrying capacity and do not eat grasses
    faster than the grasses can grow back, grazing
    may be sustainable.

  • When too many animals graze in an area for too
    long, and damage the grass beyond its ability to
  • Soil erosion makes it difficult for vegetation to
  • Influx of non-native weeds
  • Common in Florida

Two Rangeland Management Techniques
  1. Grazing management limit animal herd sizes
  2. Range improvements eliminating weedy plants,
    planting vegetation on bare soil, cross fencing,
    and increasing the number of waterholes

  • Loss of more than 10 of productivity due to
    erosion, soil compaction, forest removal,
    overgrazing, drought, salt buildup, climate
    change, depletion of water sources, etc.
  • When overgrazing and harsh conditions convert
    rangeland to desert Dust Bowl
  • Usually the land does not recover from this
  • Ex. Fertile Crescent region
  • Affects 1/3 of Earths land area

Soil Conservation Policies
  • 1935 Soil Conservation Act in response to the
    Dust Bowl
  • 1994 renamed Natural Resources Conservation
    Service, expanded to include water quality
    pollution control
  • Farmers must adopt soil conservation plans before
    they can receive government subsidies pay
    farmers to stop cultivating cropland that erodes
    easily, plant grasses trees

The nation that destroys its soil destroys
itself. F.D.R.
  • The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck describes
    the Dust Bowl of the 1930s
  • Resulted from poor agricultural practices and
    severe drought
  • This set the stage for wind erosion of the top

International Programs
  • United Nations promotes soil conservation
    sustainable agriculture through its Food
    Agriculture Organization (FAO)
  • Supports creative approaches to resource
    management challenges in many developing
  • Call on local leaders to educate and encourage
    local farmers

Soil Pollution
  • Irrigation Pesticide use can improve soil
    productivity in the short term, but pollute
  • Irrigation providing of water other than
    precipitation to crops
  • Too much results in water-logged crops
    salinization (use drip method)
  • Pesticides chemicals that kill organisms that
    attack plants
  • Toxic, may remain in the soil, water,
    biomagnification, kills pollinators

12.2 Review
  • Describe one farming practice that can erode soil
    and one that can conserve soil.
  • Explain how overgrazing and planting in poor soil
    can cause a cycle of desertification.
  • In your own words, write one paragraph about the
    effects of the Conservation Reserve Program (pg.
    363, top paragraph).
  • How can irrigation and pesticides cause soil
  • Besides the above 4 questions, complete the 12.2
    review packet.

12.3 Agriculture
  • Began 10,000 years ago when a warmer climate
    allowed planting seeds raising livestock
  • It went from hunter/gatherer to selective
    breeding settlement
  • Traditional agriculture was performed by humans
  • Industrial agriculture introduced large-scale
    mechanization fossil-fueled engines, replacing
    horse oxen with faster, more efficient means of
    harvesting, processing, transporting

Industrial Agriculture
  • Resulted in irrigation improvements synthetic
    fertilizers pesticides
  • Produces huge amounts of crops livestock,
    relying on huge inputs of energy, water
  • This requires large areas to be planted in a
    single crop (monoculture), increasing harvests
    but less biodiversity and more genetic similarity
    vulnerability to disease pests

How can we feed more people in the world?
  • Increase the crop yields with new varieties
  • New farming techniques
  • Or

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The Green Revolution
  • Agricultural scientists introduced new
    technology, crop varieties farming practices to
    developing nations
  • 1940s Norman Borlaug introduced Mexicos farmers
    to a specially bred strain of wheat, tripling
    their wheat production in 2 decades.
  • Developing nations began applying large amounts
    of synthetic fertilizers chemical pesticides,
    liberally irrigating crops, using heavy
    equipment powered by fossil fuels.

Environmental Effects of the Green Revolution
  • Green Revolution saved millions of lives.
  • Technology comes at a high energy cost
  • Less additional land was needed, so it preserved
    some ecosystems
  • Intensive application of water, inorganic
    fertilizers pesticides has worsened erosion,
    salinization, desertification, eutrophication,
    pollution. Increased fossil fuel use has
    increased air pollution global warming

  • Chemical pesticides since 1960, pesticide use
    has risen fourfold worldwide, continuing to rise
    in developing nations resistance!
  • Biological pest control battle pests weeds
    with organisms that eat or infect them wasps
    caterpillars, soil bacterium (Bt), could create
    invasive species
  • Integrated pest management combin-ing both of
    above to achieve the most effective long-term
    pest reduction

  • Most insects are harmless to agriculture some
    are essential
  • Without pollination, plants cannot reproduce
  • Pollinators are among the most vital yet least
    appreciated factors in agriculture
  • As pesticide use increases, pollinator
    populations decrease
  • Pollinator conservation !!!!

12.3 Review
  • Write a paragraph describing when and how
    agriculture likely began. End with a description
    of the beginnings of selective breeding.
  • How have industrial agriculture the green
    revolution affected the worlds population?
  • How do (a) chemical pesticides, (b) biological
    control, and (c) integrated pest management
    protect crops from pests?
  • How are pollinators important to crop
  • Besides the above 4 questions, do 12.3 review

12.4 Food Production
  • How can we produce enough food for a rapidly
    growing population while sustaining our ability
    to produce it?
  • Each year Earth gains 75 million people loses
    12-17 million acres of productive cropland
  • Arable (suitable for farming) land is running
    out, yet world population of 9 billion is
    predicted by 2050

Food Security
  • Is the guarantee of an adequate reliable food
    supply for all people at all times
  • Because hunger continues and the population is
    growing, we need to find a way to increase food
    production sustainably
  • The worlds soils are in decline, nearly all
    arable land is being farmed
  • We must maintain healthy soil water, protect
    biodiversity of food sources, ensure safe

  • Hunger is a problem not only in developing
    nations, but in the US as well
  • Malnutrition shortage of nutrients the body
    needs lacks quantity and/or quality
  • Kwashiorkor disease caused by eating too little
    protein bloating, poor hair quality, skin
    problems, developmental de-lays, lower immunity,
    anemia, sunken eyes

Genetically Modified Organisms
  • Genetic engineering any process in which
    scientists directly manipulate an organisms DNA
  • Uses recombinant DNA technology scientists place
    genes that code for desired traits into the
    genomes of organisms lacking these traits
  • Exs rapid growth, pest resistance, frost
  • Biotechnology uses creation of geneti-cally
    modified organisms, development of medicines,
    clean up pollution, etc

GM Crops
  • GM crops are everywhere crops that resist
    herbicides, insect attack GM seed sales have
    increased rapidly in the US
  • Over 85 of corn, soybeans, cotton canola crops
    are GM
  • Risks resistance by pests, dangerous to eat?, GM
    genes will make their way into wild plants
  • Benefits reduces use of insecticides therefore
    use of fossil fuels, increases no-till farming

Industrial Food Production
  • Feedlots concentrated animal feeding
    operations greater, more efficient production of
    food without degrading soil, manure can be used
    as fertilizer manure can contaminate bodies of
    water, high density increases antibiotic use,
    inhumane treatment of animals
  • Aquaculture raising aquatic animals for food in
    controlled environments disease spread, lots of
    waste sustain-able, protects wild fish, less
    fossil fuel

Plant Diversity
  • Risk of GM genes moving into the wild by
    pollinators outcompete them leaving us with a
    monoculture in the wild farms
  • Genetic diversity is decreasing
  • Seed banks preserve seeds of diverse plants
  • Production of meat for food is extremely
    inefficient, especially beef (eggs milk are

Sustainable Agriculture
  • Is agriculture that doesnt deplete soil faster
    than if forms, nor reduce amount or quality of
    soil, water, genetic diversity
  • Organic agriculture use no synthetic
    fertilizers, insecticides, fungicides or
    herbicides production increasing with demand
  • Low input agriculture uses smaller amounts of
    pesticides, fertilizers, etc.
  • Locally supported agriculture average food
    product in US travels 1500 miles farm to shelf,
    often chemically treated to preserve it, less
    varieties local, fresh, in-season crops

12.4 Review
  • Why does the world need to grow more food? Why do
    the methods need to be sustainable?
  • What is a genetically modified organism? What
    questions would you ask about a food made from
    genetically modified corn before eating it?
  • What are 2 advantages 2 disadvantages of
    industrial food production?
  • Do you think organic foods are worth the extra
    cost? Explain.
  • In addition to above, do 12.4 Review Packet.

Unit 9C - Minerals Mining
  • Objectives
  • Identify Earths major geological processes and
  • Describe the formation recycling of rocks
  • Identify Earths mineral resources describe the
    environmental effects of using them.
  • Identify methods of using minerals more

Chp. 13 Case Study Mining for.Cell Phones?
  • Page 391 Central Case
  • Do a Decision-Making Analysis (15 pts.)
  • What is the Problem? What is your proposed
    Solution? Now analyze your proposed solution 3
    Pros, 3 Cons, 3 Short-term consequences, 3
    Long-term consequences. Now, form a Conclusion
    about your proposed solution why.

  • Mineral solid inorganic substance that is
    found in nature and consists of a single element
    or compound in an orderly, repetitive crystalline
  • Mineral Resources minerals useful to humans

Mineral Formation
  • Formed by crystallization from magma or lava,
    from precipitation related to evaporation or
    hydrothermal solutions, from exposure to high
    pressure and temperature, or produced by
  • Rock solid mass of minerals/mineral-like that
    occurs naturally
  • Rock cycle rocks are heated, melted, cooled,
    weathered, eroded as they slowly change between
    3 types of rocks igneous, sedimentary,

13.1 Review
  • Which of the 5 criteria that define minerals
    explains why polymorphs are actually different
  • How is the rate at which magma cools related to
    the size of the crystals in a mineral?
  • Explain the processes that would cause the
    material in an igneous rock to become sedimentary
    rock and then metamorphic rock.
  • Also, do 13.1 review packet (if assigned).

  • Involves breaking the ground to gain access to
    minerals, fossil fuel or water, and then
    extracting them
  • Ore mineral that is mined so a metal can be
    removed from it
  • Copper, iron, lead, gold silver, alum-inum are
    the most common metals
  • Nonmetallic minerals include sand, grave,
    limestone, salt, gemstones
  • Fuel sources include uranium, coal, petroleum,
    natural gas, etc

Mining Methods
  • Strip Mining machines clear away large strips
    of the Earths surface coal, sand gravel
  • Subsurface mining vertical shafts horizontal
    tunnel networks are dug zinc, lead, nickel, tin,
    gold, copper, uranium
  • Open-pit mining machines are used to dig large
    holes in the ground and remove mineral-containing
    rock copper, iron, gold, diamonds, coal, clay,
    gravel, sand, limestone

Open Pit Copper Mine
Mining Methods, continued
  • Mountaintop Removal used primarily for coal
    mining forests are clear-cut and the timber sold
    or burned, topsoil is removed and rock is blasted
  • Solution mining miners pump a chemical solution
    into a mine to leach the desired resource from
    the ore, removing the liquid after the solution
    has reacted with the ore salt mining
  • Placer mining sifting through material in
    modern/ancient riverbed deposits gold mining
  • Undersea Mining dredging the sea floor, limited
    as it is so expensive

Effects of mining
  • Wildlife habitat is lost
  • Disruption of the land surface
  • Land erosion
  • Toxic substances left behind after processing

Mining in Florida
  • Sand
  • Clay
  • Phosphate
  • Timber

13.2 Review
  1. In your own words, explain why all sources of
    valuable metals are not considered to be ore.
  2. A mining geologist locates a horizontal seam of
    coal close to the surface. What type of method
    will the mining company most likely use to
    extract it? Explain your answer..why?
  3. What are tailings?

Mining Impacts Regulation
  • Impacts include erosion, increased sediment
    debris, and pollution of water, land air.
  • As mining continued to grow, the technology
    became more powerful and destructive to the
  • Laws became necessary to control access, effects
    safety of miners
  • Mining regulations that govern mining consider
    the environmental and safety impacts of mining
    along with the economic costs to the industry

  • General Mining Law of 1872 enacted in response
    to gold mining governs mining on public lands,
    claim staking
  • Mineral Leasing Act of 1920 governs leasing of
    public lands for mining of fossil fuels,
    phosphates, sodium sulfur
  • Amending the General Mining Law critics say it
    gives away valuable public resources, defenders
    say mining companies take on great financial risks

Regulations, continued
  • Surface Mining Control Reclama-tion Act (1977)
    due to negative environmental effects of strip
    mining, govt requires coal mining companies to
    reclaim/restore the land after mining is
    completed still have acid drainage and
    non-native plant damage persisting for years
  • Mining Safety ventilation require-ments,
    minimum age modern day mining safety is
    regulated under Federal Mine Safety Health Act

  • Restore the mined land to the condition it was in
    before mining began
  • Mining companies should restore the land the
    same successional stage it was in when they mined
    it. Do you agree or disagree, and why?

Responsible Mineral Use
  • Because minerals are a nonrenewable resource, we
    need to be concerned about finite supplies and
    ways to use them more responsibly, such as
    reducing use, reusing and recycling minerals
  • Increased cell phone use boosted demand for
    tantalum but decreased demand for copper used in
  • Recycled car batteries saves lead, half of
    aluminum used is recycled saving 1/20th the
    energy extracting it from ore

13.3 Review
  • Describe 2 ways that mines can continue to cause
    damage to communities even after mining is
  • Compare contrast the goals of the General
    Mining Law of 1872 and the proposed Hardrock
    Mining Reclamation Act of 2009.
  • Although both minerals fossil fuels are
    nonrenewable resources, how is mineral use more
    sustainable than fossil fuel use?
  • Also, if assigned, do 13.3 review packet.
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